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  1. 1
    333223

    A review of population, reproductive health, and adolescent health and development in poverty reduction strategies.

    World Bank. Health, Nutrition and Population Central Unit. Population and Reproductive Health Cluster

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Health, Nutrition and Population Central Unit, Population and Reproductive Health Cluster, 2004 Aug. [23] p.

    This review examines how poverty reduction strategies are addressing population (Pop), reproductive health (RH), and adolescent health and development (AHD) issues. We analyzed twenty-one Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and associated documents, and conducted interviews with Health, Nutrition, and Population (HNP) staff at the World Bank involved in the poverty reduction strategy process. Based on this review, we recommend actions that the Bank, other donors, government counterparts, and civil society groups can take to better support countries to address Pop/RH/AHD issues in their poverty reduction efforts. Population, reproductive health, and adolescent health and development issues are closely interrelated in cause, consequence and policy implications. To maintain a stronger focus on these three issues, we chose not to analyze related concerns such as gender, nutrition, and education -- all essential components of the multisectoral approach advocated by the Cairo Programme of Action (ICPD, 1994). Other reviews have examined these related issues in greater depth. This paper complements a growing body of work reviewing the application of the PRS framework to poverty alleviation in low-income countries. Compared to previous health and related sector reviews, it provides a more in-depth look at Pop/RH/AHD issues, examines documents related to the PRSP such as the JSA and CAS, and incorporates interviews of key actors with Pop/RH/AHD expertise involved in the PRS process. This review is meant to complement findings from other reviews of the PRS process that focus on broader issues of relevance to all sectors. Our analysis relied on several of these relevant internal and external reviews, including in-depth reviews of gender, the health sector, nutrition, and population and development issues. (Excerpt)
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  2. 2
    300194

    The Millennium Development Goals report 2005.

    United Nations

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2005. [46] p.

    Global poverty rates are falling, led by Asia. But millions more people have sunk deep into poverty in sub-Saharan Africa, where the poor are getting poorer. Progress has been made against hunger, but slow growth of agricultural output and expanding populations have led to setbacks in some regions. Since 1990, millions more people are chronically hungry in sub-Saharan Africa and in Southern Asia, where half the children under age 5 are malnourished. Five developing regions are approaching universal enrolment. But in sub-Saharan Africa, fewer than two thirds of children are enrolled in primary school. Other regions, including Southern Asia and Oceania, also have a long way to go. In these regions and elsewhere, increased enrolment must be accompanied by efforts to ensure that all children remain in school and receive a high-quality education. The gender gap is closing — albeit slowly — in primary school enrolment in the developing world. This is a first step towards easing long-standing inequalities between women and men. In almost all developing regions, women represent a smaller share of wage earners than men and are often relegated to insecure and poorly paid jobs. Though progress is being made, women still lack equal representation at the highest levels of government, holding only 16 per cent of parliamentary seats worldwide. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    295841

    Reducing poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals: arguments for investing in reproductive health and rights. Reference notes on population and poverty reduction.

    Wong S

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2005. [17] p.

    A bold and ambitious agenda was set forth in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to raise the quality of life for all individuals and promote human development. The goals represent our collective aspirations for a better life, and a minimum roadmap on how to get there. However, the MDGs can only be achieved if governments, civil society, and international agencies work together to address population issues as a development priority, in particular to secure the reproductive health and rights of people, especially the poor and women. Yet worldwide, illnesses and deaths from poor reproductive health account for one-fifth of the global burden of disease, and nearly one-third for all women. Consider the powerful impact stronger investments in quality reproductive health services could make anywhere, as worldwide each year, more than half a million women die during childbirth or due to pregnancy complications, and AIDS takes three million lives. This publication, which consists of two parts, is intended to advance the dialogue among decision makers in bridging the gap between hope and reality. The first part provides advocates and decision makers with a set of key arguments on the benefits to be reaped when governments make reproductive health a development priority. It takes as its starting point that health is a fundamental right valued in and of itself, and improved health, including reproductive health, strengthens individuals' capacities to live more productive lives and break out of poverty traps. It outlines key arguments for why the investments in reproductive health we make now pay off huge dividends in the future: healthier, more productive individuals and families contribute to stronger, wealthier nations. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    295836

    Stockholm Call to Action: investing in reproductive health and rights as a development priority.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005. [2] p.

    Promoting development and eradicating extreme poverty is an urgent global priority that demands bold action. This ambitious agenda, embodied in the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), requires governments, civil society, and international agencies to address population issues, in particular to secure people's right to sexual and reproductive health, as agreed by 179 countries at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, and its 5-year review. However, reproductive health and rights remain elusive for the vast majority of the world's people. Complications during pregnancy and childbirth are among the leading causes of death and illness for women in developing countries, and the HIV/AIDS pandemic takes approximately 3 million lives each year. This undermines development by diminishing the quality of people's lives, exacerbating poverty, and placing heavy burdens on individuals, families, communities, and nations. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    281480
    Peer Reviewed

    Population and development -- shifting paradigms, setting goals.

    Rosenfield A; Schwartz K

    New England Journal of Medicine. 2005 Feb 17; 352(7):647-649.

    At the first United Nations–sponsored international conference on population — held in Bucharest, Romania, in 1974 — the United States and other Western nations advocated the implementation of programs aimed at controlling the high rates of population growth then prevalent in resource- poor countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Most leaders from these countries, however, saw this as an inappropriate, imperialist goal to be imposed on their countries, when the real problems were related to poverty. Ten years later, at the second international conference in Mexico City, representatives of the Reagan administration argued that population growth was not a key issue and that, instead, the expansion of free-market systems was the key to development in poor countries. But by that time, many leaders of developing countries had reached the opposite conclusion — namely, that high rates of population growth were indeed hindering both economic and social development. At the meeting, there was also much debate about abortion-related issues, with the U.S. government and the Vatican highlighting an antichoice agenda. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    008024

    World development report 1980.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1980 Aug. 166 p.

    This report examines some of the difficulties and prospects faced by developing countries in continuing their social and economic development and tackling poverty for the next 5-10 years. The 1st part of the report is about the economic policy choices facing both developing and richer countries and about the implications of these choices for growth. The 2nd part of the report reviews other ways to reduce poverty such as focusing on human development (education and training, health and nutrition, and fertility reduction). Throughout the report economic projections for developing countries have been carried out, drawing on the World Bank's analysis of what determines country and regional growth. Oil-exporting countries will face greater economic growth; their average GNP per person could grow 3-3.5% in the 1980s. Oil-importing countries will develop slower or fall to 1.8%/year. Poverty in oil-importing developing countries could grow at about 2.4% GNP/person and by 1990 there would be 80 million fewer people in absolute poverty. Factors which will contribute to the economic problems of developing countries are trade (import/export), energy, and capital flow. The progress of developing countries depends on internal policies and initiatives concerning investment and production efficiency, human development and population. Not only can human development increase growth but it can help to reduce absolute poverty.
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