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  1. 1

    Population in the UN's "Agenda for Development".

    United Nations. Secretary General


    Responding to the concern that the United Nations puts greater emphasis on peace-keeping than on issues of development, the UN secretary-general has issued a draft Agenda for Development, paralleling the 1991 Agenda for Peace. It is intended to revitalize the vision of development and to stimulate intensified discussion of all its aspects. The report noted the decline in competitive development assistance with the ending of the Cold War. It announced that development was in crisis and concluded by saying that progress is not inherent in the human condition; retrogression is conceivable. In 245 paragraphs the report discussed five key dimensions of development (peace, economic growth, the environment, justice, and democracy) and the role of the United Nations in promoting development. The Agenda was discussed at a week-long meeting held at UN headquarters in New York in June 1994. A senior OECD official described it as relying too heavily on the orthodox development therapy of marketization, privatization, and democracy; the Group of 77 criticized it for sidestepping the issue of the UN's relationships with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund; and Brazil put forward a competing agenda. Nevertheless, the Agenda did convey a distinctive vision, one that the UN would not have conceived a decade ago. On population the Agenda was extremely reticent, granting that rapid growth would be a potential problem but not discussing antinatalist policy. The principal stress was placed on strengthening civil society as indispensable for social development and public policy. It was reiterated that the United Nations, as a key mechanism for international cooperation, is the best instrument for managing the world situation with a reasonable expectation of success.
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  2. 2

    Recommendations of the Mexico City forum.

    International Forum on Population Policies in Development Planning

    POPULI. 1987; 14(2):45-50.

    Reaffirming the basic principle of sovereignty of nations and reiterating the right of all nations to formulate and implement population and development policies in the light of their own priorities and practical circumstances the Mexico City Forum calls on governments to enhance their commitment at the highest level to the integration of population and development through appropriate political decisions. Recommendations are made regarding: population growth, including raising standards of living, improving the status of women, and reducing infant and child mortality; population distribution, including reduction in the inequities in quality of life, both perceived and actual, between urban and rural areas; and the integration of population and development policy by establishing appropriate institutional frameworks, creating awareness and promoting training and research.
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  3. 3

    Battered dreams: violence against women as an obstacle to development.

    Carrillo R

    New York, New York, United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM], 1992. iii, 38 p.

    Gender violence needs to be exposed and documented more fully as part of shaping programs that will lead toward the human development envisioned by the UN s Development Programme in its series of Human Development Reports. Through this article, the UN Development Fund for Women leads to reconceptualize violence as it affects development. This process is essential in devising a step that will realize a vision of human development that works for women. It is within this context that the importance of Carillo's thesis is examined, asserting that development plans cannot succeed if gender based violence hindering women's participation in development is ignored. Discussion involved violence as part of the development agenda, gender violence as an obstacle to development, and eradication of gender violence. An appendix is attached discussing the UN initiatives relating to violence against women.
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  4. 4

    Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women in Asia and the Pacific.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1987. xii, 282 p. (ST/ESCAP/434.)

    Growing worldwide recognition of the unequal participation of women in development culminated in the declaration of 1975 as International Women's Year and of the subsequent 10 years as the UN Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace (1976-1985). The present report summarizes the progress achieved for and by women in Asia and the Pacific during the UN Decade for Women. This report should be read critically since the coverage of the country responses to the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) questionnaires was uneven. The international attention directed to the issue of women and development spurred the establishment of national machineries for the promotion of women's interests in many of the Asian and Pacific countries where none had existed, and the strengthening of those already active. In Bangladesh, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and New Zealand, the national machinery was formed at the ministerial level. In other countries, a ministry already has the task of advancing women. In other countries, focal points are positioned directly under the leadership of the head of the executive branch. In Afghanistan, China, Mongolia, and Viet Nam the responsibility has been given to the national women's organizations that emerged after radical socio-political transformations. Countries of a 4th group have attached their machineries to a sectoral ministry or organization. During the UN Decade for Women, India, Nepal, Samoa, and Thailand included for the 1st time in their planning history a separate chapter in their national development plans on the integration of women into the development process. India, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand formulated separate national plans of action for the advancement of women. In other countries, including Fiji and Vanuatu, national plans of action were drafted and submitted to their governments by non-governmental women's organizations. 17 ESCAP member countries have signed, ratified, or acceded to the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
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  5. 5

    Foreign assistance in the 1990s and the role of population.

