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  1. 1
    322356

    Addressing population in poverty reduction strategies.

    Ashford LS

    Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], BRinging Information to Decisionmakers for Global Effectiveness [BRIDGE], 2007. [4] p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. GPO-A-00-03-00004-00)

    Poverty reduction strategies form the basis of World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) assistance in the poorest developing countries. The detailed guidelines, or poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs), are prepared in the host country and influence the investments made in most sectors of development. While population programs have promoted family planning for decades as part of development efforts, family planning has received less attention and dedicated funding since the advent of PRSPs. Therefore, those who support continued investments in family planning need to understand the process through which the strategies are developed and monitored and stay engaged to ensure that support for population and family planning programs is sustained. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    321011

    Poverty and development [editorial]

    Fosu AK

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Oct; 85(10):734.

    posited that the process of development entails changes in incomes over time. Larger income levels achieved via positive economic growth, appropriately discounted for population growth, would constitute higher levels of development. As many have noted, however, the income measure fails to adequately reflect development in that per-capita income, in terms of its levels or changes to it, does not sufficiently correlate with measures of (human) development, such as life expectancy, child/infant mortality and literacy. The United Nations Development Programme's (UNDP) human development index (HDI) constitutes an improved measure for development. HDI has been modified to be gender-sensitive with variants that reflect gender inequality. Various measures reflecting Sen's "capability" concept, such as civil and political rights, have also been incorporated. Countries where the level of poverty is relatively large tend also to exhibit low values of human development, thus lowering the mean values of the development measures. Where inequalities of development indicators are very large, however, the average values may not sufficiently reflect the conditions of the poor, requiring the need to concentrate on poverty per se. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    320693

    Low credit: a report on the World Bank's response to HIV / AIDS in developing countries.

    Simms C

    London, England, ActionAid International, [2004]. 27 p. (P1625/01/04)

    UNAIDS estimated that in Africa in 2003, more than 2.3 million people died from AIDS, 3 million were newly infected and a total of 12 million children were orphaned. Antiretroviral drugs are reaching a mere 50,000 of those with AIDS in developing countries. The HIV/AIDS pandemic is clearly a human and developmental disaster. This paper looks at the response to the HIV/AIDS crisis by the World Bank as a key member of the international donor/lending community, a leader in the international health community, and as Africa's principal development partner. In its seminal document, Intensifying Action Against HIV/AIDS, the World Bank acknowledges both its special leadership role in fighting HIV/AIDS and the need that it be held accountable for its stewardship. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    320236

    Population, development and HIV / AIDS with particular emphasis on poverty: the concise report.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2005. [69] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/247)

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a gathering force for nearly a quarter-century, and it continues to be a major global challenge. AIDS finds its victims in both rich and poor countries. There is no region of the world where HIV/AIDS is not a potentially serious threat to the population. Sub-Saharan Africa has so far borne the brunt of the AIDS devastation, and the region continues to experience high rates of infection. About 3 million people in the region were newly infected with the virus in 2004. Countries in Eastern Europe and Asia now have the fastest-growing rates of HIV infection in the world, and the populous countries of China, India and Indonesia are of particular concern. In some more developed countries, there are signs of a resurgence of risky sex between men. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    314823

    Millions of activists for a day: Stand up campaign seeks to garner public support to fight poverty.

    Mutume G

    Africa Renewal. 2007 Jan; 20(4):10-11.

