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Your search found 39 Results

  1. 1
    316667

    Health in Brazil and Latin America: The UN millennium goals and the role of nursing.

    Mendes IA

    2004 Nov-Dec; 12(6):847.

    The Millennium Goals were defined by the United Nations Organization in 2000 and approved by consensus during the Millennium Summit, a meeting that joined 147 heads of State. These goals reflect increasing concerns about the sustainability of the planet and about the serious problems affecting humanity. Constituted by a set of eight goals to be reached by 2015, they refer to the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, universal access to basic education, gender equality promotion, infant mortality reduction, maternal health improvement, fight against HIV/Aids and other illnesses, guarantee of environmental sustainability and the establishment of a global partnership for development. Sustainability and development are closely linked to health and imply joint actions by States and civil society in the attempt to minimize the influence of the huge gap that exists between countries and persons. Thus, health and particularly nursing professionals' actions are paramount and can lead to local actions with regional, national and international impacts. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    303323

    Producing the poor: The World Bank's new discourse of domination.

    Pithouse R

    African Sociological Review. 2003; 7(2):[26] p..

    This essay seeks to investigate the World Bank's representation of the poor via a close reading of The Bank's Voices of the Poor and a critical comparison between this book and Ashwin Desai's We Are the Poors. The essay argues that The Bank's book is an attempt to represent the majority of humanity as The Poor and that this othering produces The Poor as a category of people who are politically inert, largely responsible for their own circumstances and whose suffering justifies the position and work of The Bank and other social forces with similar agendas. The essay also suggests that there are familial connections between this project and colonial discourses that sought to other people via a process of racialisation. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    298653

    Africa and its diaspora: organizing and institutional issues.

    Akukwe C; Jammeh S; Foote M

    Chimera. 2004 Spring; 2(1):26-30.

    The need to organize a durable partnership between Africa and its people in the Diaspora is so obvious as to warrant little discussion. However, every partnership, even among blood relations, requires a clear raison d'etre. Why should a Brazilian-African become interested in South Africa's politics or economy? Why should a Nigerian unemployed university graduate believe that it is in his best interest to nurture a relationship with the Diaspora in the Caribbean? Why should a Senegalese-French citizen pay attention to the status of African-Americans in the United States? Why should a recent immigrant in the United States become involved in Africa-Diaspora partnership issues? Why should an inner city Diaspora family in the United States or Britain show interest in the political reforms in Kenya? These questions are neither rhetorical nor amenable to easy responses. At the core of the organizing issue in Africa-Diaspora partnership is the need to define a clear, unambiguous reason for this relationship. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    186943

    Engendering development? Women in Development (WID) in international development regimes.

    Chowdhry G

    In: Feminism / postmodernism / development, edited by Marianne H. Marchand and Jane L. Parpart. London, England, Routledge, 1995. 26-41.

    This chapter will demonstrate that the so-called WID regime, as implemented by international development agencies, has its origin in two distinct yet overlapping strands of modernist discourse: the colonial discourse and the liberal discourse on markets. The colonial discourse based on the economic, political, social and cultural privileging of European peoples, homogenizes and essentializes the Third World and Third World women. The liberal discourse on markets, based on a negative view of freedom, promotes free markets, voluntary choices and individualism. Its epistemological premises and practical implementations disempower Third World nations in the international political economy. Moreover, as it intersects with colonial discourse, liberal discourse paradoxically tends to disempower poor Third World women (despite its stated objective of helping women to "develop"). In this chapter I argue that this disempowerment of Third World women is exemplified and embodied by the WID regime, because it is situated at the intersection of these two (modernist) discourses. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    184565

    Shaping population and development strategies.

    Nizamuddin M

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 189-210.

    This chapter addresses the full range of policies and programmes that bear directly on population patterns and trends and that guide and strengthen interventions in the broad field of population. While we will consider the impact of deliberate efforts to promote countries' adoption of national population policies, the adoption of formal population policies is but one facet of the much broader process of developing and implementing policies and programmes that guide and support population activities. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    184561

    The Cairo imperative: how ICPD forged a new population agenda for the coming decades.

    Sai FT

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 113-135.