    Baldi P

    [Unpublished] 1988 Apr 12. Paper presented at a colloquium on U.S. International Population Assistance in the 1990s, convened by The Futures Group as part of the Project on Cooperation for International Development: U.S. Policy and Programs for the 1990s and Blueprint for the Environment, April 12, 1988, Washington, D.C. 11 p.

    This article identifies the need for a reformulated foreign assistance program, explores alternatives to the current program, and proposes means of implementing alternatives. Reduced budget resource availability, and the growing support, in the US and abroad, for the concept of ecologically sustainable development highlight the inadequacy of the current US foreign aid program. Sustainable development uses as its guiding principle a goal of "meeting the and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future." Sustainable development should be the foreign policy theme for the '90s, running through every aspect of US foreign assistance, and promoting self-sufficiency and economic viability for developing countries. To obtain this goal a comprehensive redefinition of US foreign assistance and foreign policy objectives is necessary. This redefinition should include a sharper focus for the US Agency for International Development (US AID), under the Foreign Assistance Act, with fewer restrictions and maximum flexibility for design and implementation of projects. The US AID should also stress relationships with other countries in devising plans and dividing up areas of assistance. FUrthermore, technical centers should be the focal point of organization in US AID. Approaches to the implementation of development assistance are discussed, among them--structuring US AID as a grant-giving institution, or as a bilateral or multilateral institution, or diminishing its role and creating an Asian Development Foundation. An approach which would fit with the sustainable development construct is for US AID to target technical areas as well as priority countries. However, each approach has its drawbacks and is driven in part by fund availability. The field of international population and family planning is offered as an example of a successful foreign assistance approach. The factors involved in this model included strong leadership, valuable congressional support, measurability, and flexible approaches, as well as a cadre of trained population officers. An agency focus on ecologically sustainable development includes population programs as a major component.
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  6. 6

    The development of a population policy for Ecuador.

    Moreno de Padilla C; Bilsborrow RE

    [Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 21-23, 1988. 15 p.

    The legal, technical and institutional activities that led to the formation of the population policy in Ecuador, the 2nd such policy articulated in South America, are recounted, followed by a summary of the demographic situation in the country. The 1st national planning board and those that followed up to the current Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo (CONADE) have addressed the topic of population. The current development plan specifies the objective of determining a population policy. The population policy fixes 7 general objectives, involving support of family and women, reduction of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality, moderation of population growth, provision of employment and redistribution of wealth. There are 6 strategies: education, health and nutrition programs, family planning services, rural development, employment, research, better use of human resources, especially women and the elderly, and incorporation of demographics in national planning. 3 international organizations have aided the formation of this policy, the UNFPA, CELADE and USAID. USAID supported the 1st demographic analysis unit in a planning agency in Ecuador, with the RAPID II computer program, creating a technical infrastructure for the eventual policy. Another influence was that of the Vice President who made the political commitment to develop a specific national population policy by 1987.
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  7. 7

    The population policy process in Liberia.

    Howard J; Massalee A; Gadegbeku P; Lacey L

    [Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 21-23, 1988. 11 p.

    The process Liberia used to develop its population policy, called the National Policy on Population for Social and economic Development, is summarized. 4 international conferences were influential in stimulating the process, the World Population Conference in Bucharest, the Second African Population Conference in 1984, the Mexico City International Conference on Population, and the Kilimanjaro Program of Action for African Population and Self-reliant Development. Several international agencies also furthered the process, USAID and its project "Resources for the Awareness of Population Impacts (RAPID II computer model), and the Pathfinder Fund. Liberia was ripe for a population policy as shown by the existence of the private Family Planning Association of Liberia, the inclusion of broad demographic goals in the second Four-Year development plan of 1981-1985, and the establishment of the National Committee on Population Activities in 1983. This group participated in international congresses, took part in the RAPID II project, and held a Population Awareness Seminar which generated 22 recommendations in 1985. A second awareness seminar in 1986 set out 16 recommendations and produced a film with Johns Hopkins University. A National Population Commission was inaugurated in 1986 and assigned the task of drafting the population policy. A seminar was held, and a Special Drafting Committee was nominated. This policy has 8 explicit chapters. A Population Week was celebrated in 1987 to disseminate the policy. A Bureau of Population Planning and Coordination under the Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs is responsible for coordinating population activities.
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  8. 8