    In October, more than 23 million people -- some 3.6 million of them in Africa -- set a world record by literally standing up to bring attention to persistent global poverty and to prompt world leaders to act on their promises to eradicate the scourge. The message of the Stand Up Against Poverty campaign, coordinated by the New York--based UN Millennium Campaign, reached people at more than 11,000 events in over 80 countries -- cricket fans in Jaipur, India, music lovers at a concert in Harare, Zimbabwe, children in school in Lebanon and soccer supporters in Mexico. Organizers timed the global campaign to coincide with other events marking the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty. "Together, we sent a clear message to our political leaders that we are going to keep pushing them to deliver on aid, on debt cancellation, on trade justice and to provide good and accountable governments," said Mr. Kumi Naidoo of the Global Call to Action Against Poverty (GCAP). An alliance of community organizations, faith-based groups, trade unions and campaigners in over 100 countries, GCAP was one of the organizations supporting the Stand Up campaign. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    311906
    Peer Reviewed

    The Des Moines Declaration: A call for accelerated action in agriculture, food and nutrition to end poverty and hunger.

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2005; 26(3):312-314.

    Agriculture is the main source of income for poor people living in rural areas. As such, a boost in agricultural productivity in the rural areas of developing countries will greatly enhance earning potential as well as produce more food. However, agricultural production increases will not generate adequate gains in employment, and additional steps must also be taken to increase employment in agro based value added rural enterprises. In addition, food productivity must be increased to improve the lives of people and protect biodiversity in our environment. With close to a billion people still suffering from hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity and with the population of our planet projected to grow by 50% by the middle of the 21st century, either we must produce more food on the land and in the water now available to us, or people will be forced to cut down precious forest areas and cultivate marginal lands to grow the food necessary to fuel our escalating demands. It is crucial that new agricultural innovations and technologies be developed. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    310951

    Students support the Millennium Development Goals.

    Neville F

    UN Chronicle. 2006 Mar-May; [2] p..

    The world's youth are working to support the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)--thanks to the United Nations, the 2005 Live8 concert, MTV and some international celebrities, such as Irish musician Bono, actor Richard Gere of the United States, singer Angelique Kido from Benin, tennis player and actor Vijay Amritrai from India, and the Los Tigres del Norte band from Mexico, as well as other websites. In 2000, Governments committed themselves to a global partnership, pledging to achieve the eight MDGs by 2015: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education for all boys and girls; promote gender equality and empower women; reduce by two thirds the mortality rate of children under five; reduce by three quarters the ratio of maternal mortality; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; ensure environmental sustain-ability; and develop a global partnership for development. While these goals are real challenges, the international community has the money, technology and resources to achieve them--we just need the will. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    310301

    The Millennium Development Goals, how realistic are they?

    Keyzer M; Wesenbeeck L

    Economist. 2006; 154(3):443-466.

    In its Millennium Declaration of September 2000, the United Nations adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), to be reached in 2015 through concerted efforts worldwide. According to UN-calculations, the estimated costs in terms of additional development aid of meeting the MDGs in all countries vary from 121 billion US dollars in 2006 to 189 billion US dollars in 2015. The present communication reviews the figures reported. It appears that while Asia is well on track to achieve the goals, essentially through efforts of its own, Africa is lagging behind, albeit that according to detailed survey data on weight-for-length among adults collected in Africa for the US aid agency, rates of undernutrition are about 58 percent of the levels used as a reference by the UN, which are based on assessment of food production. Yet, child undernutrition comes out higher in these surveys. Besides mentioning reservations about the adequacy of these MDG-yardsticks, we consider the cost estimates for Africa as presented in the UN-reports and subsequently assessed in the literature. It appears that these estimates are too low, even if all MDG-funds were concentrated on this continent, essentially because they are set up as shopping lists that are necessarily incomplete and, among others, disregard many of the indirect cost of delivering the goods to the target beneficiaries, including the cost of providing adequate security and avoiding corruption. Nonetheless, recalling how hopeless the situation looked some 30 years ago for China, India, and Bangladesh, where unprecedented numbers have now escaped extreme poverty during the past decade and a half, we submit that over a time horizon of about twice the 15 years of the MDG's and with adequate international support, realization of the MDG-targets should be possible for Africa too. (author's)
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  9. 9
    309816

    A toolkit for Pacific youth: localising the MDGs.

