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  1. 1

    Applying population and development strategies to enhance HIV prevention programming.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003 Sep. 5 p. (HIV Prevention Now Programme Briefs No. 9)

    In combating HIV/AIDS, it is essential to translate awareness of the implications of the epidemic into effective policies and programmes. The ability of communities, nation states, and the international community to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, called for within the Millennium Declaration, requires an understanding of the social, cultural and economic factors that drive the pandemic. HIV prevention programmes can and should take advantage of the cumulative knowledge, methods and experience acquired in the area of population and development. Population and development strategies can be adapted, based on the realities of the population groups, and used to help provide an enabling environment for action and to support the implementation of effective HIV prevention policies and programmes, especially within UNFPA's core areas of prevention among young people and pregnant women, and comprehensive condom programming. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Financial resource flows for population activities in 2001.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003. [99] p. (E/750/2003)

    Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 2001 is intended to be a tool for donor and developing country Governments, multilateral organizations and agencies, private foundations and NGOs to monitor progress in achieving the financial resource targets agreed to at the ICPD. Development cooperation officers and policy makers in developing countries can use the report to identify the domestically generated resources and complementary resources from donors needed to finance population and reproductive health programmes. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Government of Sierra Leone. National report on population and development. International Conference on Population and Development 1994.

    Sierra Leone. National Population Commission

    Freetown, Sierra Leone, National Population Commission, 1994. [4], 15, [4] p.

    The government of Sierra Leone is very concerned about the poor health status of the country as expressed by the indicators of a high maternal mortality rate (700/100,000), a total fertility rate of 6.2 (in 1985), a crude birth rate of 47/1000 (in 1985), an infant mortality rate of 143/1000 (in 1990), and a life expectancy at birth of only 45.7 years. A civil war has exacerbated the already massive rural-urban migration in the country. Despite severe financial constraints, the government has contributed to the UN Population Fund and continues to appeal to the donor community for technical and financial help to support the economy in general and population programs in particular. Sierra Leone has participated in preparations for and fully supports the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. This document describes Sierra Leone's past, present, and future population and development linkages. The demographic context is presented in terms of size and growth rate; age and sex composition; fertility; mortality; and population distribution, migration, and urbanization. The population policy planning and program framework is set out through discussions of the national perception of population issues, the national population policy, population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program [including maternal-child health and family planning (FP) services; information, education, and communication; data collection, analysis, and research; primary health care, population and the environment; youth and adolescents and development; women and development; and population distribution and migration]. The operational aspects of the program are described with emphasis on political and national support, FP service delivery and coverage, monitoring and evaluation, and funding. The action plan for the future includes priority concerns; an outline of the policy framework; the design of population program activities; program coordination, monitoring, and evaluation; and resource mobilization. The government's commitment is reiterated in a summary and in 13 recommendations of action to strengthen the population program, address environmental issues, improve the status of women, improve rural living conditions, and improve data collection.
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  4. 4

    Science and Technology for Development: Prospects Entering the Twenty-First Century. A symposium in commemoration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., June 22-23, 1987.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]; National Research Council

    Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 1988. 79 p.

    This Symposium described and assessed the contributions of science and technology in development of less developed countries (LDCs), and focused on what science and technology can contribute in the future. Development experts have learned in the last 3 decades that transfer of available technology to LDCs alone does not bring about development. Social scientists have introduced the concepts of local participation and the need to adjust to local socioeconomic conditions. These concepts and the development of methodologies and processes that guide development agencies to prepare effective strategies for achieving goals have all improved project success rates. Agricultural scientists have contributed to the development of higher yielding, hardier food crops, especially rice, maize, and wheat. Health scientists have reduced infant and child mortalities and have increased life expectancy for those living in the LDCs. 1 significant contribution was the successful global effort to eradicate smallpox from the earth. Population experts and biological scientists have increased the range of contraceptives and the modes for delivering family planning services, both of which have contributed to the reduction of fertility rates in some LDCs. Communication experts have taken advantage of the telecommunications and information technologies to make available important information concerning health, agriculture, and education. For example, crop simulation models based on changes in temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind, solar radiation, and soil conditions have predicted outcomes of various agricultural systems. An integration of all of the above disciplines are necessary to bring about development in the LDCs.
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  5. 5

    Population theme of keynote address by Dr. Sadik.