    Case studies in population policy: Malaysia.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. vi, 45 p. (Population Policy Paper No. 14; ST/ESA/SER.R/80)

    The formulation, implementation and evaluation of population policies in Malaysia is the focus of this case study by the Population Division of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs of the UN. The introduction presents the historical background and socioeconomic conditions of Malaysia, with explanations of past and present population and development policy. The demographic setting is examined in the next section, which explains historical and current demographic trends based on fertility, age, birth, death, and nuptiality rates. Population policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation up to 1984 comprises the 2nd section of the report. Tables provide statistical information regarding birth rates, types of evaluation tools, and trends in family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices. The final section addresses population policy and program direction since 1984. A rationale for a new policy is offered, as well as demographic targets, reactions to the new policy, and suggestions for coordination and monitoring plans. The concluding section summarizes the goals of the comprehensive population policy, and outlines the government's efforts toward that objective.
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  9. 9

    State of world population 1987.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    In: UNFPA: 1986 report, [by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1987. 6-31.

    The implications of population growth and prospects for the future are examined in a 1987 UNFPA report on the state of world population. Demographic patterns in developed and developing countries are compared, as well as life expectancy and mortality rates. Although most countries have passed the stage of maximum growth, Africa's growth rate continues to increase. Changes in world population size are accompanied by population distribution and agricultural productivity changes. On an individual level, the fate of Baby 5 Billion is examined based on population trajectories for a developing country (Kenya, country A), and a developed country of approximately the same size (Korea, country B). The report outlines the hazards that Baby 5 Billion would face in a developing country and explains the better opportunities available in country B. Baby 5 Billion is followed through adolescence and adulthood. Whether the attainment of 5 billion in population is a threat or a triumph is questioned. Several arguments propounding the beneficial social, economic, and environmental effects of unchecked population growth are refuted. In addition, evidence of the serious consequences of deforestation and species extinction is presented. The report concludes with an explanation of the developmental, health and economic benefits of vigorous population control policies, especially in developing countries.
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  10. 10

    An examination of the population structure of Liberia within the framework of the Kilimanjaro and Mexico City Recommendations on Population and Development: policy implications and mechanism.

    Howard J

    In: The 1984 International Conference on Population: the Liberian experience, [compiled by] Liberia. Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs. Monrovia, Liberia, Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs, [1986]. 111-36.

    The age and sex composition and distribution of the population of Liberia as affected by fertility, mortality, morbidity, migration, and development are examined within the framework of the Kilimanjaro Program of Action and recommendations of the International Conference on Population held in Mexico City. The data used are projections (1984-85) published in the 2nd Socio-Economic Development Plan, 1980. The population of Liberia is increasing at the rate of 3.5% and will double in 23.1 years. 60% of the population is under 20 and 2% over 75. Projected life expectancy is 55.5 years for women and 53.4 years for men. The population is characterized by high age dependency; 47.1% of the people are under 15 and 2.9% are over 64, so that half of the population consists of dependent age groups, primarily the school-age children (6-11 years). If these children are to enter the labor force, it is estimated that 19,500 jobs will have to be created to employ them. Moreover, fertility remains at its constant high level (3.5%), so, as mortality declines, the economic problem becomes acute. Furthermore, high fertility is accompanied by high infant and maternal mortality. High infant mortality causes couples in rural areas to have more children. These interdependent circumstances point up the need for family planning, more adequate health care delivery systems, and increasing the number of schools to eradicate illiteracy, which is currently at 80%. Integrated planning and development strategies and appropriate allotment of funds must become part of the government's policy if the Kilimanjaro and Mexico City recommendations are to be implemented.
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  11. 11

    Changing perspectives of population in Africa and international responses.