    The remarkable originality and achievements of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo in September 1994, have sometimes been disregarded in the years since. Most fair-minded people acknowledge that ICPD succeeded in its main aims. But for those of us who participated in earlier population conferences and in the preparations for Cairo, it can be said to have succeeded beyond our wildest dreams -- in terms of its intent and programmatic content at least. In addition, it helped mobilize the population, health, women's rights and allied communities to shape a broad agenda for the population and related development fields for the next two decades. Of the three international conferences organized by the United Nations to help build world consensus on the need to address population issues, ICPD was by far the most successful, measured by numbers attending, levels and quality of delegates, international media attention, and the quality of the final consensus -- and an important watershed. After long preparation and vigorous debate, more than 180 countries agreed to adopt the 16-chapter ICPD Programme of Action. The 115-page document outlines a 20-year plan to promote sustainable, human-centred development and a stable population, framing the issues with broad principles and specific actions. The Cairo Programme of Action was not simply an updating of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA), agreed to at Bucharest and revised at Mexico City, but an entirely fresh and original programme, calling for a major shift in strategies away from demographic goals and towards more individual human welfare and development ones. ICPD was the largest intergovernmental conference on population ever held: 11,000 representatives from governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations agencies and intergovernmental agencies participated, 4,000 NGOs held a parallel forum, and there was unprecedented media attention. ICPD was not just a single event, but an entire process culminating in the Cairo meeting. There were six expert group meetings, and regional conferences in Bali, Dakar, Geneva, Amman and Mexico City. There were many formal and informal NGO meetings and three official Preparatory Committee (PrepCom) meetings. Other crucial influences came from the 1987 Safe Motherhood Conference, the 1990 World Summit for Children, the 1990 Jomtien World Conference on Education for All, and the 1993 Vienna Conference on Human Rights. (author's)
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  7. 7
    184560

    Broadening partnerships.

    Weerakoon B

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 95-112.

    This chapter will seek to review and assess, both globally and nationally, UNFPA's experience thus far in encouraging and building partnerships, analysing and reflecting on some of the successes as well as on the constraints and challenges that exist in broadening partnerships. It will also attempt to explore some specific measures that may be taken to nurture and protect effective partnerships that will endure over time. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    184558

    Fostering compliance with reproductive rights.

    Cook RJ

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 47-80.

    This chapter explains the various mechanisms for fostering compliance with different rights relating to reproductive and sexual health, and explores programming options for fostering such compliance. The chapter is not exhaustive, but exploratory; recognizing that much more discussion is needed to address this issue adequately. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    184564

    Population, resources and the environment: struggling towards sustainability.

    Hinrichsen D

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 175-188.

    This analysis looks at the United Nations Population Fund's (UNFPA's) work in the area of population-environment-development linkages. It then analyses the collective effects of 6 billion people, their consumption patterns, and resource use trends, in six different critical resource areas. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    184557

    Implementing the reproductive health approach.

    Fathalla MF

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 24-46.

    The solemn commitment that was made in Cairo in 1994 to make reproductive health care universally available was a culmination of efforts made by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and all those concerned about a people-centred and human rights approach to population issues. The commitment posed important challenges to national governments and the international community, to policy makers, programme planners and service providers, and to the civil society at large. The role of UNFPA in building up the consensus for the reproductive health approach before Cairo had to continue after Cairo if the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) were to be achieved. UNFPA continues to be needed to strengthen the commitment, maintain the momentum, mobilize the required resources, and help national governments and the international community move from word to action, and from rhetoric to reality. Reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, is now one of three major programme areas for UNFPA. During 1997, reproductive health accounted for over 60 per cent of total programme allocations by the Fund. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    181862
    Peer Reviewed

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene at Kyoto.

    Curtis V; Cairncross S

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2003 Jul 5; 327:3-4.

    One promising strategy is to market sanitation and handwashing as if they were consumer products like cars or shampoo. Consumers see the building of a toilet as a home improvement not as a health intervention. Equally they use soap to make hands look, feel, and smell good, not to prevent sickness. Public money could be spent on marketing hygiene and toilets, thus generating demand that can then be met by the private sector. The private sector also knows how to generate behaviour change through marketing. If consumer demand for hygiene and toilets can be stimulated with the help of the private sector, public funds can be liberated to support public infrastructure and to help the very poorest who cannot afford to adopt new technologies. This approach is being tested in six countries, where public-private partnerships between soap companies, governments, and agencies such as theWorld Bank aim to increase rates of handwashing with soap massively (www.globalhandwashing.org). (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    061213

    Health research: essential link to equity in development.

