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Washington, D.C., Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2013 May.  p.This report tracks the evolution of the MDGs and their impact on global health policy in the Bush and Obama administrations. While the Bush administration had a mixed reaction to the goals, they were embraced by President Obama. Despite the shift, the goals appear to have had little direct effect on global health programming in either administration. Nonetheless, they helped focus resources toward long-standing U.S. priorities including maternal and child health and infectious disease control. As policy makers consider the next wave of priorities, such as universal health coverage and prevention and treatment of noncommunicable diseases, a global consensus beyond the MDGs could help guide an effective response while ensuring the unmet needs associated with the current goals are not forgotten.
Support to mainstreaming AIDS in development. UNAIDS Secretariat strategy note and action framework, 2004-2005.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, . 10 p.Twenty years into the pandemic, there is now ample evidence for the complex linkages between AIDS and development: development gaps increase people's susceptibility to HIV transmission and their vulnerability to the impact of AIDS; inversely, the epidemic itself hampers or even reverses development progress so as to pose a major obstacle to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The growing understanding of this two-way relationship between AIDS and development has led to the insight that, in addition to developing programmes that specifically address AIDS, there is a need to strengthen the way in which existing development programmes address both the causes and effects of the epidemic in each country-specific setting. The process through which to achieve this is called 'Mainstreaming AIDS'. In recognition of this, the 2001 United Nations General Assembly Special Session Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS requires countries to integrate their AIDS response into the national development process, including poverty reduction strategies, budgeting instruments and sectoral programmes. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, .  p.This Toolkit is meant for national youth organizations and/or representatives working with youth. It can be used as a tool to: Assess your country's progress in reaching the WPAY goals; Prioritize your organization's work, based on your findings; Initiate actions at the national level. This Toolkit should be used as a starting point for determining what your government, and civil society, has done to better the lives of young people, since 1995. In addition to providing methods for evaluating this progress, the Toolkit also contains concrete tools to further your youth work. As such, we hope that you will find it both informative and useful, and a good resource for your organization. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 May 5; 369(9572):1499-1501.The World Bank has a new 10-year health strategy. Since its previous health strategy, developed in 1997, the global health landscape has been transformed. International spending on health has increased from about US$7 billion in 2000 to almost $14 billion in 2005. While the Bank used to be the pre-eminent international health-financing agency, spending about $1.5 billion a year on health, it now operates in a more crowded field, with established players, such as WHO, UNICEF, and bilateral donor agencies, and newer players such as the US President's Emergency Fund for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the GAVI Alliance. Unsurprisingly, the Bank has taken a step back to think about its role. In doing so it has prioritised strengthening of health systems, citing expertise in health financing; incentives for health workers; logistical, and financial management; governance of health systems; demand-side interventions,such as conditional cash transfers and reforms for patient choice; sector-wide strategic planning; health-service quality-control; epidemiological surveillance; and public-private collaboration. The Bank also seems intent on establishing itself as the lead global agency for health-systems policy-development, even suggesting that WHO and UNICEF should focus on the technical aspects of disease control and health-facility management. (author's)
Forum for Development Studies. 2005; 32(1):275-283.The article takes as its point of departure the programmatic point developed in the introduction to Ahead of the Curve – that the UN’s role in producing ideas should be contextualised, that is be seen as not only the source of ideas, but the carrier of ideas originating in some other source. The author finds several of the contributions that he has been able to read very strong analytically and empirically. But on some issues a few of the contributions could have been addressing the programmatic point more consciously; one example is population policy. The author also argues that the position of the UN, for instance in the public opinion, is a matter that could have been addressed more extensively in order to measure the impact and the legitimacy of the world organization in a situation where major reorganization of it is on the international agenda. (author's)
Global biodiversity strategy. Guidelines for action to save, study, and use Earth's biotic wealth sustainably and equitably.
Washington, D.C., WRI, 1992. vi, 244 p.Humanity depends on all other forms of life on Earth and its nonliving components including the atmosphere, ocean, bodies of freshwater, rocks, and soils. If humanity is to persist and to develop so that everyone enjoys the most basic of human rights, it must protect the structure, functions, and diversity of the world's natural systems. The World Resources Institute, the World Conservation Union, and the UN Environment Programme have joined together to prepare this strategy for global biodiversity. The first 2 chapters cover the nature and value of biodiversity and losses of biodiversity and their causes. The 3rd chapter presents the strategy for biodiversity conservation which includes the goal of such conservation and its contents and catalysts and 5 actions needed to establish biodiversity conservation. Establishment of a national policy framework for biodiversity conservation is the topic of the 4th chapter. It discusses 3 objectives with various actions to accomplish each objective. Integration of biodiversity conservation into international economic policy is 1 of the 3 objectives of the 5th chapter--creating an international policy environment that supports national biodiversity conservation. Correct imbalances in the control of land and resources is a clear objective in creating conditions and incentives for local biodiversity conservation--the topic of the 6th chapter. The next 3 chapters are devoted to managing biodiversity throughout the human environment; strengthening protected areas; and conserving species, populations, and genetic diversity. The last chapter provides specific actions to improve human capacity to conserve biodiversity including promotion of basic and applied research and assist institutions to disseminate biodiversity information.