    Sadik N

    POPULATION HEADLINERS. 1997 Mar-Apr; (257):1-2.

    Dr. Nafis Sadik, executive director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), gave the keynote address to the 53rd session of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). She stated that UNFPA programs in Asia were the largest the United Nations group had in the world; almost one-third of UNFPA program resources went to Asia. Asia is also the center of the Partners Programme, a new program in which developed nations share their experience and expertise in population and development with developing nations. Under a new European Commission initiative the Asia-Pacific region will receive, through UNFPA, US $31 million for population programs. According to Dr. Sadik, UNFPA collaborates with the Population and Statistics Divisions of ESCAP on projects including: 1) information technology for gathering and disseminating population data; 2) systems to monitor and evaluate reproductive health and family planning programs; 3) research on the family and the elderly in Asia's future; and 4) demographic analysis of female migration, employment, and poverty. A follow-up conference on the 1992 Fourth Asian and Pacific Population Conference and on the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development will be organized by ESCAP and supported by UNFPA to assess implementation of the Bali declaration and the ICPD Programme of Action.
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  6. 6

    Programme review and strategy development report: Jordan.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1994. vii, 58 p. (Programme Review and Strategy Development Report No. 31.)

    This report provides a review of Jordan's National Population Programs and demographic and socioeconomic trends and describes the proposed general and sectoral strategies for Jordan's Population Program and for UN Population Fund (UNFPA) activities. King Hussein is credited with recognizing the link between population and development at the 1984 International Population Conference in Mexico. Jordan has a National Population Commission but no official policy. Proposed strategies, which are under consideration by the Commission, include provision of birth spacing services in government, nongovernmental, and private health facilities and implementing supportive IEC programs. Other proposals include programs for reducing mortality and morbidity, improving population distribution, and restructuring the education system. UNFPA activities were initiated during the same period as the formulation of the first five year development plans for the period 1976-80. At that time there was awareness of the high population growth rate, the young age of the population, and the increased levels of urbanization. UNFPA has used data collection and research to help define demographic conditions and their implications. Government has made a number of efforts to reach sustainable development. For instance, Her Royal Highness Princess Basma has highlighted the importance of integrating population into development plans and urged women's development. The latest survey in 1990 provides needed data on demographic conditions. A coherent population program is constrained by the lack of an explicit policy and conceptual framework, strains on Jordan's economy from the Gulf Crisis, and the lack of awareness among the general population of the link between high population growth and depletion of resources. The general recommended strategy for government is to improve the standard of living by a comprehensive approach to development that balances population, environment, and resources.
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  7. 7

    Population programmes: assessment of needs.

    Allison CJ

    In: Population policies and programmes. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Policies and Programmes, Cairo, Egypt, 12-16 April 1992. New York, New York, United Nations, 1993. 114-20. (ST/ESA/SER.R/128)

    The paper addresses: 1) national population principles and objectives; 2) the population dimension of national development policy; 3) national population programs; 4) the rationale, opportunities and needs for external donor support; and 5) processes for population program needs assessment based on the work of one bilateral donor, the United Kingdom Overseas Development Administration. The population dimension to national development policy formulation is most important in relation to policies on: 1) provision of social services (health, education, family planning); 2) environment; 3) development planning and resource allocation; 4) poverty alleviation; 5) labor force and human resource development (youth employment, child labor); 6) social security for the elderly; and 7) the status of women. A population program establishes the strategies to implement the national population policy. Effective family planning programs recognize diverse needs for contraception (youth adults, couples wishing to space their children, those who have completed their families). Ready access to family planning can be achieved through: 1) integrating family planning into clinic-based maternal and child health services; 2) community-based activities; and 3) the retail sector using social marketing. Other population activities include effective dissemination of data including population education in schools. United Kingdom development donor assistance and wider development policies includes: 1) public expenditure rationalization for structural adjustment; 2) civil service reform; 3) health system restructuring; and 4) decentralization. External assistance would include: 1) technical assistance, using local and international expertise; 2) training, in-country and overseas; 3) supplies, including contraceptives; 4) renovation of the existing health infrastructures; and 5) local costs, such as salaries. For donors, one model is the UNFPA program review and strategy development process.
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  8. 8

    Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.

    Lyashko OP

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 161-2.