    Sai FT

    [Unpublished] 1987. 13, [3] p.

    Africa's colonial legacy is such that countries contain not only a multiplicity of nations and languages, but their governments operate on separate cultural and linguistic planes, remnants of colonial heritage, so that neighboring peoples often have closed borders. Another problem is poor demographic data, although some censuses, World Fertility Surveys, Demographic Sample Surveys and Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys have been done. About 470 million lived in the region in 1984, growing at 3% yearly, ranging from 1.9% in Burkina to 4.6% in Cote d'Ivoire. Unique in Africa, women are not only having 6 to 8.1 children, but they desire even larger families: Senegalese women have 6.7 children and want 8.8. This gloomy outlook is reflected in the recent history of family planning policy. Only Ghana, Kenya and Mauritius began family planning in the 1960s, and in Kenya the policy failed, since it was begun under colonial rule. 8 countries made up the African Regional Council for IPPF in 1971. At the Bucharest Population Conference in 1974, most African representatives, intellectuals and journalists held the rigid view that population was irrelevant for development. Delegates to the Kilimanjaro conference and the Second International Conference on Population, however, did espouse the importance of family planning for health and human rights. And the Inter-Parliamentary Union of Africa accepted the role of family planning in child survival and women's status. At the meeting in Mexico in 1984, 12 African nations joined the consensus of many developing countries that rapid population growth has adverse short-term implications on development. Another 11 countries allow family planning for health and human rights, and a few more accept it without stating a reason. Only 3 of 47 Sub-Saharan nations state pro-natalist policies, and none are actively against family planning.
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  12. 12

    Small business development: who pays?

    Hellinger D

    WORLD EDUCATION REPORTS. 1985 Nov; (24):7-9.

    This article traces the trends in the aid community towards income generation and small business projects in developing countries since the 1950s. 1 of the great weakness of the development assistance community in the area of income generation remains the lack of analysis of population differentiation in the communities in which they work. A very different approach to the problem of the informal sector and income generation is one that responds directly to the needs of poor communities. Institutions working within poor communities and supporting multi-sectoral development while strengthening local organizations are much better situated to respond to the diverse needs of the community than are single-sector organizations with only 1 skill or service to offer. To assist significant numbers of poor people, particularly women, grouping of some sort is essential. This is not to say that group enterprise development is an easy process. The intensive and costly organizational and management assistance required to prepare a poor group for credit must be weighed along with the potential for creating a basis of long-range change within the community. To work with individual family enterprizes in a community can also have important social and economic effects, although the long-range impact may be more limited. Today, more than ever, the poor face the challenge of creating new survival mechanisms within their communities. Development agencies and assistance programs have the responsibility to help rather than hinder this process.
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  13. 13

    Evaluation of the Resources for Awareness of Population in Development (RAPID II) Project.

    McGreevey WP; Bergman E; Godwin K; Sanderson W

    [Unpublished] 1986 Aug. 71, [45] p. (AID Contract No. DPE-3024-C-00-4063-00)

    The evaluation of the Resources for Awareness of Population in Development (RAPID II) Project was initiated on June 18, 1985, 25 months into the project operation, to determine if the results of actions undertaken thus far have been adequate to justify the time and money spent on them and to find ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the program efforts. The objective of the 5-year RAPIDS II project is to assist those involved in development planning to better understand the relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development and thereby increase the less developed country (LDC) commitment to efforts designed to reduce rapid rates of population increase. This evaluation report discusses the development assistance context and then focuses on the following: RAPID II operations over the 1984-85 period; policy analyses and LDC subcontracting; the RAPID model and its presentation; visits by the evaluation team to the countries of the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Cameroon, and Liberia; what works in terms of population policy development; some major problems and potential resolutions; and RAPID II activities over the 1985-88 period. US Agency for International Development (USAID) officials in Washington as well as in the field described RAPID II as being of continuing utility in helping to create a climate favorable to more effective population policies. The review of RAPID II activities was generally positive. The project was identified as useful in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Due to the evidence of satisfactory performance in the field, the evaluation focused on differences between plan and midterm results with a view toward suggesting course corrections that can improve project performance. As population policy development is an inherently ambiguous field of activity, it has not been possible to draw clear lines between specific policy development activities and policy change in particular countries. Yet, there has been an improvement in the environment for population programs in LDCs. There were significant differences between planned and actual expenditures under the several subcategories of project expenditure. RAPID II total expenditures in the first 2 years of the project equalled budgeted expenditures when the contract was signed, but the distribution of expenditures by category was substantially different from what had been anticipated. It is recommended that emphasis in the project must shift predominantly to policy analyses (80% of remaining funds) and that that RAPID-style presentation resources (20%) be used carefully for only the highest priority requests. In regard to development of LDC subcontracts for policy analysis, efficiency has been low.
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  14. 14

