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Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], BRinging Information to Decisionmakers for Global Effectiveness [BRIDGE], 2007.  p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. GPO-A-00-03-00004-00)Poverty reduction strategies form the basis of World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) assistance in the poorest developing countries. The detailed guidelines, or poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs), are prepared in the host country and influence the investments made in most sectors of development. While population programs have promoted family planning for decades as part of development efforts, family planning has received less attention and dedicated funding since the advent of PRSPs. Therefore, those who support continued investments in family planning need to understand the process through which the strategies are developed and monitored and stay engaged to ensure that support for population and family planning programs is sustained. (excerpt)
London, England, ActionAid International, . 27 p. (P1625/01/04)UNAIDS estimated that in Africa in 2003, more than 2.3 million people died from AIDS, 3 million were newly infected and a total of 12 million children were orphaned. Antiretroviral drugs are reaching a mere 50,000 of those with AIDS in developing countries. The HIV/AIDS pandemic is clearly a human and developmental disaster. This paper looks at the response to the HIV/AIDS crisis by the World Bank as a key member of the international donor/lending community, a leader in the international health community, and as Africa's principal development partner. In its seminal document, Intensifying Action Against HIV/AIDS, the World Bank acknowledges both its special leadership role in fighting HIV/AIDS and the need that it be held accountable for its stewardship. (excerpt)
Is trade liberalization of services the best strategy to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals in Latin America? A call for caution.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública / Pan American Journal of Public Health. 2006 Nov; 20(5):341-346.In September 2000, at the United Nations (UN) Millennium Summit, 147 heads of state adopted the Millennium Declaration, with the aim of reflecting their commitment to global development and poverty alleviation. This commitment was summarized in 8 goals, 14 targets, and 48 measurable indicators, which together comprise the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), to be attained by 2015. All of the MDGs contribute to public health, and three are directly health-related: MDGs 4 (reduce child mortality), 5 (improve maternal health), and 6 (combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases). Progress towards these goals has proved difficult. In an attempt to identify practical steps to achieve the MDGs, the UN Development Programme initiated the UN Millennium Project in 2002. This three-year "independent" advisory effort established 13 task forces to identify strategies and means of implementation to achieve each MDG target, and each task force produced a detailed report. A Task Force on Trade was created for MDG 8 to develop a global partnership for development. The mandate of the Task Force on Trade was to explore how the global trading system could be improved to support developing countries, with special attention to the needs of the poorest nations. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2006;  p..When I first spoke to you from this podium, in 1997, it seemed to me that humanity faced three great challenges. One was to ensure that globalization would benefit the human race as a whole. Another was to heal the disorder of the post-cold war world, replacing it with a genuinely new world order of peace and freedom. And the third was to protect the rights and dignity of individuals, particularly women, which were so widely trampled underfoot. As the second African to serve as Secretary-General, I felt that all three of these challenges-the security challenge, the development challenge, the challenge of human rights and the rule of law-concerned me directly. Africa was in great danger of being excluded from the benefits of globalization. Africa was also the scene of some of the most protracted and brutal conflicts. And many of Africa's people felt they were unjustly condemned to be exploited and oppressed, since colonial rule had been replaced by an inequitable economic order on the global level and sometimes by corrupt rulers and warlords at the local level. In the decade since then, many have been struggling to confront these three global challenges. Much has been achieved, but events have also presented us with new challenges. In the economic arena, both globalization and growth have continued apace. Some developing countries, notably in Asia, have played a major role in this growth. Many millions of their people have thereby been released from the prison of perpetual poverty. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2006 Mar-May;  p..The world's youth are working to support the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)--thanks to the United Nations, the 2005 Live8 concert, MTV and some international celebrities, such as Irish musician Bono, actor Richard Gere of the United States, singer Angelique Kido from Benin, tennis player and actor Vijay Amritrai from India, and the Los Tigres del Norte band from Mexico, as well as other websites. In 2000, Governments committed themselves to a global partnership, pledging to achieve the eight MDGs by 2015: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education for all boys and girls; promote gender equality and empower women; reduce by two thirds the mortality rate of children under five; reduce by three quarters the ratio of maternal mortality; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; ensure environmental sustain-ability; and develop a global partnership for development. While these goals are real challenges, the international community has the money, technology and resources to achieve them--we just need the will. (excerpt)