    Commission on Health Research for Development

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1990. xix, 136 p.

    The Commission on Health Research for Development is an independent international consortium formed in 1987 to improve the health of people in developing countries by the power of research. This book is the result of 2 years of effort: 19 commissioned papers, 8 expert meetings, 8 regional workshops, case studies of health research activities in 10 developing countries and hundreds of individual discussions. A unique global survey examined financing, locations and promotion of health research. The focus of all this work was the influence of health on development. This book has 3 sections: a review of global health inequities and why health research is needed; findings of country surveys, health research financing, selection of topics and promotion; conclusions and recommendations. Some research priorities are contraception and reproductive health, behavioral health in developing countries, applied research on essential drugs, vitamin A deficiency, substance abuse, tuberculosis. The main recommendations are: that all countries begin essential national health research (ENHR), with international partnership; that larger and sustained international funding for research be mobilized; and that larger and sustained international funding for research be mobilized; and that international mechanisms for monitoring progress be established. The book is full of graphs and contains footnotes, a complete bibliography and an index.
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  13. 13
    079164

    Population, food supply and agricultural development.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 484-97. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)

    The issues dealing with the interrelationships between population growth, food supply, and agricultural development are summarized. Focus is directed to past trends in food supplies, food consumption and nutritional requirements, future demand, future food supplies, agricultural employment, and rural development policies. A table included in the annex gives population growth rates, food production rates, food demand rates of growth, dietary energy supply, and protein supply by country. Meeting the nutritional needs of population growth is possible. Supply and demand vary between countries; supplies are unevenly distributed. Increased production alone will not solve the problems of poverty. Food production must meet nutritional and employment needs. Food production declined slightly during the 1960s due in many cases to policy, but in developing countries it occurred in spite of policy. In 34 countries, food production failed to keep pace with population growth. Population growth accounts for 70% of the demand for food increases. Between 1952 and 1972, in 54 out of 85 developing countries food production increased less than demand. Balancing supply with demand was unaffected by the rate of population growth. 1965-66 brought bad weather and declines in production; 1967-70 is associated with the "green revolution" and increased production. In 1971-72, bad weather again prevailed and food production declined in absolute terms as well as in relation to population growth. Imported food has created dependency relationships. Nutrition is a measure of total availability of dietary energy; developing countries during the 1960s had a 3% deficit while developed countries were 20% above requirements. In 1970, 62 developing countries had overall dietary energy deficits. Insufficient food supply affects poorer families and particularly pregnant and lactating women and children. 10 million children under 5 years of age suffer from severe malnutrition, 80 million from moderate malnutrition, and 120 million from milder forms of malnutrition, or about 50% of all the children in the developing world. 14% of the population excluding Asian economies have insufficient food intake to meet energy needs. Reducing the rate of population growth is essential.
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  14. 14
    079150

    Population, resources and the environment. Report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Secretary-General

    In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 77-123. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)

    The Secretary-General's commentary on the state of population growth, resources, and the environment examines the most important relationship. Conflicts in resource use and distribution and essential resources are identified: potential water and land resources for agriculture, availability of potential arable land, new technology, carrying capacity, capital needs, the imbalance between population and arable land, energy needs, agricultural modernization, nonfuel mineral resources, and energy resources. The relationship between rapid population growth and the environment may be one where man is indeed capable of reducing the environmental consequences to tolerable level through reallocation of resources. There a 3 sets of environmental problems: 1) those related to poverty and inadequate social and economic development; 2) those arising from the development process itself; and 3) those which could have a major impact on climate or environmental conditions and are not well understood. The environmental problems of developed countries pertain to high levels of energy use and the problems of affluence. In poor countries, environmental problems are caused by rapid population growth and urbanization, and poverty. Environmental destruction from mining and transportation are discussed along with the need for conversion to alternative forms of energy and reduction of polluting energy use. Developing countries' problems focus on water supply and waste disposal, the benefits of environmental improvement, and the global changes possible in climate, carbon dioxide emissions, and particulate matter in the atmosphere. "Hot spots" from fossil fuel combustion and nuclear fission are occurring; accurate data, improved analytical models, and international cooperation in monitoring and analysis is essential. Settlement patterns and the costs plus the internal organization of large urban areas are some of the problems examined. Rural development, rural-urban migration, and population redistribution are other issues of concern. Urban development and urban growth strategies reflect the potential need to curb urban migration and a new settlement system. Technology's impact on population, research gaps, and policy implications are revealed. Definitions of societal objectives are necessary before deciding what technology is needed.
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  15. 15
    072039