    A.I.D.'s experience with selected employment generation projects.

    Bowles WD

    [Washington, D.C.], U.S. Agency for International Development, 1988 Mar. xix, 90 p. (A.I.D Evaluation Special Study No. 53)

    This report is based on an examination of over 30 projects designated as "employment generation" in as many countries during the period from the early 1970s to 1982 sponsored by USAID. The focus is on the policy environment of these projects, building on a World Bank study that highlights the positive relationship between growth, equity, and an economy relatively free of distortions in foreign exchange, factor, and product pricing. 1 major conclusion must be stressed: the policy environment is the single most important determinant of project success. Although not examined directly in the study, 3 related suggestions can be gleaned from the overall economic background of the economies examined. 1) The administrative environment (contract laws, public accountancy, ease of entry into business, "honest weights and measures," and the like) can reduce the effectiveness of projects in otherwise supportive policy environments. 2) The continued provision and expansion of social overhead capital, such as education and health, is an important foundation for the expansion of the private sector. 3) The informal sector exhibits extraordinary vitality, and further attempts should be made by USAID to understand that vitality may pay large dividends in future USAID programming. Rapid population growth and policy distortions that have weakened both the formal and informal sectors of the economies of developing countries have retarded a transformation in the sectorial structure of the labor force. As a result, vast numbers of people remain in low-productivity agricultural, off-farm, and urban activities. They need to be moved into productive employment, which is the major link between growth and equity.
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  15. 15

    Human rights, population ethics and the Third World: sources of moral conflict in international population policies.

    Sharpless J

    Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1987. 47, [6] p. (CDE Working Paper 87-10)

    This philosophical essay considers the basis of moral issues inherent in national and international population policies, largely based on U.N. texts. The basic definition of any moral stance on population policy depends on 1) how the problem is defined; 2) the nature of the feasible alternative courses of action proposed to resolve the problem; and 3) how the proposed actions will affect people's lives and property, broadly defined. Questions of cost versus benefit, ends and means, distributive justice and individual versus the commonality then arise. A brief history of the current world population situation is given. The development of the world's political understanding of the population problem, and the recent U.S. policy responses follow. A majority of the most populous and rapidly growing nations admit to their growth statistics and have instituted population policies. There are several distinct ideological groups that reject the notion of a population crisis, notably Marxists, Catholics, conservative political economists and some radical feminists. Certain middle-of-the-road theorists believe that the moderate population problem will resolve itself once the socioeconomic structure is developed. Resolution of moral dilemmas resulting from alternative visions of the population "problem" or "crisis" usually takes the form of a discussion of human rights. U.N. pronouncements on this issue have evolved from silence to the current view that each family has the right to knowledge and means to space and limit family size. A UNESCO publication even extends and specifies this right as the domain of the woman of the family. The rights of future generations are implicit in population ethics, but these are not articulated in the literature. Finally, UN texts imply rights of each nation (but not necessarily of actual national or ethnic groups within nations) to specify population policy. It should be appreciated that most of the non-western world does not have a tradition of individual rights, but rather communal rights. Most of the UN statements are based on European values. Simply to invoke the concept of "basic human rights" does not resolve moral issues.
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  16. 16

    USAID in Nepal.

    Weiss D

    FRONT LINES. 1987 Sep; 27(8):8-9, 11.

