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Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Oct; 85(10):734.posited that the process of development entails changes in incomes over time. Larger income levels achieved via positive economic growth, appropriately discounted for population growth, would constitute higher levels of development. As many have noted, however, the income measure fails to adequately reflect development in that per-capita income, in terms of its levels or changes to it, does not sufficiently correlate with measures of (human) development, such as life expectancy, child/infant mortality and literacy. The United Nations Development Programme's (UNDP) human development index (HDI) constitutes an improved measure for development. HDI has been modified to be gender-sensitive with variants that reflect gender inequality. Various measures reflecting Sen's "capability" concept, such as civil and political rights, have also been incorporated. Countries where the level of poverty is relatively large tend also to exhibit low values of human development, thus lowering the mean values of the development measures. Where inequalities of development indicators are very large, however, the average values may not sufficiently reflect the conditions of the poor, requiring the need to concentrate on poverty per se. (excerpt)
Monday Developments. 2003 Jun 9; 21(10):13.Education alone is not sufficient to reach gender equality, the third of the Millennium Development Goals”, Sarah Newhall, president of Pact and co-chair of InterAction's Commission on the Advancement of Women, told the annual CAW breakfast. Education is a necessary but insufficient action to achieve gender equality," she said. While recognizing that the inclusion of "gender equity testifies to the power and impact of the global women's movement," June Zeitlin, CEO of the Women's Economic Development Organization, noted that the remaining seven Millennium goals are presented as "gender neutral." The Millennium Development Goals were adopted by heads of state in 2000 as a global development framework. (excerpt)
In: The International Conference on Population and Development, September 5-13, 1994, Cairo, Egypt. Nepal's country report, [compiled by] Nepal. National Planning Commission. Kathamandu, Nepal, National Planning Commission, 1993 Sep. 40-9 p.This document contains the first appendix to Nepal's report to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The appendix lists the objectives and priorities of Nepal's Eighth Development Plan (1992-97) as achieving sustainable economic growth, poverty alleviation, and reduction of regional imbalances. The next section discusses the major policies of the plan that relate to: 1) population policy (reducing the fertility rate from 5.8 to 4.5; increasing life expectancy; reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality; and managing internal migration); 2) poverty alleviation (for the 49% of the population affected); 3) manpower and employment (creating jobs); 4) health (improving general health, extending health services to rural areas, extending maternal-child health services and family planning programs, and developing specialized health services); 5) urban development; 6) environmental protection and resource conservation; 7) child development; 8) food and nutrition; and 9) women in development (promoting the equal and meaningful participation of women in development, in policy-making, and in traditional and nontraditional sectors).