Economist. 2006; 154(3):443-466.In its Millennium Declaration of September 2000, the United Nations adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), to be reached in 2015 through concerted efforts worldwide. According to UN-calculations, the estimated costs in terms of additional development aid of meeting the MDGs in all countries vary from 121 billion US dollars in 2006 to 189 billion US dollars in 2015. The present communication reviews the figures reported. It appears that while Asia is well on track to achieve the goals, essentially through efforts of its own, Africa is lagging behind, albeit that according to detailed survey data on weight-for-length among adults collected in Africa for the US aid agency, rates of undernutrition are about 58 percent of the levels used as a reference by the UN, which are based on assessment of food production. Yet, child undernutrition comes out higher in these surveys. Besides mentioning reservations about the adequacy of these MDG-yardsticks, we consider the cost estimates for Africa as presented in the UN-reports and subsequently assessed in the literature. It appears that these estimates are too low, even if all MDG-funds were concentrated on this continent, essentially because they are set up as shopping lists that are necessarily incomplete and, among others, disregard many of the indirect cost of delivering the goods to the target beneficiaries, including the cost of providing adequate security and avoiding corruption. Nonetheless, recalling how hopeless the situation looked some 30 years ago for China, India, and Bangladesh, where unprecedented numbers have now escaped extreme poverty during the past decade and a half, we submit that over a time horizon of about twice the 15 years of the MDG's and with adequate international support, realization of the MDG-targets should be possible for Africa too. (author's)
African Sociological Review. 2003; 7(2): p..This essay seeks to investigate the World Bank's representation of the poor via a close reading of The Bank's Voices of the Poor and a critical comparison between this book and Ashwin Desai's We Are the Poors. The essay argues that The Bank's book is an attempt to represent the majority of humanity as The Poor and that this othering produces The Poor as a category of people who are politically inert, largely responsible for their own circumstances and whose suffering justifies the position and work of The Bank and other social forces with similar agendas. The essay also suggests that there are familial connections between this project and colonial discourses that sought to other people via a process of racialisation. (excerpt)
Health Policy and Planning. 2006 Jul; 21(4):326-328.The UNDP report on the Millennium Development Goals, or MDGs (UNDP 2005), cautions that the Goals will not be met by 2015 in the most needy countries, and, in fact, warns that the situation in Africa may actually worsen. What can be done to secure some measure of success in the health-MDGs effort? Should strengthening health systems be regarded a 'first-order' goal within 'higher-order' MDGs to secure at least the institutional and system prerequisites of better health for all in the future, perhaps after 2015 -- a 'second-best' result in the absence of a 'first best' MDG outcome? (excerpt)
Reducing poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals: arguments for investing in reproductive health and rights. Reference notes on population and poverty reduction.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2005.  p.A bold and ambitious agenda was set forth in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to raise the quality of life for all individuals and promote human development. The goals represent our collective aspirations for a better life, and a minimum roadmap on how to get there. However, the MDGs can only be achieved if governments, civil society, and international agencies work together to address population issues as a development priority, in particular to secure the reproductive health and rights of people, especially the poor and women. Yet worldwide, illnesses and deaths from poor reproductive health account for one-fifth of the global burden of disease, and nearly one-third for all women. Consider the powerful impact stronger investments in quality reproductive health services could make anywhere, as worldwide each year, more than half a million women die during childbirth or due to pregnancy complications, and AIDS takes three million lives. This publication, which consists of two parts, is intended to advance the dialogue among decision makers in bridging the gap between hope and reality. The first part provides advocates and decision makers with a set of key arguments on the benefits to be reaped when governments make reproductive health a development priority. It takes as its starting point that health is a fundamental right valued in and of itself, and improved health, including reproductive health, strengthens individuals' capacities to live more productive lives and break out of poverty traps. It outlines key arguments for why the investments in reproductive health we make now pay off huge dividends in the future: healthier, more productive individuals and families contribute to stronger, wealthier nations. (excerpt)