    Seeto C; Morioka K; Singh R; Jayaweera S; Viskisha

    [Sydney], Australia, Youth for a Sustainable Future Pacifika, 2006. [19] p.

    The Millennium Development Goals, better known as the MDGs, are a set of goals committed to reducing poverty, illiteracy, inequality and disease in developing countries. In September 2000, leaders from 189 nations including 14 Pacific Island nations, agreed to achieve the MDGs by endorsing the Millennium Declaration. The Declaration is a special documentation because it specifies responsibility for all countries to enhance the global agenda on human development. This means that even developed countries like the United States, Australia and New Zealand, are responsible for assisting developing countries in meeting the goals. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    303323

    Producing the poor: The World Bank's new discourse of domination.

    Pithouse R

    African Sociological Review. 2003; 7(2):[26] p..

    This essay seeks to investigate the World Bank's representation of the poor via a close reading of The Bank's Voices of the Poor and a critical comparison between this book and Ashwin Desai's We Are the Poors. The essay argues that The Bank's book is an attempt to represent the majority of humanity as The Poor and that this othering produces The Poor as a category of people who are politically inert, largely responsible for their own circumstances and whose suffering justifies the position and work of The Bank and other social forces with similar agendas. The essay also suggests that there are familial connections between this project and colonial discourses that sought to other people via a process of racialisation. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    302394
    Peer Reviewed

    Strengthening health systems to meet MDGs.

    Singh A

    Health Policy and Planning. 2006 Jul; 21(4):326-328.

    The UNDP report on the Millennium Development Goals, or MDGs (UNDP 2005), cautions that the Goals will not be met by 2015 in the most needy countries, and, in fact, warns that the situation in Africa may actually worsen. What can be done to secure some measure of success in the health-MDGs effort? Should strengthening health systems be regarded a 'first-order' goal within 'higher-order' MDGs to secure at least the institutional and system prerequisites of better health for all in the future, perhaps after 2015 -- a 'second-best' result in the absence of a 'first best' MDG outcome? (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    300194

    The Millennium Development Goals report 2005.

    United Nations

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2005. [46] p.

    Global poverty rates are falling, led by Asia. But millions more people have sunk deep into poverty in sub-Saharan Africa, where the poor are getting poorer. Progress has been made against hunger, but slow growth of agricultural output and expanding populations have led to setbacks in some regions. Since 1990, millions more people are chronically hungry in sub-Saharan Africa and in Southern Asia, where half the children under age 5 are malnourished. Five developing regions are approaching universal enrolment. But in sub-Saharan Africa, fewer than two thirds of children are enrolled in primary school. Other regions, including Southern Asia and Oceania, also have a long way to go. In these regions and elsewhere, increased enrolment must be accompanied by efforts to ensure that all children remain in school and receive a high-quality education. The gender gap is closing — albeit slowly — in primary school enrolment in the developing world. This is a first step towards easing long-standing inequalities between women and men. In almost all developing regions, women represent a smaller share of wage earners than men and are often relegated to insecure and poorly paid jobs. Though progress is being made, women still lack equal representation at the highest levels of government, holding only 16 per cent of parliamentary seats worldwide. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    296487

    Second LDC conference adopts new Action Programme in Paris - least developed countries.

    UN Chronicle. 1990 Dec; 27(4):[4] p..

    A new Programme of Action aimed at advancing the world's poorest countries offers a "menu approach" for donors to increase their official aid to the least developed countries (LDCs), stressing bilateral assistance in the form of grants or highly concessional loans and calling on donors to help reduce LDC debt. The Programme was adopted by consensus at the conclusion of the Second United Nations Conference on the LDCs (Paris, 3- 14 September). The UN recognizes more than 40 developing countries as "least developed". Although individual nation's indicators vary, in general LDCs have a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of approximately $200 a year, a low life expectancy, literacy rates under 20 per cent and a low contribution of manufacturing industries to GDP. Reflecting the emergence during the 1980s of new priorities in development strategy, the Programme of Action for the LDCs for the 1990s differs from the Action Programme adopted at the first UN Conference on LDCs held in 1981 in Paris. The new Programme emphasizes respect for human rights, the need for democratization and privatization, the potential role of women in development and the new regard for population policy as a fundamental factor in promoting development. Greater recognition of the role of non-governmental organizations in LDC development is also emphasized. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    296447

    UN proclaims 1996 as Poverty Eradication Year: progress on 'Agenda for Development.' - includes related article on outline of program for September 5-13, 1994 International Conference on Population.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Mar; 31(1):[5] p..

