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The Des Moines Declaration: A call for accelerated action in agriculture, food and nutrition to end poverty and hunger.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2005; 26(3):312-314.Agriculture is the main source of income for poor people living in rural areas. As such, a boost in agricultural productivity in the rural areas of developing countries will greatly enhance earning potential as well as produce more food. However, agricultural production increases will not generate adequate gains in employment, and additional steps must also be taken to increase employment in agro based value added rural enterprises. In addition, food productivity must be increased to improve the lives of people and protect biodiversity in our environment. With close to a billion people still suffering from hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity and with the population of our planet projected to grow by 50% by the middle of the 21st century, either we must produce more food on the land and in the water now available to us, or people will be forced to cut down precious forest areas and cultivate marginal lands to grow the food necessary to fuel our escalating demands. It is crucial that new agricultural innovations and technologies be developed. (excerpt)
Human development report 2003. Millennium Development Goals: a compact among nations to end human poverty.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003. xv, 367 p.The central part of this Report is devoted to assessing where the greatest problems are, analysing what needs to be done to reverse these setbacks and offering concrete proposals on how to accelerate progress everywhere towards achieving all the Goals. In doing so, it provides a persuasive argument for why, even in the poorest countries, there is still hope that the Goals can be met. But though the Goals provide a new framework for development that demands results and increases accountability, they are not a programmatic instrument. The political will and good policy ideas underpinning any attempt to meet the Goals can work only if they are translated into nationally owned, nationally driven development strategies guided by sound science, good economics and transparent, accountable governance. That is why this Report also sets out a Millennium Development Compact. Building on the commitment that world leaders made at the 2002 Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development to forge a “new partnership between developed and developing countries”—a partnership aimed squarely at implementing the Millennium Declaration—the Compact provides a broad framework for how national development strategies and international support from donors, international agencies and others can be both better aligned and commensurate with the scale of the challenge of the Goals. And the Compact puts responsibilities squarely on both sides: requiring bold reforms from poor countries and obliging donor countries to step forward and support those efforts. (excerpt)
In: The International Conference on Population and Development, September 5-13, 1994, Cairo, Egypt. Nepal's country report, [compiled by] Nepal. National Planning Commission. Kathamandu, Nepal, National Planning Commission, 1993 Sep. 40-9 p.This document contains the first appendix to Nepal's report to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The appendix lists the objectives and priorities of Nepal's Eighth Development Plan (1992-97) as achieving sustainable economic growth, poverty alleviation, and reduction of regional imbalances. The next section discusses the major policies of the plan that relate to: 1) population policy (reducing the fertility rate from 5.8 to 4.5; increasing life expectancy; reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality; and managing internal migration); 2) poverty alleviation (for the 49% of the population affected); 3) manpower and employment (creating jobs); 4) health (improving general health, extending health services to rural areas, extending maternal-child health services and family planning programs, and developing specialized health services); 5) urban development; 6) environmental protection and resource conservation; 7) child development; 8) food and nutrition; and 9) women in development (promoting the equal and meaningful participation of women in development, in policy-making, and in traditional and nontraditional sectors).
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1992. xxxii, 282 p.The WHO Commission on Health and Environment has put together a comprehensive report on the interaction between the state of the environment and human health. There is a need to understand and manage this interaction to bring about a sustainable development which meets people's needs while preserving natural systems. Yet, humankind faces various obstacles to sustainable development, including population growth, migration, urbanization, poverty, resource degradation, and macroeconomic policies. Humans can sustain output of agriculture, forestry, and fishing, if they do not exploit ecological systems. Humans need to at least consider food production, diet, health, land tenure, food contamination, agricultural chemicals, and occupational hazards. They must also effectively and efficiently manage freshwater supplies using means which do not adversely upset natural systems. Humans should move away from using fossil fuels as an energy supply since they are the single largest source of air pollution. They should identify and develop energy supplies which reduce the adverse environment and health effects, e.g., solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. Industrial practices in both developed and developing countries spew air and water pollutants into the environment, generate hazardous wastes, and expose workers to harmful agents. Urbanization poses a special challenge to environmental health, especially where there is little or no infrastructure and services which worsens pollution and environmental health problems. Many environmental and health problems cross boundaries. These include long range transport of air pollution, acid rain, damage of the ozone layer, build up of greenhouse gases, hazardous wastes exported from developed to developing countries, ocean pollution, and loss of biodiversity. Two axioms to a healthier and sustainable world are more equitable access to resources and citizen participation.
In: The global possible: resources, development, and the new century, edited by Robert Repetto. New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 1985. 491-519. (World Resources Institute Book)Participants at the Global Possible Conference in 1984 concluded that, despite the dismal predictions about the earth, we can still fashion a more secure, prosperous, and sustainable world environmentally and economically. The tools to bring about such a world already exist. The international community and nations must implement new policies, however. Government, science, business, and concerned groups must reach new levels of cooperation. Developed and developing countries must form new partnerships to implement sustained improvements in living standards of the world's poor. Peaceful cooperation is needed to eliminate the threat of nuclear war--the greatest threat to life and the environment. Conference working groups prepared an agenda for action which, even though it is organized along sectoral disciplines, illustrates the complex linkages that unite issues in 1 area with those in several others. For example, problems existing in forests tie in with biological diversity, energy and fuelwood, and management of agricultural lands and watersheds. The agenda emphasizes policies and initiatives that synergistically influence serious problems in several sectors. It also tries to not present solutions that generate as many problems as it tries to solve. The 1st section of the agenda covers population, poverty, and development issues. it provides recommendations for developing and developed countries. It discusses urbanization and issues facing cities. The 3rd section embodies freshwater issues and has 1 list of recommendations for all sectors. The agenda addresses biological diversity, tropical forests, agricultural land, living marine resources, energy, and nonfuel minerals in their own separate sections. It discusses international assistance and the environment in 1 section. Another section highlights the need to assess conditions, trends, and capabilities. The last section comprises business, science, an citizens.