    [Institutions for lasting development] Des institutions pour un developpement durable.

    Streeten P

    Revue Tiers-Monde. 1992 Apr-Jun; 33(130):455-69.

    The concept of sustainability as currently conceived is multidimensional, and assumes an acceptance of responsibility toward future generations. This work reflects on the aspect of sustainable development related to the need to preserve elements of the physical environment necessary for human well-being. Ecological problems weighing on developing countries include rapid rates of population growth and urbanization, problems in administration of nuclear energy, toxic residues and wastes from agriculture and industry, deforestation, and air and water pollution, among others. Ecological problems in the developing countries are similar to those in developed countries but tend to be caused by poverty rather than by affluence. Developing countries are often hostile to the question of environmental conservation, accusing the rich countries of wishing to prevent them from industrializing. But pollution control measures taken at an early stage are cheaper and easier in the long run than control of toxic wastes. The goal of sustainable development is more growth, but growth of a qualitatively different type. Less polluting techniques and materials are needed. It has been demonstrated that environmental regulations do not necessarily result in a loss of competitiveness. An equitable division of the costs of environmental protection is needed so that if necessary the poorer countries can be compensated for direct and indirect costs sustained by their environmental protection measures. The not yet industrialized countries should be able to learn from the mistakes of the industrialized countries and avoid the worst errors. Pollution at the local, regional, and world levels should be distinguished as part of the process of exerting control over resources. Just as the endowment in factors of production guides the allocation of resources as a function of comparative advantage, differences in the costs of pollution should be a principle orienting international industrial specialization. It is probably less costly to combat pollution in developing countries, and polluting activities of the industrialized countries should be displaced to them. Nature products should be preferred over synthetics having a high tendency to pollute. Developing countries need to undertake activities to protect their nonrenewable resources. More equitable pricing policies would encourage economical use of these resources. Coordinated action will be required from countries possessing such resources. There is as yet no world institution capable of reconciling the interests of individual countries with the need to protect the world's environment. A small step in the direction of creating such an institution was taken with creation of the Pilot Mechanisms Relative to the World Environment by 25 industrialized and developing countries. It is expected to become operational in mid-1991.
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  16. 16
    066179

    New policies and approaches of health education in primary health care in attaining the objectives of health for all/2000.

    Islam MM

    IN TOUCH 1991 Mar; 10(98):34-6.

    This overview of what the WHO Alma Ata Declaration is and how the objectives translate to policy in the structure of health education involves manpower development, professional level training, community involvement, mass media, and related research. Alma Ata identified health education as the first of 8 essential activities in primary health care (PHC). Policy failures in health education included the inability to live up to expectations, the targeting of programs to specific diseases, and to the inappropriate conceptualization of community participation as a process which can be centrally controlled. Other factors were the gap in understanding the relationship between socioeconomic development and health, weak national structure which provided inadequate demonstration of health education project results, the inability of health education to solve individual problems such as working conditions or environmental pollution, and the lack of multisectoral cooperation. In order to achieve the Alma Ata objectives health education must be an agent of social change. Primary health care (PHC) - health education, development of a patient's educational skills, needs to be incorporated into the formal curricula of medical and nursing programs, as well as informal training, planning, and practice among rural and agricultural developers, public health engineers, and educators. Health workers need training in use of appropriate technology and in bridging the gap between the community and existing health care systems. The mass media needs to emphasize basic health necessities, and the importance of health, and solutions to problems. Broad public participation including voluntary organizations is necessary to the multisectoral approach. Research needs to be disseminated to administrators.
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  17. 17
    055117

    Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.