[International symposium in the Congreso de los Diputados, Madrid, November 18, 1996] Simposium Internacional en el Congreso de los Diputados, Madrid, 18 de noviembre de 1996.
DIALOGOS. 1997 Jan-Mar; (30):19.An international symposium was held in Madrid in November 1996 to follow up the agreements of the recent international conferences. The symposium was organized in two round tables, the first of which considered reproductive health of women in the context of the international agreements. Data on the reproductive health situations of the Latin American countries and of Spain were compared. The second round table examined the feminization of poverty resulting from development policies. The session called attention to the lack of basic health care and of reproductive health care for poor women in both developed and developing countries. The symposium reflected the need for actions to follow up the international accords and ensure completion of their objectives. Programs to inform members of Parliament concerning reproductive health in development programs are intended in part to assure that the financial needs of reproductive health programs will be met. The International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo estimated the financial needs of reproductive health and population policy programs at US$17 billion, of which US$5.7 billion should be contributed by donor countries. Around 4% of development aid should be assigned to reproductive health.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1993. 16,  p. (E/8,000/1993)This brochure identifies the program policies and activities of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) that conform to the intentions and prescriptions of Agenda 21, the plan adopted at the 1992 Rio International Conference on Environment and Development. The key element of Agenda 21 that applies to the UNFPA's goals is included in chapter 5 of the Agenda on demographic dynamics and sustainability. Nine other chapters include issues that concern UNFPA: chapter 3 on combatting poverty, chapter 6 on promotion of health, chapter 24 on global action for women and sustainable and equitable development, chapter 25 on children and sustainable development, chapter 27 on strengthening nongovernmental organizations for sustainable development, chapter 33 on financial resources, chapter 37 on public awareness, chapter 37 on international cooperation, and chapter 38 on international institutional arrangements. Each is briefly described, but chapter 5 is discussed at some length. Chapter 5 identifies Africa and South Asia as regions where half the population growth and the most severe land degradation will occur. Over the past 30 years UNFPA has mandated and implemented population growth awareness programs. UNFPA contributes to the Agenda 21 mandates of chapter 5 by direct program assistance to governments, nongovernmental organizations, and other international agencies. UNFPA assistance pertaining to population and the environment will focus on research, analysis, and country-specific case study analysis. Furthermore, UNFPA assistance will focus on awareness creation and sensitization, integration of maternal and child health within environmental management projects, and population policy formulation, planning, and training.
POPULATION - FAMILY PLANNING NEWS. 1996 Jan-Jun; (2):3.Following the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the Viet Nam government translated the ICPD Programme of Action into Vietnamese and disseminated it widely. Several workshops were organized; one concerned reproductive health, and another addressed the new priorities required after the ICPD. Senior ministers and officials from the population, health, and economic coordinating and planning ministries, and representatives of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) concerned with women's health and reproductive health attended. A Programme Review and Strategy Development (PRSD) exercise facilitated the delineation of the Viet Nam country program. By the time of the PRSD mission in October 1995, the government had issued updated directions for cooperation between its national agencies and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA); reproductive health, family planning, population and development policy, advocacy, and capacity building were emphasized. These themes are addressed at UNFPA's Fifth Programme of Assistance for Viet Nam (1996-2000). The government is also committed to implementing the ICPD Programme of Action through programs being developed by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID), Deutsche Gesellschafte fur Technische Zumsammenarbeit (German Agency for Technical Cooperation-GTZ), Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau (KfW), and the World Bank. National and international NGOs have focused on gender and reproductive health, adolescent health, women's empowerment, and the integration of programs promoting family planning and combatting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
[Proposal for the world action plan on population] La propuesta del plan de accion mundial sobre poblacion.
