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Your search found 164 Results

  1. 1
    333229

    Universal access to reproductive health. Accelerated actions to enhance progress on Millennium Development Goal 5 through advancing Target 5B.

    Say L; Chou D

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2011. [36] p. (WHO/RHR/HRP/11.02)

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Department of Reproductive Health and Research convened a technical consultation involving stakeholders from countries, regions and partner agencies to review strategies applied within countries for advancing universal access to sexual and reproductive health with a view to identifying strategic approaches to accelerate progress in achieving universal access. Case-studies from seven countries (Brazil, Cambodia, India, Morocco, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan and Zambia) illustrating application of a variety of strategies to improve access to sexual and reproductive health, lessons learnt during implementation and results achieved, allows identification of a range of actions for accelerated progress in universal access. In order to achieve MDG 5 a holistic approach to sexual and reproductive health is necessary, such that programmes and initiatives will need to expand beyond focusing only on maternal health and address also family planning, sexual health and prevention of unsafe abortion. Programmes should prioritize areas of engagement based upon country and regional needs while establishing practical ways to ensure equity through integration of gender and human rights. The strategic actions in countries outlined here will help accelerate progress towards attainment of MDG Target 5B within the wider context of implementation of the WHO Global reproductive health strategy. (Excerpt)
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  2. 2
    061213

    Health research: essential link to equity in development.

    Commission on Health Research for Development

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1990. xix, 136 p.

    The Commission on Health Research for Development is an independent international consortium formed in 1987 to improve the health of people in developing countries by the power of research. This book is the result of 2 years of effort: 19 commissioned papers, 8 expert meetings, 8 regional workshops, case studies of health research activities in 10 developing countries and hundreds of individual discussions. A unique global survey examined financing, locations and promotion of health research. The focus of all this work was the influence of health on development. This book has 3 sections: a review of global health inequities and why health research is needed; findings of country surveys, health research financing, selection of topics and promotion; conclusions and recommendations. Some research priorities are contraception and reproductive health, behavioral health in developing countries, applied research on essential drugs, vitamin A deficiency, substance abuse, tuberculosis. The main recommendations are: that all countries begin essential national health research (ENHR), with international partnership; that larger and sustained international funding for research be mobilized; and that larger and sustained international funding for research be mobilized; and that international mechanisms for monitoring progress be established. The book is full of graphs and contains footnotes, a complete bibliography and an index.
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  3. 3
    273024

    Intermediating development assistance in health: prospects for organizing a public/private investment portfolio.

    Family Health

    Washington, D.C., Family Health, 1980 July 23. 162 p.

    The objective of this study is to identify and assess the potential role of intermediary organizations in furthering AID health assistance objectives. The 1st section of this report is an introduction to the potential roles of intermediaries through health assistance via the private voluntary community. A background of the private voluntary organizations is discussed along with some of the constraints that may impede their activity, such as competing interests, values and priorities. The following section defines what is and should be an intermediary organization along with examples of certain functions involved; a discussion of the experience of AID in the utilization of intermediaries follows. 3 models of utilization of intermediaries are analyzed according to the rationale involved, strategy, advantages and constraints. The 3rd section attempts to define and identify AID's needs for programming its health assistance in regard to primary health care, water and sanitation, disease control and health planning. A detailed analysis of the potential roles of intermediary organizations is discussed in reference to policy development, project development and design, project implementation, research, training and evaluation. The 4th section identifies the programming strengths and interests among listed private voluntary organizations in the US. The 5th section discusses the potential of intermediaries in health assistance in reference to the options for funding them in health and the constraints to direct AID funding of intermediary organizations. The last section discusses a series of recommendations made in regard to the development and funding of an international effort to marshall private resources in support of health assistance. Problems and constraints, as well as resources and opportunities, for the development of this international effort are further discussed.
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  4. 4
    082449

    Technology and ecology.

    de Souza HG

    In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 154-60.