    The USAID's mission in Nepal is to assist development until the people can sustain their own needs: although the US contributes only 5% of donor aid, USAID coordinates donor efforts. The mission's theme is to emphasize agricultural productivity, conserve natural resources, promote the private sector and expand access to health, education and family planning. Nepal, a mountainous country between India and Tibet, has 16 million people growing at 2.5% annually, and a life expectancy of only 51 years. Only 20% of the land is arable, the Kathmandu valley and the Terai strip bordering India. Some of the objectives include getting new seed varieties into cultivation, using manure and compost, and building access roads into the rural areas. Rice and wheat yields have tripled in the '80s relative to the yields achieved in 1970. Other ongoing projects include reforestation, irrigation and watershed management. Integrated health and family planning clinics have been established so that more than 50% of the population is no more than a half day's walk from a health post. The Nepal Fertility Study of 1976 found that only 2.3% of married women were using modern contraceptives. Now the Contraceptive Retail Sales Private Company Ltd., a social marketing company started with USAID help, reports that the contraceptive use rate is now 15%. Some of the other health targets are control of malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, leprosy, acute respiratory infections, and malnutrition. A related goal is raising the literacy rate for women from the current 12% level. General education goals are primary education teacher training and adult literacy. A few descriptive details about living on the Nepal mission are appended.
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  17. 17

    Some speculation on the challenges of the next decades for the Population Commission.

    Bourgeois-Pichat J


    After a brief summary of the development of the terms of reference of the Population Commission, future activities are projected. In the near term the commission may be preparing for another world population conference in 1994, and increasing its oversight of population programs not only within but also outside the UN system. It may augment its role in reviewing all of the UN population activities, requesting that an overview be prepared, not merely as a series of reports on individual activities but as an analysis of the entire work of the system, organized by demographic subject area. In addition to reviewing reports on multilateral population assistance and the population activities of the UN family, the Commission may review a report on international bodies outside the UN. Although the Commission has become the best-informed world body concerning the world demographic situation, more of that information must be made available to governments, e.g. by developing and maintaining a permanent demographic encyclopedia utilizing worldwide experts, working under Commission direction. The encyclopedia should be available in the world's major languages and computer-accessible. Also, the Commission could direct the preparation of a biennial document providing an authoritative description of the world population's state, addressing major concerns and presenting findings in a way accessible to all. These tasks could be the major elements of the work of the Commission during the 1st quarter of the next century. Projections beyond that must be tentative, but it would seem reasonable to expect that someday the Commission may have to wrestle with the problem of shrinking national populations, composed of individuals with active lifespans longer than those prevalent today. Ultimately, the Commission may be concerned with the demography of human populations living outside the bounds of the planet earth. In fact, it is not unthinkable that in some distant future the concept of population and the interest of the Commission may be applied to beings presently unknown to mankind.
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  18. 18

    The early years of the Population Commission.

    Hauser PM


    Attention is focused on the work of the Population Commisision in the 1st decade after its establishment, in 1946. The 1st Commission, composed of 12 respected professionals in demography and related fields, drew up a set of recommendations which largely formed the agenda of the Commission at its next 5 sessions. In the 1st decade of the Commission a significant number of countries had not taken a census and lacked accurate vital statistics. Nevertheless, the Commission members were well aware of demographic levels and trends in both the developed and the developing countries. Therefore, the Commission emphasized assistance to governments in developing their own demographic data. But it was also concerned with exploring interrelationships between population and various aspects of economic and social development. Despite basic differences among the delegates, relating to both population theory and policy, a concensus was achieved on many important matters, especially those relating to the improvement of demographic data, technical assistance, and the training of demographers. The legacy of publications from the 1st decade, such as "The Determinants and Consequences of Population Trends" (1953), attests to the productivity of the population division and the quality of the direction provided by the Population Commission. However, the Secretariat also responded to requests from other bodies and exercised its own initiative in addressing problems deemed of general interest. (author's modified)
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  19. 19

    Development co-operation, 1986 review: efforts and policies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee.

    Wheeler JC

    Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 1986. 292 p.

