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Guidelines or other tools for integrating gender considerations into climate change related activities under the Convention.
[Bonn, Germany], UNFCCC, 2016. 33 p.Drawing on relevant web-based resources, this technical paper aims to provide an overview of existing methodologies and tools for the integration of gender considerations into climate change related activities under the Convention. The paper assesses selected tools and guidelines in terms of their methodology, information and data requirements, capacity-building needs, lessons learned, gaps and challenges, and relevance for social and environmental impacts. Parties may wish to use the information contained in this paper in their consideration of entry points for the integration of gender considerations into the formulation and implementation of strategies for mitigating and adapting to the impacts of climate change.
Support to mainstreaming AIDS in development. UNAIDS Secretariat strategy note and action framework, 2004-2005.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, . 10 p.Twenty years into the pandemic, there is now ample evidence for the complex linkages between AIDS and development: development gaps increase people's susceptibility to HIV transmission and their vulnerability to the impact of AIDS; inversely, the epidemic itself hampers or even reverses development progress so as to pose a major obstacle to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The growing understanding of this two-way relationship between AIDS and development has led to the insight that, in addition to developing programmes that specifically address AIDS, there is a need to strengthen the way in which existing development programmes address both the causes and effects of the epidemic in each country-specific setting. The process through which to achieve this is called 'Mainstreaming AIDS'. In recognition of this, the 2001 United Nations General Assembly Special Session Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS requires countries to integrate their AIDS response into the national development process, including poverty reduction strategies, budgeting instruments and sectoral programmes. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2007. 31 p.This report, the third of its kind, reviews the progress that has been made in the field of violence prevention since the October 2002 launch of the World report on violence and health and the Global Campaign for Violence Prevention. More importantly, it sets out what the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners can do over the next 5 years to expand violence prevention programming and to demonstrate, in terms of lives saved lives and suffering averted, the impact of violence prevention. Violence is a major obstacle to health and development, but as Nelson Mandela said in the foreword to the World report on violence and health, "Violence can be prevented. Violent cultures can be turned around ... Governments, communities and individuals can make a difference". As well as increased awareness that violence is preventable, notable achievements of the first 5 years of the Global Campaign for Violence Prevention detailed here include consolidating and disseminating normative guidance on how to prevent violence; carving a niche within government health ministries for focal persons to promote violence prevention; and taking stock of the scale and nature of the violence problem and the responses to it. At the individual level, tens of thousands of people in scores of countries have been touched by violence prevention programmes and thousands of victims have been helped to cope with the aftermath of their experience through services established as part of the Global Campaign for Violence Prevention. (excerpt)
Finance and Development. 2005 Jun; 42(2): p..But while the international community agrees that something needs to be done, how best to go about it remains the subject of vigorous debate. No one questions that human capital—in the form of better health status and higher levels of educational attainment—is a major building block for sustaining the productivity growth that would, in turn, spur broad-based economic growth in developing countries. But inefficiencies in the public provision of these services—due, for instance, to corruption or a lack of skilled workers—have led some to question whether just increasing public spending is the best route, especially given the role of other factors (such as income per capita) in determining social indicators. For that reason, we undertook a study to try to help policymakers evaluate the effects of different policies on social indicators and growth. This article examines our results, which show that while higher spending on health and education is worthwhile, poor governance and macroeconomic instability may offset the positive impact of social spending on growth and human development. But first it is helpful to review what past research has taught us. (excerpt)
