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Potential impact of adjustment policies on vulnerability of women and children to HIV / AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. 2005 Jun; 23(2):105-120.This paper evaluates the potential impact of adjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank on the vulnerability of women and children to HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. A conceptual framework, composed of five different pathways of causation, is used for the evaluation. These five pathways connect changes at the macro level (e.g. removal of food subsidies) with effects at the meso (e.g. higher food prices) and micro levels (e.g. exposure of women and children to commercial sex) that influence the vulnerability of women and children to HIV/AIDS. Published literature on adjustment policies and socioeconomic determinants of HIV/AIDS among women and children in sub-Saharan Africa was reviewed to explore the cause-effect relationships included in the theoretical framework. Evidence suggests that adjustment policies may inadvertently produce conditions facilitating the exposure of women and children to HIV/AIDS. Complex research designs are needed to further investigate this relationship. A shift in emphasis from an individual approach to a socioeconomic approach in the study of HIV infection among women and children in the developing world is suggested. Given the potential for adjustment policies to exacerbate the AIDS pandemic among women and children, a careful examination of the effects of these policies on maternal and child welfare is urgently needed. (author's)
Development Bulletin. 2002 Jul; (58):16-19.It is commonly accepted among development agencies that poverty and environmental degradation are intricately linked. All donor or development agencies have recently made that link explicit, and accepted a concept of poverty that is more than simply cash-based or economically defined. Like other development banks and development assistance agencies, the World Bank and AusAID have a policy focus on reducing poverty, which they define in terms of income generation, vulnerability and other aspects of livelihood or well-being. Marjorie Sullivan (2001) undertook a brief analysis of how the links between poverty and environment can be addressed through development assistance. She concluded that it is not possible to undertake an adequate poverty analysis as a basis for identifying project interventions without considering long term (post project) sustainability, nor without fully considering resource use. That analysis must include the explicit links between poverty and environment, and the more contentious issue of ecological sustainability (to address ecosystem services concepts), and how these can be incorporated into the management of development assistance programs. (excerpt)
The changing roles of women and men in the family and fertility regulation: some labour policy aspects
In: Family and population. Proceedings of the "Scientific Conference on Family and Population," Espoo, Finland, May 25-27, 1984, edited by Hellevi Hatunen. Helsinki, Finland, Vaestoliitto, 1984. 62-83.There is growing evidence that labor policies, such as those advocated by the International Labor Organization (ILO), promote changes in familial roles and that these changes in turn have an impact on fertility. A conceptual model describing these linkages is offered and the degree to which the linkages hypothesized in the model are supported by research findings is indicated. The conceptual model specifies that: 1) as reliance on child labor declines, through the enactment of minimum age labor laws, the economic value of children declines, and parents adopt smaller family size ideals; 2) as security increases for the elderly, through the provision of social security and pension plans, the elderly become less dependent on their children, and the perceived need to produce enough children to ensure security in old age is diminished; and 3) as sexual equality in job training and employment and the availability of flexible work schedules increase, sexual equality in the domestic setting increases, and women begin to exert more control over their own fertility. ILO studies and many other studies provide considerable evidence in support of these hypothesized linkages; however, the direction or causal nature of some of the associations has not been established. Development levels, rural or urban residence, and a number of other factors also appear to influence many of these relationships. Overall, the growing body of evidence accords well with ILO programs and instruments which promote: 1) the enactment of minimum age work laws to reduce reliance on child labor, 2) the establishment of social security systems and pension plans to promote the economic independence of the elderly, 3) the promotion of sexual equality in training programs and employment; 4) the promotion of the idea of sexual equality in the domestic setting; and 5) the establishment of employment policies which do not unfairly discriminate against workers with family responsibilities.
In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 107-23. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)The Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Family was assinged the identification of those areas in current scientific knowledge and concerns regarding fertility and family that were of greatest salience for policy formulation and implementation. Particular attention was to be paid to shifts that had occurred since the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest. This article is mainly an overview of the work of the Group and is organized around 3 main themes: 1) advances in knowledge of fertility levels and trends; 2) advances in understanding the relations between development, fertility and the family; 3)theoretical advances and practical experience with regard to policy formulation and implementation. 1) Knowledge of existing patterns of fertility and their composition has increased markedly over the last decade as a result of more data, better estimation techniques for measuring fertility levels and of new approaches to studying the reporductive process and family formation (e.g., the development of analytical models that allow quantification of the role of the various proximate determinants of fertility). A far-reaching realization is that proximate determinants of fertility may respond to the same set of factors but their responses may exhibit different elasticities. 2) In the understanding the relations between development, fertility and family, 2 main areas of concern can be identified. He level and type of analyses to date, especially the empirical ones, have been carried out at the micro-level, focusing on the individual decision maker. Although such models are advances over earlier ones developed largely from classical demographic transition theory, yet, their use has not been entirely satisfying because of the common failure to adequately specify the concepts involved and/or to substitute for them broad socioeconomic indicators in empirical work. In addition, institutional supports for and interrelations with particular patterns of fertility and family have been neglected, resulting, theoretical and practical impoverishment. The 2nd area of concern is the identification of those dimensions of family structure and function that are most intimately interlocked with modernization and fertility change. The discussion focuses on the interplay between modernization, the relationship between the generations, and between the sexes. Finally, there is an increasing awareness that a number of aspirations regarding fertility and family may be contradictory with respect to general advances in policcy formulation and implementation. 4 important trends can be discerned: 1) assessment of the potential utility and effectiveness of policy and programmatic efforts; 2) trends in the definition of desirable goals; 3) new directions in terms of the institutiona means for achieving these goals; and 4) shifts in the perception of the individual's freedom of choice.
In: Communication economics and development, edited by Meheroo Jussawalla [and] D. M. Lamberton. Elmsford, New York, Pergamon, 1982. 190-210. (Pergamon Policy Studies on International Development)This chapter focuses on economic aspects of the provision of telephone service in developing countries. Whereas developed countries have 10-50 telephones/100 population, developing countries have under 5/100. There is a large excess demand for telecommunications services in developing countries, and the measurable returns on the investment required to provide these services are reasonably high. Reasons cited for the lack of investment in telecommunications in developing countries include the World Bank's limitation of its involvement to that of lender of last resort, a lack of enumeration of the benefits of telecommunications investment relative to what is done in other sectors, a perception that such investments confer direct benefits only to a privileged portion of the population, tariff policies, and institutional and organizational problems within and outside the telecommunications operating entities. However, further analysis indicates that most of these factors are not valid obstacles, and there is a need for more detailed information sector analysis in developing countries to clarify the economic and social advantages of such investment. Applied research approaches to the economics of telecommunications in developing countries include macroeconomic, locational/sectoral, microeconomic, tariff, and distributional analyses. Such analyses provide a fairly consistent picture of the role of telecommunications in development as well as the value and limitations of various approaches. There appears to be no real alternative to a case-by-case microeconomic approach in which some form of cost-benefit analysis is applied to specific telecommunications investment projects. Unfortunately, the necessary data bases are not available. Thus, the only practical means remaining is to follow market signals. Such tariff studies, directed toward questions of economic efficiency, can be supplemented with distributional analyses.