    The year 1996 was proclaimed the Year for the Eradication of Poverty by the General Assembly on 21 December. That text was among 52 resolutions and 18 decisions adopted by the General Assembly on the recommendation of its Second Committee (Economic and Financial). Issues considered ranged from the environment to the international economy, from population and human settlements to international humanitarian assistance. The Assembly welcomed the intended completion of the Secretary-General's proposed Agenda for Development" this year. It also decided to convene in Japan in 1994 a World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction. The concept of development had to be rethought, Nitin Desai, Under- Secretary-general for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, told the Second Committee on 8 October. The world today is not the same as 30 years ago, when the concept of development was originally framed, he said. The urge to rethink development had grown from the gap between promise and results, as well as from interdependence, the globalization of production, the impact of regional integration and the effects of global communication. A development policy had to give priority to health and education, as well as such areas as the protection of the environment. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    295843

    International migration and the Millennium Development Goals. Selected papers of the UNFPA Expert Group Meeting, Marrakech, Morocco, 11-12 May 2005.

    Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and the Millennium Development Goals (2005: Marrakech)

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2005. [255] p.

    The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) hosted an Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and the Millennium Development Goals in Marrakech, Morocco on 11-12 May 2005. Invited experts were requested to speak on a number of topics relating to migration and development, including: poverty reduction, health, gender, environment, and global partnerships for development with a view towards exploring migration as both a facilitating and constraining factor in the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This report is a compilation of selected papers presented at the meeting together with a synopsis of the discussion highlighting some of the more salient points raised by the experts. It also reflects an attempt to spur the debate further by suggesting possibilities for programmatic activities in the areas of data and research, policy and capacity development. As international migration gains greater scope and impact, UNFPA and other international entities have a critical role in facilitating strategic directions that strengthen responses to its challenges while capitalizing on the opportunities that migration presents to the individual migrants, their larger community and both sending and receiving countries. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    295841

    Reducing poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals: arguments for investing in reproductive health and rights. Reference notes on population and poverty reduction.

    Wong S

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2005. [17] p.

    A bold and ambitious agenda was set forth in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to raise the quality of life for all individuals and promote human development. The goals represent our collective aspirations for a better life, and a minimum roadmap on how to get there. However, the MDGs can only be achieved if governments, civil society, and international agencies work together to address population issues as a development priority, in particular to secure the reproductive health and rights of people, especially the poor and women. Yet worldwide, illnesses and deaths from poor reproductive health account for one-fifth of the global burden of disease, and nearly one-third for all women. Consider the powerful impact stronger investments in quality reproductive health services could make anywhere, as worldwide each year, more than half a million women die during childbirth or due to pregnancy complications, and AIDS takes three million lives. This publication, which consists of two parts, is intended to advance the dialogue among decision makers in bridging the gap between hope and reality. The first part provides advocates and decision makers with a set of key arguments on the benefits to be reaped when governments make reproductive health a development priority. It takes as its starting point that health is a fundamental right valued in and of itself, and improved health, including reproductive health, strengthens individuals' capacities to live more productive lives and break out of poverty traps. It outlines key arguments for why the investments in reproductive health we make now pay off huge dividends in the future: healthier, more productive individuals and families contribute to stronger, wealthier nations. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    295839

    The case for investing in young people as part of a national poverty reduction strategy. Reference notes on population and poverty reduction.