    The government of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic deal with population policies on a scientific basis. Programs implemented provide for both material and spiritual well-being. The means of production are public owned ensuring an economic growth on par with the population. There is equality among men and women in education, pay and employment. The government provides for the well-being of its aged, war invalids and the families of those killed in battle. The population of the Ukraine increased significantly during the postwar era, due to high social and economic development. Of late, the government has seen to the improvement in the quality of life for its citizens. THe government of the Ukraine S.S.R. supports population programmes which encourage population growth in order to make the Republic more productive. In the coming years, the government looks to implement recommendations made in the World Plan of Action, 1984.
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  9. 9

    Report of the Executive Director on the policy implications of the findings and conclusions of the UNFPA's review and assessment of population programme experience.

    Sadik N

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1989 Apr. 14. 25 p. (DP/1989/37; A/E/BD/1)

    This 20 year review and assessment of UNFPA's population experience and operations. 3 major areas focusses on: 1) population data, policy development and planning; 2) maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP); 3) and information, education and communication. Even though 82% of the developing world's population live in countries where current rates of population growth are considered too high; where 84% live in countries were fertility rates are considered too high; where 91% live in countries where levels of life expectancy are too low and where close to 90% live in countries where population patterns of distribution are unacceptable, most of the governments have not been able to implement population policies effectively. There is an urgent need for more rigorous population interventions in the future by developing clear and achievable goals, activities to improve program effectiveness and mobilization of required resources for the 1990's at national and international levels. UNFPA's 4 major population program goals for the 1990's are: 1) development of comprehensive population policies to help achieve sustainable development; 2) decelaration of rapid population growth through the expansion of information, education and services for FP; 3) lowering the current levels of infant, child and maternal mortality rates; and 4) improvement of the role, status and participation of women. Means to success include obtaining political commitment; introducing strategic planning and programming; diversifying the agents for demographic change; and strengthening resource mobilization. The international donor community must raise the amount and quality of assistance provided and improve donor cooperation and collaboration.
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  10. 10

    Foreign assistance in the 1990s and the role of population.

    Baldi P

    [Unpublished] 1988 Apr 12. Paper presented at a colloquium on U.S. International Population Assistance in the 1990s, convened by The Futures Group as part of the Project on Cooperation for International Development: U.S. Policy and Programs for the 1990s and Blueprint for the Environment, April 12, 1988, Washington, D.C. 11 p.

    This article identifies the need for a reformulated foreign assistance program, explores alternatives to the current program, and proposes means of implementing alternatives. Reduced budget resource availability, and the growing support, in the US and abroad, for the concept of ecologically sustainable development highlight the inadequacy of the current US foreign aid program. Sustainable development uses as its guiding principle a goal of "meeting the and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future." Sustainable development should be the foreign policy theme for the '90s, running through every aspect of US foreign assistance, and promoting self-sufficiency and economic viability for developing countries. To obtain this goal a comprehensive redefinition of US foreign assistance and foreign policy objectives is necessary. This redefinition should include a sharper focus for the US Agency for International Development (US AID), under the Foreign Assistance Act, with fewer restrictions and maximum flexibility for design and implementation of projects. The US AID should also stress relationships with other countries in devising plans and dividing up areas of assistance. FUrthermore, technical centers should be the focal point of organization in US AID. Approaches to the implementation of development assistance are discussed, among them--structuring US AID as a grant-giving institution, or as a bilateral or multilateral institution, or diminishing its role and creating an Asian Development Foundation. An approach which would fit with the sustainable development construct is for US AID to target technical areas as well as priority countries. However, each approach has its drawbacks and is driven in part by fund availability. The field of international population and family planning is offered as an example of a successful foreign assistance approach. The factors involved in this model included strong leadership, valuable congressional support, measurability, and flexible approaches, as well as a cadre of trained population officers. An agency focus on ecologically sustainable development includes population programs as a major component.
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  11. 11

    Some speculation on the challenges of the next decades for the Population Commission.