In: Women, international development, and politics: the bureaucratic mire. Updated and expanded edition, edited by Kathleen Staudt. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Temple University Press, 1997. 311-329.The world has witnessed a remarkable surge in the women's movement that has put forward over the last two decades a bold vision of social transformation and challenged the global community to respond. This article reviews the response of one set of key players: the international donor agencies dealing with women's development issues. It focuses on the actions of four donors, two bilateral (Norway and Canada) and two multilateral (the World Bank and the United Nations Development Program) and attempts to assess their performance in the last twenty years in broad strokes. It asks three basic sets of questions. First, what were the articulated objectives of their special policies and measures to promote women's advancement? Were they responsive to the aspiration of the women's movement? Second, did the donors adopt any identifiable set of strategies to realize the policy objectives? Were they effective? And finally, what were the results? Was there any quantitative and qualitative evidence to suggest progress? The two bilateral donors--Canada and Norway--were selected because they have a reputation among donors of mounting major initiatives for women. They number among the few agencies who adopted detailed women-in-development (WID) or gender-and-development (GAD) policies. In contrast, the two multilateral donors--United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the World Bank---were chosen not on the strength of their WlD/GAD mandates and policies, but because of the influence they wield in shaping the development strategies of the countries of the South. The World Bank through its conditionalities often dictates policy reforms to aid-recipient governments. The UNDP, as the largest fund, has a big presence within the United Nations system. The actions of these two agencies-- what they advocate and what they omit or marginalize--have a strong impact on the policy analysis and investments of the aid-recipient countries. The study is primarily based on published and unpublished data collected from the four donor agencies. (excerpt)
Report: Second Conference of Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, 23-25 September 1987, Beijing, China.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1987. , 72 p.The formal proceedings of the 1987 Asian (AFPPD) Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (FPPD) are provided in some detail. 23 countries participated. The Asian Forum Beijing Declaration preamble, program of action, call to action, and rededication are presented. Background information indicates that these conferences have been ongoing since 1984 to exchange information and experience, to promote cooperation, and to sustain involvement of Parliamentarians in population and development issues. Official delegations represented Australia, Bangladesh, China, Korea, India, Iraq, Japan, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, north and south Korea, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, and Vietnam. Observers were from Bhutan, Cyprus, Indonesia, Kiribati, and Tonga. The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) was involved as Conference Secretariat as well as the Preparatory Committee of China. Other UN and nongovernmental organizations and Parliamentary Councils of the World, Africa, and Europe were involved. Summaries were made of opening conference addresses of Mr. Takashi Sato, Mr. Zhou Gucheng, Chinese Premier Zhao Zivang, Japanese Prime Minister Takeo Fukuda, Dr. Nafis Sadik from the UNFPA, Mrs. Rahman Othman for Mr. Sat Paul Mittal of AFPPD, Australian Prime Minister R.J.L. Hawke, India Prime Minister Rajiv Ghandi, Sri Lankan Prime Minister R. Premedasa, Philippine President Corazon Aquino, Pakistan President Mohammad Zia-ul-Hag, and Bangladesh President Hussain Muhammad Ershad. Election of officers was discussed. The plenary sessions reported on the present situation and prospects for Asian population and development, basic health services and family planning (FP), urbanization, population and food, and aging. Reports were also provided of an exchange among Parliamentarians, the adoption of conference documents and the AFPPD constitution, election of officers, and the closing speakers. Appendices provide a complete list of participants, the constitution which was adopted, and the addresses of Mr. Zhou Gucheng from China's National People's Congress; Mr. Zhao Ziyang, Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Mr. Takeo Fukuda of the Global Committee of FPPD, Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director, UNFPA; and Mr. Sat Paul Mittal, Secretary General, AFPPD.
[Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994.  p.In his address to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, the Minister of Health and Family Welfare for India stated that mankind is poised at a crucial moment in its history. A global economic crisis exists along with a severe economic imbalance that has lead to prosperity for some and deprivation for others. This situation has been exacerbated by unprecedented spending on weapons of destruction instead of devoting those resources to human health and development needs. Significant achievements in increasing life expectancy and reducing infant and child mortality rates has been matched by a failure to reduce mortality rates as much as possible and by the AIDS epidemic. Developing countries, in which more than 90% of the current growth in population is taking place, have to break the connection between fertility rates, poverty, morbidity, and illiteracy in order to achieve economic development. In India, the Family Welfare Program provides family planning services within the broad context of maternal and child health care. A new Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program is currently being implemented. Women have benefitted from new employment opportunities, a special credit fund, and special provisions in the Integrated Rural Development Program. A National Commission for Women has been established to safeguard the constitutionally protected equal rights of women. The empowerment of women will ultimately help them overcome the sociocultural traditions which make them subordinate to men and will also lead to faster economic growth. Together we must work to make the world a healthy and happy home for future generations.