    Curtain R

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2005. [59] p.

    More attention to the promotion and protection of the rights and the socio economic needs of young people needs to be an essential element of a country's efforts to eradicate poverty. Young people (defined as aged 10 to 24 years) account for 29 per cent of the population in low and middle-income countries (or 1.4 billion in number). Over a 100 countries have a significant youth bulge in their populations (see Attachment 4 at the end of the paper). Many young people in the world, however, lack basic literacy and numeracy skills and have no access to reproductive health care. As well, their economic prospects are extremely limited. To close this gap requires both additional resources as well as attention to gender inequality issues and the more effective delivery of existing services. This paper presents analysis and evidence to support these claims. The purpose of the paper is not to highlight the vulnerability of particular groups of young people. This task has been performed admirably by recent publications such as the UNFPA's World Population Report 2003 on adolescent health and rights. Its aim instead is a more focused one -- to show how best to present the case to policy makers for more attention to the needs of young people ahead of other competing claims for resources. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    295836

    Stockholm Call to Action: investing in reproductive health and rights as a development priority.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005. [2] p.

    Promoting development and eradicating extreme poverty is an urgent global priority that demands bold action. This ambitious agenda, embodied in the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), requires governments, civil society, and international agencies to address population issues, in particular to secure people's right to sexual and reproductive health, as agreed by 179 countries at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, and its 5-year review. However, reproductive health and rights remain elusive for the vast majority of the world's people. Complications during pregnancy and childbirth are among the leading causes of death and illness for women in developing countries, and the HIV/AIDS pandemic takes approximately 3 million lives each year. This undermines development by diminishing the quality of people's lives, exacerbating poverty, and placing heavy burdens on individuals, families, communities, and nations. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    292196

    What does it take to help the poor.

    Baldacci E; Clements B; Cui Q; Gupta S

    Finance and Development. 2005 Jun; 42(2):[10] p..

    But while the international community agrees that something needs to be done, how best to go about it remains the subject of vigorous debate. No one questions that human capital—in the form of better health status and higher levels of educational attainment—is a major building block for sustaining the productivity growth that would, in turn, spur broad-based economic growth in developing countries. But inefficiencies in the public provision of these services—due, for instance, to corruption or a lack of skilled workers—have led some to question whether just increasing public spending is the best route, especially given the role of other factors (such as income per capita) in determining social indicators. For that reason, we undertook a study to try to help policymakers evaluate the effects of different policies on social indicators and growth. This article examines our results, which show that while higher spending on health and education is worthwhile, poor governance and macroeconomic instability may offset the positive impact of social spending on growth and human development. But first it is helpful to review what past research has taught us. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    283992

    HIV / AIDS: implications for poverty reduction.

    Loewenson R

    New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], Bureau for Development Policy [BDP], Special Initiative on HIV / AIDS, 2001. 27 p.

    The devastation caused by HIV/AIDS is unique because it is depriving families, communities and entire nations of their young and most productive people. The epidemic is deepening poverty, reversing human development achievements, worsening gender inequalities, eroding the ability of governments to maintain essential services, reducing labour productivity and supply, and putting a brake on economic growth. These worsening conditions in turn make people and households even more at risk of, or vulnerable to, the epidemic, and sabotages global and national efforts to improve access to treatment and care. This cycle must be broken to ensure a sustainable solution to the HIV/AIDS crisis. The response to HIV/AIDS so far has focused, rightly so, on the challenge of containing the epidemic and preventing new infections through advocacy, information and education campaigns, behaviour change communication, condom distribution, programmes targeting groups that are particularly vulnerable to infection, and other key interventions. The other part of the response is focusing on treatment and care for people living with HIV and AIDS — efforts that are expected to intensify as new treatments become more accessible and affordable. Both prevention and treatment are top priorities in not only saving lives and reducing human suffering, but also in limiting the future impact on human development and poverty reduction efforts. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    279283

    Millennium Development Goals. National reports: a look through a gender lens.