Development Bulletin. 2002 Jul; (58):16-19.It is commonly accepted among development agencies that poverty and environmental degradation are intricately linked. All donor or development agencies have recently made that link explicit, and accepted a concept of poverty that is more than simply cash-based or economically defined. Like other development banks and development assistance agencies, the World Bank and AusAID have a policy focus on reducing poverty, which they define in terms of income generation, vulnerability and other aspects of livelihood or well-being. Marjorie Sullivan (2001) undertook a brief analysis of how the links between poverty and environment can be addressed through development assistance. She concluded that it is not possible to undertake an adequate poverty analysis as a basis for identifying project interventions without considering long term (post project) sustainability, nor without fully considering resource use. That analysis must include the explicit links between poverty and environment, and the more contentious issue of ecological sustainability (to address ecosystem services concepts), and how these can be incorporated into the management of development assistance programs. (excerpt)
Development. 2003 Dec; 46(4):22-28.Wendy Tyndale looks at religious groups, movements or communities working at the grassroots, very often at a distance from the leaders or institutions of their traditions. She takes as examples movements which show the effectiveness of faith as an inspiration and guide for work to improve life for the poor. These are different from faith-based NGOs, which, depending as they do on sources of funding from the West, tend to be influenced to a greater degree by the views of professional western/secular development practitioners. She delves into some of the difficulties of the relationship between religion and the mainstream development thinking in order to show the commonalities of both "idealism" and pragmatism on both sides of the divide. (author's)
Development in Practice. 2002 May; 12(2):127-37.Many development agencies seek to work on behalf of the 'poor' and the 'poorest of the poor', often creating external definitions of poverty and of people living in poverty that are based on a complex list of things that the poor do not have. There are others who have spearheaded efforts to define poverty based on criteria derived from members of (largely) rural communities, many of whom would be considered poor. All such definitions ultimately result in some type of grouping of people into different categories of 'poor people.' By creating a list of characteristics of poverty, agencies believe that they are better able to target 'the poor' as beneficiaries of interventions to eradicate poverty. This article is intended to challenge development organizations (governmental and nongovernmental) to look beyond simple definitions of poverty that are based on static characteristics. It is intended to provoke readers to re-evaluate some of their ideas about definitions of poverty, and to critically examine their agency's role in the business of poverty. (author's)
[Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994.  p.The president of Romania, Mr. Ion Iliescu, sent a message to the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, September 5-13, 1994. Romania considers the current draft Program of Action to outline a consistent body of principles and objectives, with the means to implement them, entailing the common responsibilities of states to each other and to mankind in general. All programs aiming at the improvement of the human condition have to overcome poverty, particularly in view of the increasing gap between the rich and poor nations. These discrepancies also need to be eliminated because global migratory movements cause major dislocations for recipient nations, create xenophobia, and deprive sending countries of much needed talent. Family planning is often unavailable for impoverished couples. Each person should have free access to air, water, education, and contraceptives. The equality of the sexes also requires equal allotment of duties between them, thereby alleviating the excessive workloads of women. The previous dictatorship in Romania pursued a destructively pronatalist policy to boost the population. The rebuilding of Romanian society requires the strengthening of the family. The Romanian government appreciates the technical assistance in family planning extended by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities as well as the assistance received from the European Union through the PHARE program, from UNICEF, and from the World Bank. The basic issues of the UN Agenda for Development are supported and the successful conclusion of the conference is wished.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. , 26 p. (Poverty and Social Policy Series Paper No. 1)This discussion of ways to achieve sustainable development, which is synonymous with poverty reduction, has grown from the World Bank's effort to assess the institutional aspects of development. The operation of the World Bank has been based on the market principal of demand stimulating supply. When it comes to the poor, however, service organizations have tended to decide what services were needed and to supply those services, instead of being driven by demands generated by the poor themselves. Allowing poverty reduction programs to be energized by the demands of the poor and regarding the poor as customers rather than as beneficiaries would empower the poor to increase their opportunities for self-fulfillment. Demand, of course, can be nurtured when its impediments are understood; it can also be enhanced by