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The Tunis Declaration emanating from the Arab Parliamentary Conference on Development and Population, [May 8-11, 1984, Tunis, Tunisia].
[Unpublished] 1984. 12 p.Parliamentarians from 16 Arab countries met in Tunis, Tunisia, on May 8-11, 1984, to discuss the current demographic and development situation in the Arab nations. The participants agreed that currently income is poorly distributed both within and between Arab countries (per capita income varies from US$500-US$30,000), life expectancy varies markedly between countries, international migration is extensive, the annual population growth rate is 2.9%, and population policies in most Arab countries are poorly formulated. The participants recognized the reciprocal relationship between development and population. They noted that the development process includes meeting the moral, material, health, and fertility needs of all segments of society; development requires broad participation; cooperation with other 3rd World countries is essential; industrialized nations should limit their use of resources; and Arab nations should act on the recommendations of international conferences on population and development and adhere to the agreements between Arab countries on migration issues. The participants recommended that participants continue to actively promote social equality in the Arab world and that Arab nations 1) formulate policies to keep resources and population within balance and to reduce mortality differentials in their own countries; 2) establish fertility goals that take into account population growth, the health and welfare of mothers and children, human rights, and social equality; 3) promote policies which preserve the traditions of the Arab world; 4) improve women's rights by increasing economic and educational opportunities for women, expanding the decision-making role of women, and ensuring that women are presented in a favorable light in the mass media; 5) address the needs of the most vulnerable members of society; 7) improve services for the urban poor and reduce urban growth through rural development and the establishment of small cities; 8) establish policies to reduce the brain drain, to ensure the welfare and rights of migrants, to encourage Arab investment in the development of Arab countries, and to encourage trained Arabs to return to their country of origin; and 9) to mobilize world opinion against Zionist expansionist and forced migration policies. Furthermore, the participants call for action on the part of the delegates, Arab nations, and interational organizations to facilitate the operationalizing of these recommendations by focusing attention on population and development issues, by collecting, analyzing, and disseminating information on population and development, and by providing financial support.
In: Ghosh PK, ed. Third world development: a basic needs approach. Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 1984. 115-45. (International Development Resource Books No. 13)The basic needs approach is critically examined, and the appropriateness of donor agency support for the basic needs approach is questioned. The basic needs approach is plagued by operational problems. It is difficult 1) to define minimum basic need levels, especially if absolute standards are advocated; 2) to measure basic needs; and 3) to implement basic needs programs in such a way as to ensure that only the poorest segments of the population derive benefits and that the benefits remain in the hands of the poor. Basic needs advocates fail to deal with the question of economic growth. They assume that economic growth will continue and ignore the fact that there is a trade-off between satisfying basic needs and investing in growth. They also ignore the issue of trade-offs between fulfilling present and future basic needs. The basic needs approach implies a specific development pattern, and the longterm consequences of this implied development pattern are not sufficiently examined by advocates of the approach. The basic needs approach requires a development pattern that stresses rural development and labor intensive production instead of industrialization, capital intensive production, and growth of the modern sector. Ultimately, the development pattern advocated by this approach will result in an international division of labor between the developing and developed countries which will not improve international marketing conditions for the developing countries since developed countries will not be willing to substantially increase their importation of labor intensive products from the developing countries. Donor agencies need to adopt a cautious attitude toward funding and promoting the basic needs approach. Many developing countries strongly resent the basic needs approach. They feel that donors and the developed countries do not have the right to force them to focus their energies on eradicating poverty. They also fear that the approach is an attempt to reduce financial assistance. Donor agencies lack sufficient expertise to evaluate poverty-oriented programs and to assess the long range impact of many of these programs. In one country, a donor-supported basic needs program to increase agricultural productivity had the unexpected result of reducing the price of agricultural products. Another project aimed at improving living standards in a particular rural community unexpectedly increased property values and, ultimately, led to the migration of the former residents to an urban slum. Furthermore, donor agencies do not have the right to impose development strategies on aid recipients. Development strategies must be formulated by the recipients, and donors should support only those strategies which accord with the development goals of the recipient countries.
Chichester, England, John Wiley, 1982. 317 p.This textbook provides basic information on social policies aimes at improving the welfare of the populations in developing countried and assessing the effectiveness of the major social policies which have been applied to the problems of poverty in these countried. The book is an outgrowth of experience gained in teaching a course in social policy and planning at London School of Economics. The focus is on social policied rather than on social planning techniques, and the central theme is that state intervention and the implementation of social policies are a necessary prerequisite for improving the welfare of the inhabitants of 3rd World countried. The chapter defines underdevelopment. It stresses the need for governments to develop social policies in accordance with their needs and resources and to develop policies which will redistribute resources to the most seriously disadvantaged segments of their population. The 2nd chapter defines poverty, describes the basic inequalities in living standards and income which exist in 3rd World countries, and discuss the major theories which have been put forward to explain poverty. The next 5 chapters discuss the problems of population growth, rural and urban development, health, and housing. The various policied which have been formulated to deal with each of these problems are described and compared in regard to their effectiveness. The next chapter discusses social work and the problems associated with the development of social welfare services in developing countries. The final chapter deals with international issues and assesses. The value of bilateral and multilateral aid. Major assumptions underlying the presentation of the material are 1)poverty impedes development, 2)poverty will not disappear without government intervention, 3)economic development by itself cannot reduce poverty, 4)poverty is the result of social factors rather than the result of inadequacies on the part of poor indiciduals, 5)socialpolicies and programs formulated to deal with problems in the developed countries are inappropriate for application in developing countries; 6)social policies must reflect the needs of each country; and 7)social planning should be an interdisciplinary endeavor and should utilize knowledge derived from all the social sciences.