    Bourgeois-Pichat J


    After a brief summary of the development of the terms of reference of the Population Commission, future activities are projected. In the near term the commission may be preparing for another world population conference in 1994, and increasing its oversight of population programs not only within but also outside the UN system. It may augment its role in reviewing all of the UN population activities, requesting that an overview be prepared, not merely as a series of reports on individual activities but as an analysis of the entire work of the system, organized by demographic subject area. In addition to reviewing reports on multilateral population assistance and the population activities of the UN family, the Commission may review a report on international bodies outside the UN. Although the Commission has become the best-informed world body concerning the world demographic situation, more of that information must be made available to governments, e.g. by developing and maintaining a permanent demographic encyclopedia utilizing worldwide experts, working under Commission direction. The encyclopedia should be available in the world's major languages and computer-accessible. Also, the Commission could direct the preparation of a biennial document providing an authoritative description of the world population's state, addressing major concerns and presenting findings in a way accessible to all. These tasks could be the major elements of the work of the Commission during the 1st quarter of the next century. Projections beyond that must be tentative, but it would seem reasonable to expect that someday the Commission may have to wrestle with the problem of shrinking national populations, composed of individuals with active lifespans longer than those prevalent today. Ultimately, the Commission may be concerned with the demography of human populations living outside the bounds of the planet earth. In fact, it is not unthinkable that in some distant future the concept of population and the interest of the Commission may be applied to beings presently unknown to mankind.
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  12. 12

    The Netherlands' co-operation policy in the field of population and family planning.

    van Roijen JH

    In: Family planning and contraceptive needs in developing countries: a report of a symposium held on October 23, 1985 at Organon International B.V., Oss., The Netherlands, edited by Jackie Bailey. Apeldoorn, Netherlands, Dept. of Organon International B.V., Institutional and Family Planning Affairs, 1985. 47-51.

    Dutch cooperation in the field of population dates from the late 1960s and has been steadily increasing since the inception, in 1969, of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Subsequent Dutch governments have consistently emphasized multilateral cooperation in this field and a preference for multilateral over bilateral activities has gained even further ground. The Dutch government offers financial support to UNFPA, the International Planned Parenthood Federation and the Human Reproduction Program of the World Health Organization. Modest annual contributions are channelled through UNFPA to the Population Council and the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. To date, cooperation in the bilateral field has been developed only with the government of Indonesia. At the macroeconomic level, the Dutch government seeks to strengthen its cooperation with developing countries in order to sustain their efforts to accelerate development, as well as to improve the quality and effectiveness of assistance. In the environmental field, the Dutch government's primary policy objectives remain prevention of deforestation, soil degradation and desertification. In formulating and implementing development assistance in the field of population, the Dutch government believes assistance should be responsive to the ways and means chosen by the country itself. The only condition is that the human rights of couples and individuals be assured. The Dutch government holds that no population policy can be viewed as an end in itself; it should be pursued as an element of the overall effort to achieve prosperity and well- being for all.
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  13. 13

    Population, development, family welfare. The ILO's contribution

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office [ILO], 1984. 56 p.

    This booklet describes the origins, scope, purpose, achievements and perspectives of the ILO's Population and Labour Policies Programme since its inception in the early 1970s as an integral part of the World Employment Programme. Its focus is in the area where population issues and labour and employment concerns intersect. The booklet was produced on the occasion of the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984, but is also intended as a source of information on ILO's population activities for the general reader. Topics covered include the integration of population and development planning, institution building, women's roles and demographic issues, fertility, labor force, migration and population distribution, and motivation through education. (EXCERPT)
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  14. 14

    Population and global future, statement made at the First Global Conference on the Future: through the '80s, Toronto, Canada, 21 July 1980.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1980]. 6 p. (Speech Series No. 57)

    The United Nations has always considered population variables to be an integral part of the total development process. UNFPA has developed, in response to national needs, a core program of population assistance which has found universal support and acceptance among the 130 recipient countries and territories. Historically, these are: family planning, population policy formulation and population dynamics. The following emerging trends are foreseeable from country requests and information available to the Fund: 1) migration from rural to urban areas and increased growth in urbanization; 2) an increased proportion of aged which has already created a number of new demands for resources in both developing and developed countries; 3) a move toward enabling women to participate in economic and educational activities; and 4) a need for urgent concern over ecological issues which affect the delicate balance of resources and population.
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  15. 15

    Women, population and development, statement made at the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: equality, development and peace, Copenhagen, Denmark, 15 July 1980.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1980]. 5 p. (Speech Series No. 56)