    The most common global concerns are the threat to the earth's ecological balance, challenges originating from new technologies, and the ability of developing countries to respond to these changes in a way conducive to sustainable development. Creative learning means that political systems assimilate new information when making policy decisions. pathological learning implies that political systems prevent new information from influencing policies, eventually leading to the system's failure. Policymakers cannot ignore the new technologies and the changing environment. The UN University had identified the most important research gaps with regard to technological development. recommendations from this study are more research on the relationship between the effects of existing trends in the technological revolution and the formation of development strategies and the significance of identifying alternatives of technological development better suited to the actual needs and conditions of developing countries. For example, biotechnology may produce new medications to combat some tropical diseases, but a lack of commercial interest in industrialized countries prevents the needed research. Research in the Himalayas shows the importance of focusing on the linkages between mountains and plains, instead of just the mountains, to resolve environmental degradation. This finding was not expected. The researchers promote a broader, more holistic, critical approach to environmental problem-solving. Humans must realize that we have certain rights and obligations to the earth and to future generations. We must translate these into enforceable standards at the local, national, and international levels to attain intergenerational equity. Policy-makers must do longterm planning and incorporate environmentally sound technologies and the conservation of the ecological balance into development policy. sustainable development must include social, economic, ecologic, geographic, and cultural aspects.
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  5. 5
    079161

    Population and development in perspective, with particular reference to the second United Nations Development Decade.

    Pajestka J

    In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 457-62. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)

    Earth's limited size, its finite supply of natural resources, and man's tendency to improve material standards of living dictate that an unlimited population is unsustainable. While population growth is not the main source of world problems, a world population policy is nonetheless called for. Such a policy should be flexible and established in the context of other interconnected world development problems and policies. It should be assumed that people throughout the world are very similar and that regularities between population tendencies and the progress of civilization appear universally. A rational approach should therefore be taken to all problems of mankind with proper emphasis upon each issue. Principles for analysis and recommendations are outlined with consideration of the complex and sensitive nature of population issues including the political, economic, social, and ethical implications. Objectively must be maintained in world population policy so that one group of countries or region is not thought to be against another. The General Assembly of the United Nations on the international development strategy for the 1970s was very cautious in recommending any kind of world population policy. Evidence indicates that most developing countries now acknowledge the need to limit population growth and that socioeconomic progress and national population policy are positive forces in that direction. Population should be less problematic in the 1970s. If world economic and social discrepancies and inequalities which cause mass poverty could be reduced, the rate of population growth may also be reduced. Instead of expressing concern over exhausting the Earth's limited resources, man should work to change human priorities and behavior patterns to foster sustainable development.
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  6. 6
    080510

    From empty-world economics to full-world economics: recognizing an historical turning point in economic development.

    Daly HE

    In: Population, technology, and lifestyle: the transition to sustainability, edited by Robert Goodland, Herman E. Daly, Salah El Serafy. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1992. 23-37.

    The human economy has moved from an era in which manmade capital was the limiting factor in economic development to the present when remaining natural capital has become the limiting factor. Natural capital is the stock from which comes natural resources. As human populations have grown and many countries have developed economically, manmade capital has been developed and accumulated to exploit often unowned natural capital and resources as if they had no price. No self-interested social class exists to protect these resources from overexploitation. Current levels of extracting and harvesting natural capital are simply not sustainable. This concept of full-world economics, however, is not accepted as academically legitimate by those of the empty-world school. Neoclassical economics considers factors of production to be substitutable and not complementary; this is not the case for the world's stock of natural capital. Assuming that natural capital has become the limiting factor, economic logic dictates the need to maximize its productivity and increase its supply. Investment and technology should therefore focus upon preserving and restoring natural capital while improving the productivity of natural capital more than manmade capital. Population growth must be reduced in developing countries and both population growth and per capita resource use must be constrained in more developed countries. Supporting these objectives, the World Bank, the UN Environment Program, and the UN Development Programme have started a biospheric infrastructure investment called the Global Environment Facility. It will provide concessional funding for programs investing in the preservation or enhancement of the protection of the ozone layer, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, protection of international water resources, and protection of biodiversity. These issues will gain prominence in development bank lending policies.
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  7. 7
    080967

    Assuring health sector policy reforms in Africa: the role of non-project assistance.