    Menon-Sen K

    New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], 2003 May. [29] p.

    In September 2000, Heads of State and representatives of the Governments of 191 countries met at the United Nations and adopted the Millennium Declaration. The Declaration outlines the central concerns of the global community - peace, security, development, environmental sustainability, human rights and democracy - and articulates a set of inter-connected and mutually reinforcing goals for sustainable development. These, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), are based on the major goals and targets agreed upon at the UN Conferences of the 1990s, which have been synthesised into a global agenda for development. The Millennium Declaration commits the international community and member states of the UN to the achievement of eight major goals. 1. Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achievement of universal primary education 3. Promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women 4. Reduction of child mortality 5. Improvement in maternal health 6. Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 7. Ensuring environmental sustainability 8. Developing a global partnership for development. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    192288

    Aid in community based poverty-environment projects.

    Sullivan M

    Development Bulletin. 2002 Jul; (58):16-19.

    It is commonly accepted among development agencies that poverty and environmental degradation are intricately linked. All donor or development agencies have recently made that link explicit, and accepted a concept of poverty that is more than simply cash-based or economically defined. Like other development banks and development assistance agencies, the World Bank and AusAID have a policy focus on reducing poverty, which they define in terms of income generation, vulnerability and other aspects of livelihood or well-being. Marjorie Sullivan (2001) undertook a brief analysis of how the links between poverty and environment can be addressed through development assistance. She concluded that it is not possible to undertake an adequate poverty analysis as a basis for identifying project interventions without considering long term (post project) sustainability, nor without fully considering resource use. That analysis must include the explicit links between poverty and environment, and the more contentious issue of ecological sustainability (to address ecosystem services concepts), and how these can be incorporated into the management of development assistance programs. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    186369
    Peer Reviewed

    Idealism and practicality: the role of religion in development.

    Tyndale W

    Development. 2003 Dec; 46(4):22-28.

    Wendy Tyndale looks at religious groups, movements or communities working at the grassroots, very often at a distance from the leaders or institutions of their traditions. She takes as examples movements which show the effectiveness of faith as an inspiration and guide for work to improve life for the poor. These are different from faith-based NGOs, which, depending as they do on sources of funding from the West, tend to be influenced to a greater degree by the views of professional western/secular development practitioners. She delves into some of the difficulties of the relationship between religion and the mainstream development thinking in order to show the commonalities of both "idealism" and pragmatism on both sides of the divide. (author's)
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  24. 24
    189347

    Population, reproductive health and the millennium development goals. How the ICPD Programme of Action promotes poverty alleviation and human rights.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003. 22 p.

    In the year 2000, representatives of 189 nations, including 147 heads of state and government, gathered at the United Nations for a historic Millennium Summit. They adopted an ambitious set of goals, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Achieving them by the target date of 2015 will transform the lives of the world’s people, including reducing by half the number of people living in extreme poverty. The Millennium Declaration concludes, “We therefore pledge our unstinting support for these common objectives and our determination to achieve them.” The next decade offers a historic opportunity for all stakeholders—including governments, civil society and international organizations—to unite behind the Millennium Development Goals. The goals are realistic, practical and necessary. They are the result of decades of experience in development work and discussion at all levels, including a series of international conferences held in the 1990s on the environment, human rights and social development. (excerpt)
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  25. 25
    182403

    U.N. will back entrepreneurs in bid to lift poor nations.

    Barringer F

    New York Times. 2003 Jul 27; [2] p..

    Nearly a decade after microfinancing took hold as a method of stimulating the growth of grass-roots private sectors in developing countries, the United Nations is beginning a new effort to support entrepreneurial efforts that could help lift countries out of poverty. Secretary General Kofi Annan said today that a new commission would work to eliminate the institutional, legal and cultural roadblocks that could inhibit the development of small and medium-size businesses in poor countries. (excerpt)
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