    The World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974 and the World Plan of Action adopted at the Mexico Conference in 1975 had one common goal--the full integration of women in the development process. Women today play a limited role in many national communities. If this role is to be strengthened and expanded, it will be necessary to focus on eliminating discrimination and removing obstacles to their education, training, employment and career advancement. Within this framework, UNFPA has given support to projects in 5 specific areas: 1) education and training in health, nutrition, child care, family planning, and vocational skills; 2) increasing participation of rural women in planning, decision-making and implementation at the community level; 3) income generating activities, such as marketing, social service occupations, and in the legal, educational and political systems; 4) educating women about their social and legal rights; and 5) widening women's access to communication networks. Between 1969 and 1979, approximately US$22 million was provided by UNFPA to projects dealing with the status of women. Projects in areas such as nutrition, maternal and child health services and family planning received more than US$312 million, which constitutes more than 50% of the total UNFPA programs.
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  16. 16

    The food, population and development equation, statement made at Southeastern Dialogue on the Changing World Economy, Atlanta, Georgia, 25 October 1980.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1980]. 8 p.

    The 1st type of assistance asked for from developing countries is the collection of basic data. The 2nd type of program is family planning. Countries must formulate their family planning themselves based on assessment of needs. The 3rd area that has evolved is that of population dynamics--the study of demographic variables and their consequences. The 4th area is the field of communication and education to support family planning and population programs. The 5th area is in population policies. Finally, there is the residual category of special activities concerned with youth, women and the aged. Population, therefore, represents a broad core area of 5 to 6 categories. The UNFPA is a voluntary organization which provides assistance only to developing countries. The projections of the UN indicate that, as a result of efforts in population, there is for the 1st time in the history of mankind a decline in the population growth rate of developing countries. Nevertheless, mankind must be prepared for an additional 2 billion people by the turn of the century. Population efforts in the end must aim at the stabilization of total world numbers to enable individuals to develop to their full capacity and to improve the quality of life for all.
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  17. 17

    Population and development: the challenges for the future, statement made at the International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 28 August, 1979.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1979]. 14 p.

    In the challenges faced by national policy makers and technical experts there is a vital linkage between population programs, policies and plans on health, housing, education, employment, the environment, and the uses of resources. The ultimate end of population programs should be assisting in the creation of societies which will enable individuals to develop their full potential. Reasons for the overall decline in fertility are not fully understood. It is not known which programs need to be sustained or modified to help the momentum continue. Can the reduction in infant mortality rate to less than 120/1000 live births by 1985 be attained? Regarding migration, the problem of how countries can institute action towards a more balanced redistribution of population within their natural boundaries exists. An increase in the population of the aged will require shifts in resources to welfare systems tailored to the needs of this population group. Consideration for human rights stresses the need for population programs implemented without coercion. There is also a need for better contraceptives. Population studies indicate that increasing participation of women in economic activities has decisive effects on decreasing reproductive rates. It is not only necessary to take into account the resources required to feed, clothe and shelter a growing population, but also the type of technology which will make this possible without worsening the environment. Regarding data collection and institutional development, there is a continuous need to strengthen the data base as well as the various types of governmental and community machinery for planning, promoting and coordinating population activities with development policies in developing countries. Large increases in demand for assistance from all parts of the developing world, particularly Asia and Africa, are foreseen. Present flow must increase to US$1 billion annually to meet this demand. Parliamentarians must demonstrate a strong commitment to action. There may be a need to transform the solid institutions of our society for more peace and security. One of the principal threats to peace is social unrest caused by the accumulation of human fear and hopelessness.
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  18. 18

    The UNFPA--an overview: present and past, statement made at the Twenty-fourth Session of the UNDP Governing Council, United Nations, Geneva, 21 June, 1977.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1977]. 23 p.

    This report provides an overview of UNFPA's operational experience in international population assistance, and a discussion of budget estimates, fiscal constraints, criteria for establishing priorities, projected expenditures, and estimated future needs and demands for funds. During its almost 8 years of operational existence, the Fund's cumulative resources have grown to almost US$400 million pledged by 83 countries. During these years, the Fund has implemented more than 1600 population projects in assisting 106 developing countries throughout the world. 40 priority countries (mainly in Africa), have received the largest allocation of funds (2/3), whereas UNFPA funded intercountry activities in 1976 received only 31% of available funding. Today, unlike 1969, most governments recognize population programs as an important component of development policy. National censuses, family planning programs and health services have emerged throughout the developing world. The concepts of cost-benefit analysis and absorpitive capacity are evaluated in light of UNFPA experience.
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  19. 19

    Population trends and implications, statement made at the Conference on "Population Trends and Implications," sponsored by The Conference Board, Dallas, Texas, 30 March 1977.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1977]. 16 p.