    Lyashko OP

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 161-2.

    The government of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic deal with population policies on a scientific basis. Programs implemented provide for both material and spiritual well-being. The means of production are public owned ensuring an economic growth on par with the population. There is equality among men and women in education, pay and employment. The government provides for the well-being of its aged, war invalids and the families of those killed in battle. The population of the Ukraine increased significantly during the postwar era, due to high social and economic development. Of late, the government has seen to the improvement in the quality of life for its citizens. THe government of the Ukraine S.S.R. supports population programmes which encourage population growth in order to make the Republic more productive. In the coming years, the government looks to implement recommendations made in the World Plan of Action, 1984.
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  18. 18
    091147

    Migration and urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa: international agency influences.

    Becker CM

    [Unpublished] 1989 Mar. Paper presented at the Seminar on Population Policy in Subsaharan Africa: Drawing on International Experience, sponsored by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), Committee on Population and Policy, with the collaboration of Departement de Demographie de l'Universite de Kinshasa, Commission Nationale de la Population du Zaire (CONAPO), Secretariat au Plan du Zaire, held at the Hotel Okapi, Kinshasa, Zaire, 27 February to 2 March 1989. 36 p.

    The impact of policies pursued by international agencies in Sub-Saharan Africa have been to generally increase African city growth and the urban population's concentration in the largest cities. The World Bank is the dominant agency in Africa in determining the policy decisions of the international community. Since the African urban sector provides 40-50% of Africa's gross domestic product, all domestic and international efforts to increase economic growth are focused on urban activities, promoting urbanization. Factors such as education policy, government's consumption of modern sector goods, salaries of urban bureaucrats all encourage urbanization and depend on adequate infrastructures. Africa's rapid urbanization in the past 15 years is surprising in the absence of most of these factors. Investments in urban housing, transport and infrastructure assistance from international donors has contributed to Africa's rapid urbanization because funding has gone to the urban areas. Shifting from funding primary education in the rural areas to higher education loans has also had a strong urbanizing effect on countries since education imparts western values of desiring urban living. Donor funding and policy-making has also included influence on African governments to reduce their birth rates in order to reduce the share of the public sector budget that is committed to public services. The decline in crude death rates for the region as a whole went from 22 to 17/1000 between 1965 and 1983, while the decline in birth rates only went from 48 to 47 in 18 of the 45 countries. This has resulted in rising population growth rates in most African countries during the past 3 decades, promoting African urbanization. The Bank's microeconomic policies designed to improve market efficiency are: 1) greater emphasis on cost recovery; 2) financial profitability of the parastatal sectors; 3) development of small-scale enterprises; 4) deemphasis on urban, large-scale industries; 5) development of secondary cities. The introduction of structural adjustment programs in return for renegotiated loans is the most profound intervention by the international community in Africa during the past 15 years because it will involve shrinkage of urban growth by reducing tax burdens on rural areas and less demand for urban services.
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  19. 19
    271104

    Sex roles, population and development in West Africa: policy-related studies on work and demographic issues.

    Oppong C

    Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Heinemann Educational Books, 1987. xiii, 242 p.

    This book is a compilation of essays and studies on West African familial situations and stereotypes. It was prepared for the World Employment Programme and financed by the United Nation's Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The book is divided into 4 sections covering women's work; fertility, parenthood and development in Yoruba; population policies, family planning, and family life education in Ghana; and government plans and development policies in Sierra Leone, Nigeria, and Ghana. The appendix contains a list of Offices of Women's Affairs around West Africa. The objective of the book is to introduce empirical examples of women's roles at work in the hope that funding for the advancement of women in underdeveloped areas will continue.
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  20. 20
    048000

    State of world population 1987.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    In: UNFPA: 1986 report, [by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1987. 6-31.