REVISTA PERUANA DE POBLACION. 1994; (4):175-9.This article is a five-page description of the proposed Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, September 1994, which was approved at the third preparatory conference in New York in April 1994. The basic feature of the Plan of Action is its respect for the unique conditions of each country. The document contains 16 chapters, including a preamble and a declaration of principles. The third chapter, on population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development, stresses the need to alleviate poverty and improve living conditions. The fourth chapter urges an end to discrimination against women and recognition of the rights of girls. Other chapters contain recommendations regarding the family, population growth and structure, reproductive rights and family planning, morbidity and mortality, the need for better health care, population distribution and migration, and international migration. There are also chapters on population, education, and development; and technology, research, and development. The Plan recommends incorporating population issues into development plans and policies, fostering international cooperation, and collaborating with the nongovernmental sector.
In: ICPPD '94 update. International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, Cairo. Follow up, November 1994. [Cairo, Egypt], International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, 1994 Nov. 3.Dr. Nafis Sadik, executive director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), in her keynote address at the inaugural session of the International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (ICPPD), called upon parliamentarians to implement the ICPD Plan of Action (Cairo). She stressed four tasks: 1) to create awareness among the general public about the relationships between population and sustainable development; 2) to mobilize national support for the allocation of financial resources for population and development programs; 3) to prepare and enact legislation that enables governments to implement the actions and recommendations of the Programme of Action; and 4) to create or improve parliamentary mechanisms to ensure and periodically monitor the activities undertaken in accordance with the Programme of Action. Dr. Sadik stated that the resources committed to population and development programs would have to increase substantially to meet ICPD objectives; the international community would have to increase its assistance to cover one-third of the costs. The US, Japan, and the United Kingdom have already announced that they will substantially increase their support. The four themes of the ICPD Plan of Action discussed at this ICPPD included reproductive health and family planning, empowerment of women, the imperative to reduce mortality rates in developing countries, and resource mobilization.
UNFPA COUNTRY SUPPORT TEAM FOR EAST AND SOUTH-EAST ASIA NEWSLETTER. 1995 May; 3(1):1.The second Consultative Meeting of United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Country Directors (CDs), National Programme Officers (NPOs), and Country Support Team (CST) Advisors for East and Southeast Asia was held in Bangkok, March 20-23, 1995. Participants included the following: 1) all CDs in the subregion (Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam); 2) the NPOs from the countries in which the CD is not resident (Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Mongolia); 3) Mr. Ghazi Farooq (CST Director); 4) members of the CST Bangkok; and 5) senior officials of UNFPA headquarters, including Mr. Jyoti Singh (Deputy Executive Director, Technical Services), Mr. Saad Raheem Sheikh (Director of Asia and the Pacific Division), and Mr. Jurgen Sacklowski (Director of Planning and Coordination Division). Technical backstopping, national capacity building, the program approach, and collaboration between the Field Offices and the CST were discussed at the meeting. New draft policy guidelines and approaches received from UNFPA headquarters on reproductive health and family planning, population and development, gender, IEC, youth, NGOs, basic data collection, and population distribution and migration were presented at the meeting. The implications of the ICPD Programme of Action for the subregion and individual countries, and the current ideas of UNFPA headquarters on its implementation were discussed.
FPAN NEWSLETTER. 1995 Jan-Feb; 15(1):1-3.The International Planned Parenthood Federation/South Asia Region organized a 3-day seminar on Post ICPD Challenges; it was held February 6-8, 1995, in New Delhi, India. 48 participants attended, including Mr. Ram Krishna Neupane (FPA Nepal; Director General), Mr. Prabhat Rana (FPA Nepal; Director, Program Support Services Division), Ms. Prabha Thakkar (Manusi), Ms. Maya Giri (Radio Nepal), and Ms. Ami Joshi (Center for Women in Development). Ms. Avabai B. Wadia, President of the Family Planning Association of India, chaired the inaugural session; Mr. G. Verghees made the inaugural address. Dr. Indira Kapoor (IPPF/ASR; Regional Director), Dr. Pramila Senanayake (IPPF; Assistant Secretary General), and Mrs. Sunetra Puri (IPPF; Director, Public Affairs Department) presented papers on different topics highlighting the linkage between the IPPF VISION 2000 and the ICPD Plan of Action, and the need for a collaborating program in this area. Plenary presentation and discussions were held to provide an overview of plans to take the ICPD forward on women's issues (the empowerment of women, unsafe abortion, sexual and reproductive health). Dr. Ram Krishna Neupane represented Nepalese views in this area. This seminar was the first of its kind to draw together representatives of the media, women's organizations, and service providers; it was successful in eradicating misconceptions regarding the modern methods of contraception, in clarifying the misunderstandings between the media and the service providers, in strengthening commitment, and in preparing a plan of action for each member country in order to implement the ICPD Plan of Action.