    Foltz AM

    [Unpublished] 1992. Presented at the 120th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association [APHA], Washington, D.C., November 8-12, 1992. 27, [1] p.

    In the mid 1980s, USAID started nonproject assistance, mainly in the economic sectors, to African countries. The countries received nonproject assistance after they fulfilled conditions which influence institutional and/or policy reforms. The longest running health sector reform program in Africa was in Niger and was slated to receive portions of the funds after fulfilling 6 specific predetermined reform activities. Yet, between 1986 and 1991, Niger had implemented only 2 of them. It did accomplish the population/family planning reforms: expansion of family planning services, a national population policy, analyses and implementation of improvements in the pricing and distribution of contraceptives, and legalization of use and distribution of contraceptives. Continuing economic deterioration during the 1980s and political upheavals after 1989 somewhat explained why the other reform activities were not implemented. Other equally important factors were a very complex sector grant design (more than 20 reforms in 6 policy/institutional areas) with little incentive to realize the reforms, insufficient number of staff (limited to senior personnel) to implement the reforms, and just 1 USAID staff to monitor and facilitate activities. The nonproject assistance for the primary health care (PHC) system in Nigeria had a simpler design than that in Niger. The reform goals were shifting responsibility for PHC from curative care to preventive health services. After USAID and the Nigerian government signed an agreement, they included policy reforms promoting privatization of health services. Only 1 reform was implemented. Factors which could lead to success of nonproject assistance include host government needs to perceive it owns the objectives and building financial and institutional sustainability. In conclusion, nonproject assistance can be effective when implementing policy reforms that the host government has already adopted.
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  8. 8
    071962

    Norway.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 222-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Norway's 1985 population of 4,142,000 is projected to grow to 4,261,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 20.1% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 21.1% were over the age of 60. 16.9% and 27.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 1.8 to -0.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.0 to 78.1 years, the crude death rate will increase from 10.7 to 12.2, while,e infant mortality will decline from 8.0 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.7 to 2.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 12.5 to 11.4. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 71.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.0 years. Urban population will increase from 72.8% in 1985 to 79.9% overall by the year 2025. All of these levels and trends are considered acceptable by the government. Norway does not have an explicit population policy. A population committee was, however, created in 1981 to consider population and development, especially in the face of ongoing demographic aging. The government works to provide health for the population, maintain the level of immigration, and improve women's status. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  9. 9
    071961

    Nigeria.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 218-21. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Nigeria's 1985 population of 95,198,000 is projected to grow to 338,105,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 48.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.0% were over the age of 60. 38.8% and 4.6% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 33.3 to 22.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 48.5 to 64.5 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 17.1 to 6.8, while infant mortality will decline from 114.2 to 48.5. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 7.1 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 50.4 to 29.5. The 1981/2 contraceptive prevalence rate was 5.0, while the 1981/2 female mean age at 1st marriage was 18.7 years. Urban population will increase from 23.0% in 1985 to 53.0% overall by the year 2025. Immigration and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, and spatial distribution are not. Nigeria has an explicit population policy. It aims to reduce population growth, fertility, morbidity, mortality, and the rate of urbanization. Specific efforts to effect these changes include providing for family planning and maternal-child health, education, rural and urban development, enhanced women's status, and greater male responsibility. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  10. 10
    071960

    Niger.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 214-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Niger's 1985 population of 6,115,000 is projected to grow to 18,940,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 46.7% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.9% were over the age of 60. 38.0% and 4.8% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 28.1 to 20.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 42.5 to 58.5 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 22.9 to 9.4, while infant mortality will decline from 145.7 to 70.9. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 7.1 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 51.0 to 29.7. The 1959 female mean age at 1st marriage was 15.8 years. Urban population will increase from 16.2% in 1985 to 46.6% overall by the year 2025. Immigration and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, and spatial distribution are not. Niger does not have an explicit population policy. Efforts have, however, been taken to improve health care, education, food supply, overall living conditions, and spatial distribution. Rural areas receive particular attention. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  11. 11
    071959