    The implications of population growth and prospects for the future are examined in a 1987 UNFPA report on the state of world population. Demographic patterns in developed and developing countries are compared, as well as life expectancy and mortality rates. Although most countries have passed the stage of maximum growth, Africa's growth rate continues to increase. Changes in world population size are accompanied by population distribution and agricultural productivity changes. On an individual level, the fate of Baby 5 Billion is examined based on population trajectories for a developing country (Kenya, country A), and a developed country of approximately the same size (Korea, country B). The report outlines the hazards that Baby 5 Billion would face in a developing country and explains the better opportunities available in country B. Baby 5 Billion is followed through adolescence and adulthood. Whether the attainment of 5 billion in population is a threat or a triumph is questioned. Several arguments propounding the beneficial social, economic, and environmental effects of unchecked population growth are refuted. In addition, evidence of the serious consequences of deforestation and species extinction is presented. The report concludes with an explanation of the developmental, health and economic benefits of vigorous population control policies, especially in developing countries.
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  21. 21
    045161

    Human rights, population ethics and the Third World: sources of moral conflict in international population policies.

    Sharpless J

    Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1987. 47, [6] p. (CDE Working Paper 87-10)

    This philosophical essay considers the basis of moral issues inherent in national and international population policies, largely based on U.N. texts. The basic definition of any moral stance on population policy depends on 1) how the problem is defined; 2) the nature of the feasible alternative courses of action proposed to resolve the problem; and 3) how the proposed actions will affect people's lives and property, broadly defined. Questions of cost versus benefit, ends and means, distributive justice and individual versus the commonality then arise. A brief history of the current world population situation is given. The development of the world's political understanding of the population problem, and the recent U.S. policy responses follow. A majority of the most populous and rapidly growing nations admit to their growth statistics and have instituted population policies. There are several distinct ideological groups that reject the notion of a population crisis, notably Marxists, Catholics, conservative political economists and some radical feminists. Certain middle-of-the-road theorists believe that the moderate population problem will resolve itself once the socioeconomic structure is developed. Resolution of moral dilemmas resulting from alternative visions of the population "problem" or "crisis" usually takes the form of a discussion of human rights. U.N. pronouncements on this issue have evolved from silence to the current view that each family has the right to knowledge and means to space and limit family size. A UNESCO publication even extends and specifies this right as the domain of the woman of the family. The rights of future generations are implicit in population ethics, but these are not articulated in the literature. Finally, UN texts imply rights of each nation (but not necessarily of actual national or ethnic groups within nations) to specify population policy. It should be appreciated that most of the non-western world does not have a tradition of individual rights, but rather communal rights. Most of the UN statements are based on European values. Simply to invoke the concept of "basic human rights" does not resolve moral issues.
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  22. 22
    042483

    Some speculation on the challenges of the next decades for the Population Commission.

    Bourgeois-Pichat J

    POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1986; (19-20):159-67.

    After a brief summary of the development of the terms of reference of the Population Commission, future activities are projected. In the near term the commission may be preparing for another world population conference in 1994, and increasing its oversight of population programs not only within but also outside the UN system. It may augment its role in reviewing all of the UN population activities, requesting that an overview be prepared, not merely as a series of reports on individual activities but as an analysis of the entire work of the system, organized by demographic subject area. In addition to reviewing reports on multilateral population assistance and the population activities of the UN family, the Commission may review a report on international bodies outside the UN. Although the Commission has become the best-informed world body concerning the world demographic situation, more of that information must be made available to governments, e.g. by developing and maintaining a permanent demographic encyclopedia utilizing worldwide experts, working under Commission direction. The encyclopedia should be available in the world's major languages and computer-accessible. Also, the Commission could direct the preparation of a biennial document providing an authoritative description of the world population's state, addressing major concerns and presenting findings in a way accessible to all. These tasks could be the major elements of the work of the Commission during the 1st quarter of the next century. Projections beyond that must be tentative, but it would seem reasonable to expect that someday the Commission may have to wrestle with the problem of shrinking national populations, composed of individuals with active lifespans longer than those prevalent today. Ultimately, the Commission may be concerned with the demography of human populations living outside the bounds of the planet earth. In fact, it is not unthinkable that in some distant future the concept of population and the interest of the Commission may be applied to beings presently unknown to mankind.
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  23. 23
    268505

    Fording the stream.

    Otero M

    World Education Reports. 1985 Nov; (24):15-7.