POPULI. 1995 Feb; 22(2):9-11.After its third meeting, the Preparatory Committee for the UN World Summit for Social Development had reached agreement on 95% of the prose in the nonbinding documents to be endorsed at the Summit. However, problems remain, including the fact that some 30 nongovernmental organizations and church groups have accused the Social Development documents of backsliding on the women's issues agreed upon at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The 100 heads of state to attend the Social Development Summit are expected to sign a political Declaration and a Programme of Action. The draft Declaration contains commitments to create an "enabling environment" for social and economic progress; to eradicate poverty; to promote full employment; to promote "social integration"; to achieve equality and equity for women; to accelerate economic, social, and human resource development in African and least developed countries; to ensure that structural adjustment programs include social development goals; to increase the resources allocated for social development; and to improve the framework for international cooperation in social development. The draft Programme of Action has chapters on creating an "enabling environment" for social development, on poverty eradication, on employment, on social integration, and on implementation and follow-up. While the language of the draft documents is equivocal in some key areas, they do represent a number of breakthroughs in the areas which they address. One critic contends that the draft documents lack coherent analysis and fail to emphasize that poverty, employment, and social integration are inseparable. It will be difficult to defend a new framework of women's rights, health needs, and empowerment at the Summit because major economic interests will be threatened by this work.
[Population policies: evolution of the position of the Sahelian countries since the Bucharest conference] Politiques de population: evolution de la position des pays Saheliens depuis la conference de Bucarest.
POP SAHEL. 1992 Jul; (Spec No):23-7.This work describes the evolution of population policies and attitudes toward them in the Sahel countries since the 1974 World Population Conference. Recommendations of several important international population conferences in which the Sahelian countries participated are then listed. The Bucharest Conference is widely regarded as the 1st serious attempt at coordinated action on population. The divergent approaches of the developed and developing countries toward population phenomena became obvious at the Conference. The developed countries of the north expected the less developed countries of the south to pledge greater efforts at controlling demographic growth, which they viewed as impeding economic development. The countries of the south on the other hand saw the problem as 1 of unequal distribution of wealth. Many African countries also believed their economic growth would be accelerated by the additional workers they would eventually gain through population growth. Reduced population growth in this view would result from rather than contributing to development. Despite these disagreements, Conference participants adopted the World Population Plan of Action which made 5 recommendations including establishment and promotion of family planning education and services. Numerous countries began to pay greater attention to population variables in their development planning after Bucharest. The Sahel countries participated in the Arusha Conference, a July 1984 meeting of African countries preceding the World Population Conference in Mexico City, and in the Mexico City Conference. The Arusha Conference adopted the "Program of Action of Kilimanjaro Concerning African Population and Autonomous Development", which contained 16 recommendations to governments to recognize the interdependence of demographic factors and development. By the 1984 Mexico City Conference, various events such as the drought, chronic economic problems, and rapid population growth combined to bring about a change in the positions of the Sahel countries. Only Senegal and Gambia described their fertility levels as unacceptably high; the remaining Sahel countries were much more concerned with very high mortality rates. The Mexico City Conference adopted 2 recommendations calling for adoption of mutually supportive demographic and development policies by governments, and for provision of sufficient resources to allow realization of demographic objectives. After Arusha and Mexico City, the Sahel countries held several conferences and seminars to study their demographic problems and the relationships between population variables and development. 1 such conference produced the "Program of Action of Ndjamena", considered the most important regional reference document for development of population policies and programs. The persistence of high fertility and mortality rates and of economic crisis in the Sahel have prompted continuing attention to population variables.
In: Public policies and the misuse of forest resources, edited by Robert Repetto, Malcolm Gillis. Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 1988. 385-410. (World Resources Institute Book)The World Resources Institute has compiled 12 case studies on public policies from developed and developing countries and the misuse of forest resources into 1 book. All of the studies confirm that 3 key products of population growth and rural poverty in developing countries are responsible for deforestation. These products include shifting cultivation, agricultural conversion, and fuelwood gathering. Large development projects also foster forest destruction. Government policies contribute to and exacerbate these pressures which result in inefficient use of natural forest resources. Such policies directly and indirectly undermine conservation, regional development schemes, and other socioeconomic goals. Forestry policies include timber harvest concessions, levels and structures of royalties and fees, utilization of nonwood forests products, and reforestation. Tax incentives, credit subsidies, and resettlement programs comprise examples of nonforestry policies. Trade barriers established by industrialized countries have somewhat encouraged unsuitable investments and patterns of exploitation in forest industries in developing countries. Negotiations between exporting and importing countries within the confines of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA) should strive to reduce tariff escalation and nontariff barriers to processed wood imports from tropical countries and to justify incentives to forest industries in developing countries. These 12 case studies have come to the same conclusion as the UN Food and Agriculture Organization did in 1987: action to conserve forests is needed without delay.