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Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2016 Mar. 36 p. (CGD Policy Paper 077)This paper seeks to determine the degree to which a gender lens has been incorporated into World Bank projects and the success of individual projects according to gender equality-related indicators. We first examine the World Bank’s internal scoring of projects based on whether they encompass gender analysis, action, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) components, as well as project development objective indicators and outcomes according to these indicators. We conclude that when indicators are defined, targets are specified, and outcomes are published, gender equality-related results appear largely positive. However, many projects (even those possessing a gender “theme” and perfect scores for the inclusion of gender analysis, action, and M&E components) lack gender-related indicators, and when such indicators are present, they often lack specified target goals. The paper concludes with a recommendation for increased transparency in gender-related project data (including data on the funding of gender equality-related components of projects) from donor institutions and a call for an increased number of gender-related indicators and targets in donor projects.
A review of population, reproductive health, and adolescent health and development in poverty reduction strategies.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Health, Nutrition and Population Central Unit, Population and Reproductive Health Cluster, 2004 Aug.  p.This review examines how poverty reduction strategies are addressing population (Pop), reproductive health (RH), and adolescent health and development (AHD) issues. We analyzed twenty-one Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and associated documents, and conducted interviews with Health, Nutrition, and Population (HNP) staff at the World Bank involved in the poverty reduction strategy process. Based on this review, we recommend actions that the Bank, other donors, government counterparts, and civil society groups can take to better support countries to address Pop/RH/AHD issues in their poverty reduction efforts. Population, reproductive health, and adolescent health and development issues are closely interrelated in cause, consequence and policy implications. To maintain a stronger focus on these three issues, we chose not to analyze related concerns such as gender, nutrition, and education -- all essential components of the multisectoral approach advocated by the Cairo Programme of Action (ICPD, 1994). Other reviews have examined these related issues in greater depth. This paper complements a growing body of work reviewing the application of the PRS framework to poverty alleviation in low-income countries. Compared to previous health and related sector reviews, it provides a more in-depth look at Pop/RH/AHD issues, examines documents related to the PRSP such as the JSA and CAS, and incorporates interviews of key actors with Pop/RH/AHD expertise involved in the PRS process. This review is meant to complement findings from other reviews of the PRS process that focus on broader issues of relevance to all sectors. Our analysis relied on several of these relevant internal and external reviews, including in-depth reviews of gender, the health sector, nutrition, and population and development issues. (Excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Sep 22; 370(9592):1034.The association between domestic violence and the first five Millennium Development Goals is bidirectional. Violence has a negative effect on efforts to alleviate poverty (MDG 1), and poverty has been shown to increase the likelihood of violence. Similarly, education, women's empowerment, child mortality, and maternal health are all linked to domestic violence. Simwaka and colleagues discussed the association between women's empowerment and violence against women and poor access and control over resources, and recommended putting gender issues in the African agenda to achieve MDG 5. Hence, monitoring the progress in preventing violence should not be separated from monitoring the development process in developing countries. Other challenges such as discrimination, inequity, extremism, religious fanaticism, human rights violations, and the faded democracy process have hampered efforts to combat violence in these countries. Ammar stated that "Egypt would be able to combat public violence (eg, terrorism) better if it addresses co-occurrence of spousal and child abuse than by changing its school curriculum". Moreover, we will not be able to estimate properly the magnitude of domestic violence if its economic costs are not investigated. Therefore, the growing political will to take action against violence is not enough in itself, especially when women feel that spousal abuse is justified and when judges and lawyers are part of a culture that tolerates violence against women. (full text)
London, England, ActionAid International, . 27 p. (P1625/01/04)UNAIDS estimated that in Africa in 2003, more than 2.3 million people died from AIDS, 3 million were newly infected and a total of 12 million children were orphaned. Antiretroviral drugs are reaching a mere 50,000 of those with AIDS in developing countries. The HIV/AIDS pandemic is clearly a human and developmental disaster. This paper looks at the response to the HIV/AIDS crisis by the World Bank as a key member of the international donor/lending community, a leader in the international health community, and as Africa's principal development partner. In its seminal document, Intensifying Action Against HIV/AIDS, the World Bank acknowledges both its special leadership role in fighting HIV/AIDS and the need that it be held accountable for its stewardship. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, .  p.This Toolkit is meant for national youth organizations and/or representatives working with youth. It can be used as a tool to: Assess your country's progress in reaching the WPAY goals; Prioritize your organization's work, based on your findings; Initiate actions at the national level. This Toolkit should be used as a starting point for determining what your government, and civil society, has done to better the lives of young people, since 1995. In addition to providing methods for evaluating this progress, the Toolkit also contains concrete tools to further your youth work. As such, we hope that you will find it both informative and useful, and a good resource for your organization. (excerpt)
Unkept promises: what the numbers say about poverty and gender. An international citizen's progress report on poverty eradication and gender equity. Advance Social Watch report 2005.
Montevideo, Uruguay, Social Watch, 2005. 114 p. (Social Watch Report)Almost five years have passed since the largest gathering ever of heads of State and government made this solemn promise to the peoples of the world: "we will spare no effort to free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty."1 Almost ten years have passed since the leaders of the world solemnly committed themselves in Copenhagen "to the goal of eradicating poverty in the world, through decisive national actions and international cooperation, as an ethical, social, political and economic imperative of humankind."2 This is an ambitious agenda. So much so that it was compared by many leaders to the historic task of slavery abolition in the 19th century. Inspired by the Copenhagen Declaration and the complementary Beijing Platform for Action towards gender equity, 3 citizen groups from all over the world came together to form the Social Watch network. Every year since then, Social Watch has published a comprehensive report monitoring the governments' compliance with their international commitments. The findings of the national Social Watch coalitions in over 60 countries and the analysis of the available indicators coincide: the promises have remained largely unmet. Unless substantial changes are put in place soon, the targets set for the year 2015 will not be achieved. (excerpt)
Are cost effective interventions enough to achieve the Millennium Development Goals? Money, infrastructure, and information are also vital [editorial]
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2005 Nov 12; 331(7525):1093-1094.At a high level forum in Paris this month policy makers are meeting to discuss the financial sustainability and coordination of activities essential for achieving the millennium development goals. Building on other targets set in the 1990s, such as those at the 1990 UN children’s summit, these ambitious goals agreed by 189 countries aim to markedly reduce poverty and hunger and improve education and health throughout the world by 2015. But many less developed countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, are falling short of the target to reduce child mortality by 4.4% a year, the rate required to cut deaths among children less than 5 years old by two thirds (from the 1990 level) by 2015. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 24-46.The solemn commitment that was made in Cairo in 1994 to make reproductive health care universally available was a culmination of efforts made by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and all those concerned about a people-centred and human rights approach to population issues. The commitment posed important challenges to national governments and the international community, to policy makers, programme planners and service providers, and to the civil society at large. The role of UNFPA in building up the consensus for the reproductive health approach before Cairo had to continue after Cairo if the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) were to be achieved. UNFPA continues to be needed to strengthen the commitment, maintain the momentum, mobilize the required resources, and help national governments and the international community move from word to action, and from rhetoric to reality. Reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, is now one of three major programme areas for UNFPA. During 1997, reproductive health accounted for over 60 per cent of total programme allocations by the Fund. (excerpt)