    In the last decade we have come to radically redefine our understanding of how women fit into the socioeconomic fabric of developing countries. At least 2 factors have contributed to this realignment in our thinking. 1st, events around the UN Decade for Women dramatized women's invisibility in development planning, and mobilized human and financial resources around the issue. 2nd, the process of modernization underway in all developing countries has dramatically changed how women live and what they do. In the last decade, more and more women have become the sole providers and caretakers of the household, and have been forced to find ways to earn income to feed and clothe their families. Like many other organizations, USAID, in its current policy, emphasizes the need to integrate women as contributors to and beneficiaries of all projects, rather than to design projects specifically geared to women. Integrating women into income generation projects requires building into every step of a project--its design, implementation and evaluation--mechanisms to assure that women are not left out. The integration of women into all income generating projects is still difficult to implement. 4 reasons are suggested here: 1) resistance on the part of planners and practitioners who are still not convinced that women contribute substantially to a family's income; 2) few professionals have the expertise necessary to address the gender issue; 3) reaching women may require a larger initial investment of project funds; and 4) reaching women may require experimenting with approaches that will fit into their village or urban reality.
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  24. 24
    268140

    Population policy after Mexico City.

    Repetto R

    World Resources Institute Journal. 1985; 5-16.

    In Mexico City, the 2nd Population Corference emphasized the inextricable links between population, resources, environment and development and the need to integrate population and development programs. Essential points included in the core of the consensus enunciated in Mexico City are summarized. The US position at the Conference emphasized that population goals and policies must be considered not as ends in themselves but in the context of social and economic strategies designed to enhance the human conditions in a manner consistent with basic values. The US statement maintained that effective voluntary family planning programs will result in substantial declines in family size only to the extent that development changes the economic motivation and parents' desire for large families. This position evolved however after considerable pressure on the Reagan administration. The administration's initial position, considerable elements of which remain in the US policy statement, had quite a different emphasis. Its argument is summarized and criticized on the grounds that it is remarkably insensitive to the facts, especially in its assertion that the rise of economic statism in the developing countries after World War II constrained economic growth and thus created population problems. Rapid demograpphic transition in low income countries requires not only social and economic change that is broadly shared, but also vigorous governement population policies. The policies and programs put forward by consensus at Mexico City cannot be regarded as short-term ameliorative efforts. They require radical changes in development strategies to broaden access to education, health services, employment opportunities, and other basic needs. For the governemnt of the US to minimize the importance of rapid and widespread implementation of the policies adopted by consensus at Mexico City would be a disservice to the US and to the rest of the world. Population policies and programs and sound economic policies support one another, and all are essential for successful development.
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  25. 25
    026644

    Population growth and economic and social development.

    Clausen AW

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 36 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    In his address to national leaders in Nairobi, Kenya, Clausen expresses his views on population growth and development. Rapid population growth slows development in the developing countries. There is a strong link between population growth rates and the rate of economic and social development. The World Bank is determined to support the struggle against poverty in developing countries. Population growth will mean lower living standards for hundreds of millions of people. Proposals for reducing population growth raise difficult questions about the proper domain of public policy. Clausen presents a historical overview of population growth in the past 2 decades, and discusses the problem of imbalance between natural resources and people, and the effect on the labor force. Rapid population growth creates urban economic and social problems that may be unmanageable. National policy is a means to combat overwhelmingly high fertility, since governments have a duty to society as a whole, both today's generation and future ones. Peoples may be having more children than they actually want because of lack of information or access to fertility control methods. Family planning is a health measure that can significantly reduce infant mortality. A combination of social development and family planning is needed to teduce fertility. Clausen briefly reviews the effect of economic and technological changes on population growth, focusing on how the Bank can support an effective combination of economic and social development with extending and improving family planning and health services. The World Bank offers its support to combat rapid population growth by helping improve understanding through its economic and sector work and through policy dialogue with member countries; by supporting developing strategies that naturally buiild demand for smaller families, especially by improving opportunities in education and income generation; and by helping supply safe, effective and affordable family planning and other basic health services focused on the poor in both urban and rural areas. In the next few years, the Bank intends at least to double its population and related health lending as part of a major effort involving donors and developing countries with a primay focus on Africa and Asia. An effective policy requires the participation of many ministeries and clear direction and support from the highest government levels.
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