    The 1986 annual report details the efforts and policies of the Development Assistance Committee members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (DECD). Part 1 provides an overview of development assistance by region and ways it might be improved as well as a chapter on Africa's long-term prospects. Part 2 covers current trends and policy issues in official development assistance, including volume trends and prospects, basic priorities, shifts in geographic and functional aid distribution, financial terms of aid, environmental concerns, and the role of women in development. Individual countries' assistance is covered as well as multilateral agencies. Part 3 deals with improving aid effectiveness through strengthened aid co-ordination and better policies. Separate sections cover improved development policies and coordination, technical assistance in support of improved economic management capacity, cooperation in agricultural development, and cooperation for improved energy sector management. Part 4 reviews trends in external resource flows to Sub-Saharan Africa. Annexes detail good procurement practices for official development assistance and the recommendations of the Council of the DECD on the environment and development assistance.
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  20. 20

    Foreign assistance legislation for fiscal years 1984-85. (Part 1) Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-eighth Congress, first session, February 8, 15, 16, 22, 23, 24; March 24, 1983.

    United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on Foreign Affairs

    Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1984. 666 p. (Serial No. 18-1870)

    This report of hearings before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs contains reports to the full committee and subcommittees on international security and scientific affairs, Europe and the Middle East, Human Rights and International Organizations, Asian and Pacific Affairs, International Policy and Trade, Western Hemisphere Affairs, and Africa. The committee examined various witnesses on a list of topics that included developing country debt, the world food situation and the promotion of US agricultural export, the fiscal year 1984 security and development corporation program, and the executive branch request for foreign military assistance. The list continues with Peace Corps requests for 1984-85, information in a statement from the acting director of the Agency for International Development, International Monetary Fund resources, and world financial stability, and US interests (particularly regarding developing country debt). The committee examined a series of prepared statements and witnesses discussing foreign aid by type and strategy, and examined the question of "targeted aid" to the extremely poor. Cooperative development, the Peace Corps budget, the ethical issues of military versus development assistance, "food for work" program merits, disaster relief, maternal and child health programs, and finally, an examination of the problem of population. Written statements and responses to committee and witness questions were from the National Association of Manufacturers, US Department of Agriculture, Agency for International Development, Peace Corps, Department of the Treasury, Interreligious Task Force on US food Policy, American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service, CARE, the Population Crisis Committee, and the Population Institute.
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  21. 21

    International Youth Year: participation, development, peace, report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    [Unpublished] 1981 Jun 19. 46 p. (A/36/215)

    The Advisory Committee for the International Youth Year, established by the General Assembly of the UN in 1979, met in Vienna, Austria, from March 30-April 7, 1981 to develop a program of activities to be undertaken prior to and during the UN designated 1985 International Youth Year; this report contains the draft program of activities adopted by the committee at the 1981 meeting. The activities of the International Youth Year will be undertaken at the national, regional, and international level; however, the major focus of the program will be at the national level. Program themes are development, peace, and participation. The objectives of the program are to 1) increase awareness of the many problems relevant to today's youth, (e.g., the rapid increase in the proportion of young people in the population; high youth unemployment; inadequate education and training opportunities; limited educational and job opportunities for rural youth, poor youth, and female youth; and infringements on the rights of young people); 2) ensure that social and economic development programs address the needs of young people; 3) promote the ideals of peace and understanding among young people; and 4) encourage the participation of young people in the development and peace process. Program guidelines at the national level suggest that each country should identify the needs of their young people and then develop and implement programs to address these needs. A national coordinating committee to integrate all local programs should be established. Specifically each nation should 1) review and update legislation to conform with international standards on youth matters, 2) develop appropriate educational and training programs, 3) initiate action programs to expand nonexploitive employment opportunities for young people, 4) assess the health needs of youth and develop programs to address the special health needs of young people, 6) transfer money from defense programs to programs which address the needs of young people, 7) expanding social services for youths, and 8) help young people assume an active role in developing environmental and housing programs. Activities at the regional and international level should be supportive of those at the national level. At the regional level, efforts to deal with youth problems common to the whole region will be stressed. International efforts will focus on 1) conducting research to identify the needs of young people, 2) providing technical assistance to help governments develop and institute appropriate policies and programs, 3) monitoring the program at the international level, 4) promoting international youth cultural events, and 5) improving the dissemination of information on youth. Young people and youth organizations will be encouraged to participate in the development and implementation of the program at all levels. Nongovernment agencies should help educate young people about development and peace issues and promote the active participation of youth in development programs. The success of the program will depend in large measure on the effective world wide dissemination of information on program objectives and activities. A 2nd meeting of the advisory committee will convene in Vienna in 1982 to assess progress toward implementing the adopted program. A 3rd and final meeting in 1985 will evaluate the entire program. This report contains a list of all the countries and organizations which participated in the meeting as well as information on program funding.
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  22. 22