improving the quality of services. Application of these practices in the fields of education, population, health, and nutrition are described, with an in-depth look at the Yemen Arab Republic's Second Education Project. The relationship of demand to water and sanitation services is also considered. An understanding of the needs of the poor is gained in 2 ways. First, the informal institutions through which poor people act must be examined by participating in a learning process using qualitative techniques such as focus group interviews, social marketing, and participant observations. Beneficiary assessment is an especially important strategy during project design and project evaluation. Second, direct staff exposure to the poor is essential, since some aspects of poverty defy objective analysis. If development efforts lead to a thickening social web of nongovernmental organizations, with an attendant use of local personnel, an understanding of the grassroots realities of poverty will be enhances. When the efforts of informal groups are combined with those of formal organizations, sustainable poverty reduction can be achieved. The organizational implications of this approach are considered, including intermediation, organizational pluralism and competition, demand as "voice," nongovernment organizations, catalysts, and training. In-depth examples of this principle at work are given for the Korean experience in financing universal primary education, the Malawi Rural Water Supply Project, and the Menaka integrated development project in Mali. Operational implications are also detailed with particular emphasis on adopting a learning stance and on staffing. This recommended inversion in the operating principles of the World Bank will help the public sector achieve a vision of development as a process that enables clients to release themselves from poverty.
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. 1992 Sep; 267(3):32, 36-8.Groups focused on women's rights, family planning and health, environmental protection, reduced consumption of natural resources, economic development and population control differ greatly in their views of population pressure's role in preventing sustainable development. Yet, it is these same groups that should be working together to achieve sustainable development. Some speakers at the 1991 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, encouraged world leaders to take immediate steps to deal with population growth and stated that poverty, environment, and population are intertwined. At the same time in the same city, panel participants at the Global Forum, attended by almost 2000 nongovernmental organizations, considered population control as a violation of women's rights, as a means to circumvent poverty eradication in developing countries, and as a means to suppress the poor in developing countries. These debates, whether population control or economic development is the best means to reduce population growth have been occurring since 1968. In the interim, the world population has increased form 3.5-5.5 billion. The population growth rate has fallen from 2-1.7%, however, but 97 million more people will appear on this earth each year during the 1990s. Because any discussion of contraceptives and family planning may be misinterpreted by members as abortion, many environmental groups do not address it. They also fear undertaking immigration issues, since past attempts were labelled as racist. Nevertheless, more and more organizations, e.g., the Natural Resources Defense Council, are beginning to address the need to focus on population growth to prevent environmental degradation. Further, some foundations, e.g., the Pew Charitable Trusts, are offering grants to environmental groups to begin population programs. All too often development plans neglect family health and do not consider the concerns of the target population.
In: Public policies and the misuse of forest resources, edited by Robert Repetto, Malcolm Gillis. Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 1988. 385-410. (World Resources Institute Book)The World Resources Institute has compiled 12 case studies on public policies from developed and developing countries and the misuse of forest resources into 1 book. All of the studies confirm that 3 key products of population growth and rural poverty in developing countries are responsible for deforestation. These products include shifting cultivation, agricultural conversion, and fuelwood gathering. Large development projects also foster forest destruction. Government policies contribute to and exacerbate these pressures which result in inefficient use of natural forest resources. Such policies directly and indirectly undermine conservation, regional development schemes, and other socioeconomic goals. Forestry policies include timber harvest concessions, levels and structures of royalties and fees, utilization of nonwood forests products, and reforestation. Tax incentives, credit subsidies, and resettlement programs comprise examples of nonforestry policies. Trade barriers established by industrialized countries have somewhat encouraged unsuitable investments and patterns of exploitation in forest industries in developing countries. Negotiations between exporting and importing countries within the confines of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA) should strive to reduce tariff escalation and nontariff barriers to processed wood imports from tropical countries and to justify incentives to forest industries in developing countries. These 12 case studies have come to the same conclusion as the UN Food and Agriculture Organization did in 1987: action to conserve forests is needed without delay.