    Nicaragua.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 210-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Nicaragua's 1985 population of 3,272,000 is projected to grow to 9,219,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 46.7% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.1% were over the age of 60. 31.1% and 7.8% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 34.5 to 17.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 59.8 to 72.6 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 9.7 to 5.1, while infant mortality will decline from 76.4 to 26.9. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 5.9 to 2.7, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 44.2 to 22.9. The 1981 contraceptive prevalence rate was 27.0, while the 1971 female mean age at 1st marriage was 20.2 years. Urban population will increase from 56.6% in 1985 to 77.9% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility, and immigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while morbidity, mortality, high emigration, and spatial distribution are not. Nicaragua does not have a explicit population policy. The government finds the country to be underpopulated, and therefore concentrates upon reducing morbidity, mortality, and urban migration, and adjusting spatial distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  12. 12
    071958

    New Zealand.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 206-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    New Zealand's 1985 population of 3,318,000 is projected to grow to 4,202,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 24.1% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 14.6% were over the age of 60. 17.9% and 23.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 7.4 to 1.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 73.8 to 77.5 years, the crude death rate will increase from 8.4 to 10.2, while infant mortality will decline from 12.1 to 6.1. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 1.9 to 1.8, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 15.7 to 11.9. The 1976 contraceptive prevalence rate was 41.0, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.7 years. Urban population will increase from 83.7% in 1985 to 87.8% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, immigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high emigration is not. New Zealand does not have an explicit population policy. Demographic variables have, however, been influenced by policies toward the family, health care, and immigration. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  13. 13
    071957

    Netherlands.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 202-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Netherlands' 1985 population of 14,500,000 is projected to grow to 14,691,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 16.5% were over the age of 60. 15.1% and 30.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 3.8 to -2.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.0 to 78.2 years, the crude death rate will increase from 8.7 to 13.0, while infant mortality will decline from 8.3 to 5.2. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.6 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 12.5 to 10.4. The 1985 contraceptive prevalence rate was 72.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 23.2 years. Urban population will increase from 88.4% in 1985 to 89.6% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high immigration and low emigration are not. The Netherlands has an explicit population policy. Fertility should be 15-30% below replacement level over several years in order to stop population growth, the level of immigration should be restricted, and a stationary population should ultimately be smaller than that presently realized. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  14. 14
    071956

    Nepal.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 198-201. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Nepal's 1985 population of 16,482,000 is projected to grow to 33,946,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 43.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.0% were over the age of 60. 28.6% and 7.3% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 23.3 to 11.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 45.9 to 61.8 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 18.4 to 9.0, while infant mortality will decline from 138.7 to 61.4. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.3 to 2.5, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 41.7 to 20.6. The 1986 contraceptive prevalence rate was 15.0, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 17.1 years. Urban population will increase from 7.7% in 1985 to 30.6% overall by the year 2025. Significant emigration is considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, immigration. and spatial distribution are not. Nepal has an explicit population policy. Intervening both directly and indirectly, policy strives to control population growth through general development, sociocultural, economic, and environmental reform, and maternal-child health and family planning programs. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  15. 15
    071954

    Mozambique.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 190-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Mozambique's 1985 population of 13,961,000 is projected to grow to 37,154,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 43.2% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.3% were over the age of 60. 34.1% and 6.4% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 25.4 to 16.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 45.3 to 61.3 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 19.7 to 8.7, while infant mortality will decline from 153.5 to 71.6. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.1 to 3.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 45.1 to 25.5. The 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 17.6 years. Urban population will increase from 19.4% in 1985 to 52.6% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility, immigration, and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while morbidity, mortality, and spatial distribution are not. Mozambique does not have an explicit population policy. General attention has been given to economic and social restructuring, reducing morbidity and mortality through primary health care, and adjusting spatial distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  16. 16
    071953