[New York, New York], United Nations, 1992.  p.Drafts of Agenda 21 of the Rio Declaration on Forest Principles is a massive and detailed account in 4 parts: 1) the preamble and the social and economic dimensions, 2) conservation and management of resources for development, 3) strengthening the role of major groups, and 4) means of implementation. There are 40 chapters largely devoted to issues concerning management of water resources. The Appendix includes the Adoption of Agreements on Environment and Development note by the Secretary General of the Conference and the Proposal by the Chairman of the Preparatory Committee of May 7, 1992; 27 principles were agreed upon. Also included is the nonlegal binding authoritative statement of principles for a global consensus on the management, conservation, and sustainable development of all types of forests by the Secretary General and the preamble and principles. Part I is concerned with international cooperation in increasing sustainable development in developing countries, the reduction of poverty, the change in consumption patterns, demographic dynamics, the protection and promotion of human health conditions, the promotion of sustainable human settlement development, and the integration of the environment and development in decision making. Part II includes atmosphere protection, integration of planning and management of land resources, deforestation, managing fragile ecosystems, conservation of biological diversity, protection of the oceans, seas, and coastal areas as well as a rational use of resources, protection of freshwater resources, environmental sound management of hazardous wastes and solid wastes and sewage, and safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes. Part III is devoted to the preamble, global action for women, children and youth in sustainable development, recognition and strengthening of the role of indigenous people and communities, strengthening nongovernmental organizations, local authorities initiatives in support of Agenda 21, strengthening workers and trade unions, the scientific and technological community, and strengthening the role of farmers. Part IV identifies financial resources and mechanisms, environmentally sound technology transfer, science, promotion of education and public awareness, international institutional arrangements, international legal instruments and mechanisms, and information for decision making.
PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1992; 1(1-2):8-10.UNCED is about human beings managing their affairs so that all can achieve a reasonably good life without destroying the life-supporting environment. Currently human activities are approaching an upset of environmental balance through production of greenhouse gases, depletion of the ozone layer, and reduction of natural resources. Equity is the right to a decent life for the current human population of 5.5 billion and the future 10 billion expected within the next 50 years. A minimum use of environmental space/person is required. The Earth Summit will be a broad statement of environmental policy. Agenda 21 includes 115 action programs within 40 chapters. Separate conventions will be held on climate and biodiversity. The secretariat of UNCED has been working primarily with Agenda 21. Population issues are emphasized in Chapter 5 ("Demographic Dynamics and Sustainability") of the first section in Agenda 21 on Social and Economic Dimensions. The program areas include 1) research on the links between population, the environment, and development; 2) formulation by governments of integrated national policies on environment and development, which account for demographic trends, and promotion of population literacy; and 3) implementation of local level programs to ensure access to education and information and services in order to plan families freely and responsibly. Increases in funding for the population program are anticipated to be US $9 billion by the year 2000 and about US $7 billion/year until then. The year 2000 will bring with it a doubling of urban population in developing countries. There are challenges and opportunities to expand private sector job creation, education, clean water, and family health services. In addition to managing human settlements, there is also management of fragile ecosystems, which means relieving the pressure on these lands through urban migration or relocation to richer agricultural areas. The goal for agriculture is to triple food outputs over the next 50 years without increasing land use; improved soil and management systems are needed. Ocean/seas protection from pollution and provision of an adequate, clean water supply are other challenges. Demographic transition must be completed in order to improve global development success.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. viii, 67 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/112)Targeted to planners and policy makers as a tool helpful for policy formulation, this report describes the integration of population and development planning in Turkey. With economic development accompanied by rapid population growth, Turkish planners have considered the important relation of such growth to income and social welfare. Reducing the rate of population growth has been a part of all 5-year development plans. The paper presents background information on Turkey, describes the structure of the study, analyzes positive results and difficulties, and discusses the information, methods, and institutions used to efficiently integrate the 2 subjects. Chapters discuss development and population trends, issues and objectives, and frameworks, knowledge, methodologies, institutions, and procedure for integrated planning. Plan implementation is then also considered. In closing, the paper notes that the concept of integrated planning has no been fully embraced by the country's planners, and that population policy formulation has yet to be truly linked with development planning. Demographic data has, however, been introduced into both overall planning and at some sectoral levels.