PEOPLE. 1992; 19(1):32-4.The IPPF President asks his fellow Africans to look inward to find sources and solutions to the continent's problems. They can no longer blame colonialism and the international community for its problems, but should realize the governments of African countries which had little regard for their own people have misused government resources and not invested in people. Further the 1 party state is no longer effective at solving Africa's problems and people in many countries are beginning to prefer a multiparty democracy. In addition, 11% of the world's population inhabit Africa but Africa takes part in only 2% of the international trade. Africa's population growth rate is >3%/year and in 1992 it had almost 500 million people, yet the gross national product of the continent equals that of Belgium, a country of 10 million people. Development will need to come from Africans so governments must 1st develop its human resources base such as implementing policies that releases the entrepreneurial spirit, providing universal education, and training high levels professionals including planners, engineers, and entrepreneurs. In fact, military expenditures should be curtailed to make room for the much need development efforts. Further African governments must give priority to developing effective population and family planning programs. African population and family planning experts should convince government officials of the need to appropriate funds to these programs. Governments must also confront the problem of AIDS, but not at the expense of investment and general health programs. The 1990s are the last opportunity for Africa to mobilize its people, especially women and children, to pull itself out of poverty and despair.
Development. 1989; (4):77-82.Contemporary multilateral loan agreements to developing nations, unlike previous project and program aid, have often been contingent upon the effective implementation of structural adjustment programs of market liberalization and macroeconomic policy redirection. These programs herald such reform as necessary steps on the road to economic growth and development. Price decontrol and policy change may also, however, generate the more immediate and undesirable effects of exacerbated urban sector bias and plummeting income and quality of life in the general population. This paper considers the resultant changes expected in the political arena, product and input pricing, small business promotion and formation, export crop production, interest rate policy reform and financial market deregulation, exchange rate and public sector expenditure, and the labor market, and their effect upon women's economic position. The author notes, however, that women are not affected uniformly by these changes and sectoral disruptions, but that some women will suffer more than others. To develop policy to effectively meet the needs of these target groups, more subpopulation specificity is required. Approaches useful in identifying vulnerable women in particular societies are explored. Once identified, these women, especially those who head poor households, should be afforded protection against the turbulence and short- to medium-term economic decline associated with adjustment.
Social Science and Medicine. 1985; 21(1):41-53.This paper explores the emergence of an international fad aiding and monitoring community participation efforts and projects its future outcome based on lessons from previous experiences in other than the health sector. The analysis suggests that the promotion of community participation was based in all cases on 2 false assumptions. 1) The value system of the peasantry and of the poor urban dwellers had been misunderstood by academicians and experts, particularly by US social scientists, who believed that the traditional values of the poor were the main obstacle for social development and for health improvement. However, the precolumbian forms of organization that traditional societies had been able to maintain throughout the centuries were not only compatible with development but had many of the characteristics of modernity: the tequio guelagetza minga and even the cargo system stress collective work, cooperation, communal land ownership and egalitarianism. 2) Another misjudgement was the claim that the peasantry was disorganized and incapable of effective collective action. In Latin America historical facts do not support this contention. A few examples from more recent history show the responsiveness and organizational capabilities of rural populations. The Peasant Leagues in Northeastern Brazil under the leadership of Juliao is perhaps 1 of the best known example. The question is thus raised as to why international and foreign assistance continues to pressure and finance programs for community organization and/or participation. It is suggested that the experience in Latin America (except perhaps Cuba and Nicaragua) indicates that community participation has produced additional exploitation of the poor by extracting free labor, that it has contributed to the cultural deprivation of the poor, and has contributed to political violence by the ousting and suppression of leaders and the destruction of grassroots organizations. Information presented on community participation in health programs in Latin America illustrates that they have followed closely the ideology and steps of community participation in other sectors. A country by country examination indicates that health participation programs in Latin America in spite of promotional efforts by international agencies, have not succeeded. The real international motivation for participation programs was the need to legitimeize political systems compatible with US political values. Through symbolic participation, international agencies had in mind the legitimation of low quality care for the poor, also known as primary health care and the generation of much needed support from the masses for the liberal democracies and authoritatrian regimes of the region. Primary health care delivery can be successful without community participation, in contradiction to what international agencies and governments maintain.