    Morocco.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 186-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Morocco's 1985 population of 21,941,000 is projected to grow to 40,062,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 41.0% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.7% were over the age of 60. 23.3% and 12.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 25.1 to 10.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 58.3 to 72.8 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 11.3 to 6.4, while infant mortality will decline from 96.5 to 23.5. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 5.1 to 2.2, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 36.4 to 16.7. The 1983/4 contraceptive prevalence rate was 26.0, while the 1982 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.3 years. Urban population will increase form 44.8% in 1985 to 71.0% overall by the year 2025. Insignificant immigration is considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, spatial distribution, and low emigration are not. Morocco does not have an explicit population policy. Other policies of intervention are, however, in place to lower population growth and fertility, adjust spatial distribution, and reduce infant mortality. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  17. 17
    071952

    Mongolia.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 182-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Mongolia's 1985 population of 1,908,000 is projected to grow to 4,539,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 41.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.2% were over the age of 60. @28.5% and 9.0% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 27.4 to 15.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 62.0 to 74.1 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 8.5 to 5.1, while infant mortality will decline from 53.0 to 17.5. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 5.1 to 2.5, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 35.9 to 20.6. Urban population will increase form 50.8% in 1985 to 69.6% overall by the year 2025. Immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, and fertility are not. Mongolia has an explicit population policy. Efforts to modify demographic variable are linked with steps toward social and economic restructuring, with a higher rate of population growth considered central to socioeconomic development. To effect such change, policy aims to reduce mortality and improve spatial distribution. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  18. 18
    071947

    Malta.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 162-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Malta's 1985 population of 383,000 is projected to grow to 459,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 23.9% of the population was ages 0-14 years, while 13.8% were over the age of 60. 19.5% and 23.7% are projected to be in these prospective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 7.3 to 1.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase fROm 71.7 to 76.9 years, the crude death rate will increase from 10.1 to 11.2, while infant mortality will decline from 12.9 to 6.6. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 2.0 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 17.4 to 13.0. Urban population will increase from 85.3% in 1985 to 92.4% overall by the year 2025. All levels and trends are considered to be acceptable by the government. In turn, Malta does not have an explicit population policy. Despite the lack of governmental intervention to influence the birth rate, the government recognizes the need keep rates low. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  19. 19
    071890

    Germany, Federal Republic of.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 14-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    The Federal Republic of Germany's 1985 population of 60,877,000 is projected to shrink to 53,490,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 15.4% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 20.0% were over the age of 60. 16.0% and 31.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from -0.2 to -0.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 73.7 to 77.33 years, the crude death rate will increase from 12.3 to 15.4, while infant mortality will decline from 10.6 to 5.5. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.4 to 2.0, with a corresponding increase in the crude birth rate from 10.1 to 11.1. The 1985 contraceptive prevalence rate was 77.9, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 23.6 years. Urban population will increase from 85.5% in 1985 to 88.6% overall by they year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, fertility, and immigration are not. The Republic does not have an explicit population policy. A pro-natalist program launched, however, in 1984 to encourage an additional 200,000 births/year. The government hopes to realize steady population growth, improve the situation of families, provide for individuals' health, and improve spatial distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  20. 20
    071889

    German Democratic Republic.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 10-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    The German Democratic Republic's 1985 population of 16,766,000 is projected to grow to 17,570,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.4% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 18.1% were over the age of 60. 19.0% and 25.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 0.3 to 0.11 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 72.1 to 77.0 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 14.1 to 12.5, while infant mortality will decline from 11.1 to 5.4. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.9 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 14.4 to 12.6. The 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage from 21.5 years. Urban population will increase from 77.0% in 1985 to 84.0% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth and fertility are not. The Republic has an explicit population policy. The government encourages families to have at least 2 or 3 children to effect population replacement. Promoting the family and maternal-child care, supporting large families and newly-wed couples, lowering mortality, and reducing differentials in living and working conditions are stressed. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  21. 21
    071888