    The least developed countries: introduction to the LDCs and to the substantial new programme of action for them.

    Sottas E

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1985. ix, 157 p. (TAD/INF/PUB/84.2)

    This study presents an overview of the least developed countries (LDCs) in the context of the efforts of the international community, through the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) to initiate the Substantial New Program of Action (SNPA). The SNPA, guided by the concept of the right to development of every country, no matter how poor, was unanimously adopted in 1981 as a 10 year plan to assist LDCs achieve sustained and self reliant development through their own national programs, with financial aid from donor countries. Chapter I describes the problem as a whole and its various sectors: agriculture, threats to food security, technological revolution and self-reliance, fisheries, stockfarming and forestry, manufacturing, energy, transport, and social problems. Chapter II descibes ongoing or planned structural reforms to deal with these problems, and the aid essential to carry them out. Chapter III deals, case by case, with the 36 LDCs, providing statistics and a short account of each country's situation, its geographical, economic, social and administrative conditions, and national programs or plans. The full text of the SNPA is given in an annex.
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  23. 23

    Fording the stream.

    Otero M

    World Education Reports. 1985 Nov; (24):15-7.

    In the last decade we have come to radically redefine our understanding of how women fit into the socioeconomic fabric of developing countries. At least 2 factors have contributed to this realignment in our thinking. 1st, events around the UN Decade for Women dramatized women's invisibility in development planning, and mobilized human and financial resources around the issue. 2nd, the process of modernization underway in all developing countries has dramatically changed how women live and what they do. In the last decade, more and more women have become the sole providers and caretakers of the household, and have been forced to find ways to earn income to feed and clothe their families. Like many other organizations, USAID, in its current policy, emphasizes the need to integrate women as contributors to and beneficiaries of all projects, rather than to design projects specifically geared to women. Integrating women into income generation projects requires building into every step of a project--its design, implementation and evaluation--mechanisms to assure that women are not left out. The integration of women into all income generating projects is still difficult to implement. 4 reasons are suggested here: 1) resistance on the part of planners and practitioners who are still not convinced that women contribute substantially to a family's income; 2) few professionals have the expertise necessary to address the gender issue; 3) reaching women may require a larger initial investment of project funds; and 4) reaching women may require experimenting with approaches that will fit into their village or urban reality.
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  24. 24

    [A convergence of objectives at the International Conference on Population] Convergenza di abiettivi alla Conferenza mondiale sulla popolazione

    Golini A

    Politica Internazionale. 1985 Feb; 13(2):66-73.

    A review of events at the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico in 1984, is presented. The author notes that despite the introduction of political issues that defied consensus, there was general agreement on the need to limit global population growth by a combination of measures designed to promote development and reduce fertility simultaneously. Changes in U.S. population policy are described. (ANNOTATION)
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  25. 25

    The uses of demographic knowledge for policies and planning in developing countries: problems and issues

    Urzua R

    Iussp Newsletter/Bulletin de Liaison. 1985 Jan-Aug; (23-24):99-120.

    The author discusses some issues involved in the use of demographic knowledge for policy development and planning in developing countries. The literature concerning factors affecting the uses of knowledge by policymakers is reviewed. The dissemination of knowledge at the international and national levels is examined, with a focus on technical assistance organizations, especially U.N. demographic centers, and on national population institutions. (ANNOTATION)
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