    There is no universal agreement that the present rate of world population growth is too high. However, of the 48 developing countries which perceive their national population growth rates to be too high, 40 are acting to lower them. These countries contain some 80% of the developing world's population and over 1/2 of that of the entire world. Only 15 nations out of 156 prevent access to contraceptive methods. The right of access to the means of contraception is acknowledged almost universally. Population factors must be considered as part of socioeconomic development. The collection and analysis of demographic statistics has been valuable for over 100 years; but recently the methods have been considerably refined and extended to the predominantly rural societies of the developing world. The study and regulation of migratory patterns is another aspect of population activities. Population activities today are also concerned with factors indirectly affecting the birth rate, and are now widely accepted as an important part of development planning and policy. Constraints to effective population policies include: 1) social; 2) economic; and 3) institutional. Family planning services in most developing countries have traditionally been provided through public health systems. Efforts are now being made to bring family planning services closer to clients by using local groups and people. A variety of carriers--midwives, health visitors, housewives recruited for the purpose--are taking these services to the villages where most of the 3rd world's population lives. This new approach is often called the "community-based approach" or "community-based distribution of family planning services." The Fund has established a "core program" of population activities.
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  20. 20

    Population assistance since Bucharest: developing a consensus on priorities for population resources, statement made at the International Population Conference, Washington, D.C., 21 November 1975.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1975]. 12 p.

    Population has always been a controversial issue. At the World Population Conference in Bucharest, opposition to what was perceived as western thinking on population was much more deeply rooted than had been thought. There was a great deal of suspicion toward those who wanted to take action to lower population growth rates. This caused much controversy. However, 1 year later, there were indications that individuals on both sides of the issue saw that they had an interest and concern in successful development programs. There have been a number of positive developments in population programs. Family planning programs are taking root in some countries where they previously had not been accepted at all. The demands on the UNFPA have increased beyond the Fund's ability to meet them. Different countries have different priorities and differing views of their population situations. However, these differences should not mean disagreement. The challenge before this World Population Conference is to pool all of the experience and perceptions and arrive at a true consensus which covers practical priorities. Certain principles may be established. These include: 1) an integrated development approach to population; population activities would increasingly be funded along with activities in health education, development, and other such programs. 2) Resources should be concentrated on supporting the most urgent requirements in the developing countries with the greatest need. 3) The Fund should aim at making it possible for recipient countries to meet their own needs as quickly as possible, in order to limit the period of assistance. 4) Special attention should be given to meeting the needs of the most disadvantaged groups.
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  21. 21

    Development is people, statement made at the World Development Information Day, United Nations, New York, 23 October 1975.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1975]. 6 p.

    During the next 30 years, population will grow on an even larger scale. At the World Population Conference in Bucharest, it was decided that population programs should be considered part of the development process. This was a positive acknowledgement by the world that population is an important problem to be acted on in accordance with each country's policy. Discussions and meetings are continually taking place world wide, showing that national views are not irreconcilable. There are wide variations between cultures and ideologies, as can be expected, but there are also enough elements in common to make agreement on priorities likely. Over 100 countries have accepted assistance from the UNFPA and 78 countries support its work with voluntary contributions, which indicates some consensus. Involvement in population activities shows that development is people. Development programs touch the lives of individuals and change them for better or for worse. Each development decision made must have the consent of the people or it is likely to fail. For most people, development means some type of basic security in their lives--be it food, a job, a place to live, or a secure future for their children. By regarding the individual as a resource rather than a libability, development programs have been able to build houses, open schools, provide basic medical care and jobs. A great deal of good can come from international assistance, but in the end it is the countries themselves who must decide their own priorities and supply their own needs. It is for the benefit of all people that discussions such as this, on population, are held. People are both the resources for and the reason for development.
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  22. 22

    Progress and performance: the need for sustained effort, statement made at the Twentieth Session of the UNDP Governing Council, United Nations, Geneva, 19 June 1975.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1975]. 20 p.