    Gambia.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 6-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Gambia's 1985 population off 643,000 is projected to grow to 1,494,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 42.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.0% were over the age of 60. 36.4% and 5.9% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 19.4 to 15.6 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 35.0 to 51.0 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 29.0 to 13.8, while infant mortality will decline from 174.1 to 93.8. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.4 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 48.4 to 29.3. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 1.0. Urban population will increase from 20.1% in 1985 to 48.4% overall by the year 2025. Emigration is considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, immigration, and spatial distribution are not. Gambia has an explicit population policy. It aims to directly intervene to reduce population growth by lowering fertility, mortality, immigration, and rural-urban migration. Measures will include a combined approach of family planning and maternal-child health services, rural development, and employment programs. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  22. 22
    071887

    Gabon.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 2-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Gabon's 1985 population of 1,151,000 is projected to grow to 2,607,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 34.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 9.4% were over the age of 60. 33.5% and 8.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have grown from 15.7 to 17.0 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 49.0 to 65.0 years, the crude birth rate will decrease from 18.1 to 8.5, while infant mortality will decline from 111.9 to 46.7. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 4.5 to 3.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 33.8 to 25.4. The 1960 female mean age at 1st marriage was 17.7 years. Urban population will increase from 40.9% in 1985 to 69.6% overall by the year 2025. None of these trends and indicators are considered to be acceptable by the government. Gabon has an explicit population policy. Its aims to increase the rate of population growth in order to enlarge the labor pool. Attempting to create an environment conducive to developing larger families, efforts focus upon improving conditions of family welfare and population distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  23. 23
    071886

    France.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 218-21. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    France's 1985 population of 54,621,000 is projected to grow to 58,431,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 21.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.7% were over the age of 60. 17.8% and 25.9% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 3.4 to 0.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 74.5 to 77.6 years, the crude death rate will increase from 11.2 to 11.8, while infant mortality will decline from 9.2 to 5.2. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.9 to 2.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 14.5 to 12.1. The 1978 contraceptive prevalence rate was 79.0, while the 1982 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.3 years. Urban population will increase from 73.4% in 1985 to 77.3% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, fertility, and immigration are not. France has an explicit population policy. Concerned over the low growth rate of the native-born population, policy aims to increase fertility an population growth by improving the socioeconomic status of families, lowering the mortality rate, and restricting most types of immigration. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  24. 24
    071885

    Finland.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 214-7. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Finland's 1985 population of 4,891,000 is projected to grow to 4,994,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.2% were over the age of 60. 16.5% and 28.0% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 3.4 to -2.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 73.8 to 77.3 years, the crude death rate will increase from 9.9 to 13.3, while infant mortality will decline from 6.2 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.7 to 1.8, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 13.3 to 10.9. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 80.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.6 years. Urban population will increase from 64.0% in 1985 to 83.5% overall by the year 2025. All of these trends and indicators are considered to be acceptable by the government. Comparatively high morbidity and mortality among males, however, is of concern. Causes for such excess mortality include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents, and suicide. Finland does not have an explicit population policy. Attention is presently directed toward morbidity and mortality, promoting and supporting the family, and adjusting spatial distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  25. 25
    071884

    Fiji.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 210-3. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Fiji's 1985 population of 691,000 is projected to grow to 953,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 37.2% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.5% were over the age of 60. 20.8% and 17.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 25.7 to 6.1 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 68.9 to 76.1 years, the crude death rate will increase from 5.4 to 7.3, while infant mortality will decline from 30.8 to 10.5. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.5 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 31.1 to 13.4. The 1974 contraceptive prevalence rate was 41.0, while the 1976 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.6 years. Urban population will increase from 41.2% in 1985 to 67.4% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, immigration, and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, fertility, and spatial distribution are not. Fiji does not have an explicit population policy. The government does, however, have the intention to enact measures to control population growth and fertility. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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