    This address undertakes a detailed review of the progress and problems of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), including highlights of recent UNFPA activities, proposals to the Governing Council, and challenges facing the UNFPA. Recent highlights include: the 1st Conference of Population Activities in the Arab States, convened by the League of Arab States; the educational effort centering on 1974 as World Population Year; the marked increase in the rate of project implementation; and the fact that UNFPA receives many more requests than it has the financial resources to deal with. UNFPA is achieving significant progress in all areas. The proposals made to the 20th Session of the UNDP Governing Council cover the suggested new 4-year "Work Plan 1976-79," recommendations for 4 new large scale or innovative projects, and the suggested budget for UNFPA administrative and support services for 1976. The UNFPA has been exploring all possible areas of financing and has tried to widen understanding and support. The Fund has had many encouraging responses and contributions. It is likely that population problems will continue for a very long time. Population issues are linked to all other problems--particularly those of economic and social development. Population matters are also very complex. The challenges confronting population programs and UNFPA are to continue and intensify efforts to develop population awareness, to assist in identifying population problems, and to help to solve those problems as generously and effectively as possible.
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  23. 23

    Population and development in the Arab world, statement made at the League of Arab States Ministerial Conference on Population Activities, Cairo, Egypt, 21 May 1975.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1975]. 11 p.

    This is the text of a speech delivered to the League of Arab States at its first Population Conference in 1975 by Rafael M. Salas, Executive Director of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). 1975 was also the 30th anniversary year for the League and for the United Nations. The 2 organizations have established close ties, especially in the economic and social fields. This is most evident between member states of the League and the UNFPA. This conference on Population will provide both the Fund and the Arab States further opportunity to know more about the types of programs in population being undertaken by the countries in the region. The issue of development in the Arab States is a major concern. The UNFPA believes that development primarily has to do with people. Population and development are interrelated. The UNFPA has recognized that population activities are only one of the means of promoting economic growth and social progress. They cannot be a substitute for development. Effective development planning depends on reliable knowledge about the composition, growth and movement of a population, and knowledge about the relationship between population trends and economic and social factors. Of the 20 members of the League of Arab States, 14 have made financial contributions to the UNFPA in support of its global programming efforts. The Fund itself has provided assistance to 17 of the League members. There are several ways that the 2 organizations can collaborate. The most common is through unrestricted voluntary contributions to the UNFPA. In addition, UNFPA and donor governments can support projects through joint financing, consortium financing, funds in trust and parallel financing. Through this conference it is hoped that the Arab League and UNFPA can reach results that would enable the UNFPA to respond favorably to the needs of the Arab world.
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  24. 24

    Population consensus--the need for a common idiom, statement made at the Royal Institute of International Affairs, Chatham House, London 14 February 1973.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1973]. 11 p.

    Today, international agreement on the fundamental question of the necessity to rationalize the growth of the world's population is increasing. Even countries which a few years ago resolutely opposed any move in the United Nations to support population activities now give at least qualified endorsement to the work of the UNFPA. The following considerations are suggested as a continuing basis for the consensus: 1) the pressure of population on resources is increasingly making development efforts difficult in many parts of the world; 2) it is the responsibility of all governments to take stock of population growth and movements in their countries, and formulate appropriate policy; 3) having determined their policy, governments have the responsibility to devise effective means of delivery of family planning and related services; 4) it is the responsibility of each government to devise responsive channels through which individual needs and desires can make themselves known; 5) each government must recognize the need for international co-operation in research and in the transfer of skills and resources; and 6) there must be a common acceptance that population is part of the wider issue of development and cannot be tackled on its own. The future of UNFPA is outlined in light of these criteria for international consensus.
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  25. 25

    Strengthening the UNFPA, statement made at the Regional Meeting of UNDP Resident Representatives for Africa, Addis Ababa, 18 May 1972.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1972]. 18 p.

    The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) recognizes that much of the success of its activities depends on having the full support and cooperation of the Administrator of UNDP, the Resident Representatives and the United Nations Regional Economic Commissions and looks forward to integrating Fund-supported population work even more closely with the overall economic and social development programs being assisted by the United Nations system. Issues discussed in this statement are: financing; assistance to projects in Africa; the General Assembly Resolution 2815 (XXVI) and recommendations for the implementation of the resolution; UNFPA reorganization; field staff; UNFPA flexibility; country programming; and proposals to improve the implementation of projects funded by UNFPA.
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