[Unpublished] 1989 Nov. 126 p. (A/E/BD/4/Sec. II)UNFPA has published a comprehensive document on the state of the art of maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP) worldwide. This paper mostly focuses on family planning because that is UNFPA's mandate, but since MCH/FP services are often delivered in an integrated fashion the recommendations and strategies for the management and administration of FP in this paper can also apply to MCH services. This document is a practical and useful historical analysis that traces past, current and future trends in family planning. It discusses issues and strategies, controversies, conflicts, advantages and disadvantages of population/FP issues by region and between developed and developing countries. The reader gets a comprehensive overview in MCH/FP during the past 3 decades. Major conferences, policies and events focusing on MCH/FP issues are interwoven into the multiple factors involved in FP practice and future needs. There are 9 chapters and 14 tables of valuable data. The chapters include: 1) Introduction; 2) Current FP practice and future needs in developed and developing countries; 3) Macro-environmental factors affecting provision of services; 4) Approaches to service delivery in the public and private sectors; 5) Current and future contraceptive technology; 6) Strategic issues; 7) Administrative issues; 8) Special challenges; and 9) Future priorities.
FRONT LINES. 1987 Sep; 27(8):8-9, 11.The USAID's mission in Nepal is to assist development until the people can sustain their own needs: although the US contributes only 5% of donor aid, USAID coordinates donor efforts. The mission's theme is to emphasize agricultural productivity, conserve natural resources, promote the private sector and expand access to health, education and family planning. Nepal, a mountainous country between India and Tibet, has 16 million people growing at 2.5% annually, and a life expectancy of only 51 years. Only 20% of the land is arable, the Kathmandu valley and the Terai strip bordering India. Some of the objectives include getting new seed varieties into cultivation, using manure and compost, and building access roads into the rural areas. Rice and wheat yields have tripled in the '80s relative to the yields achieved in 1970. Other ongoing projects include reforestation, irrigation and watershed management. Integrated health and family planning clinics have been established so that more than 50% of the population is no more than a half day's walk from a health post. The Nepal Fertility Study of 1976 found that only 2.3% of married women were using modern contraceptives. Now the Contraceptive Retail Sales Private Company Ltd., a social marketing company started with USAID help, reports that the contraceptive use rate is now 15%. Some of the other health targets are control of malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, leprosy, acute respiratory infections, and malnutrition. A related goal is raising the literacy rate for women from the current 12% level. General education goals are primary education teacher training and adult literacy. A few descriptive details about living on the Nepal mission are appended.
Asian-Pacific Population Programme News. 1984; 13(2):25-30.Differences between the Report of the UN World Population Conference and the Report of the Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference were discussed in reference to 1) the relative importance placed on family planning and development in lowering fertility levels, 2) the degree to which family planning and development programs should be integrated, and 3) setting family planning targets. The UN conference was held in Bucharest, Hungary, in 1974 and the Asian and Pacific Conference was held in Colomb, Sri Lanka in 1982. The relative importance of family planning and development on fertility was a major issue at the Bucharest conference. The World Population Plan for Action (WPPA) formulated at the Bucharest conference did not recommend family planning as a strategy for reducing fertility; instead, the WPPA recommended that countries interested in reducing fertility should give priority to development programs and urged developed countries to promote international equity in the use of world resources. In contrast, the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development as formulated at the Colomb conference, strongly recommended both development and family planning programs as a means to reduce fertility. It urged governments to adopt strong family planning policies, to make family planning services available on a regular basis, and to educate and motivate their populations toward family planning. In regard to integration strategies, the WPPA called for integrating family planning programs and development programs wherever possible, and particularly recommended integrated delivery of family planning and health services. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action supported an integrated approach, but only in those situations where it was proven to be a workable approach, i.e., where it improved the efficiency of family planning services. Combining family planning and maternal and child health programs is known to be an advantageous approach, but the consequences of integrating family planning with other health programs and with development programs needs further study. The WPPA recommended that governments set targets for life expectancy and infant mortality, but it did not mention setting fertility targets or establishing an ideal family size. It did urge governments to create the type of socioeconomic conditions which would permit couples to have the number of children they desired and to space them in the manner they wished. The WPPA noted that substantial national effort would be required to reduce the birthrate to the UN projected rate of 30/1000 population in developing regions by 1985. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action urged countries to set specific targets which would make it possible for them to attain replacement level fertility in the year 2000. It will be interesting to observe the degree to which the Asian and Pacific countries will be able to influence the participants at the upcoming International Conference on Population to their way of thinking on these critical issues. A copy of the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development is included in an annex to the article.
Strengthening the UNFPA, statement made at the Regional Meeting of UNDP Resident Representatives for Africa, Addis Ababa, 18 May 1972.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 18 p.The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) recognizes that much of the success of its activities depends on having the full support and cooperation of the Administrator of UNDP, the Resident Representatives and the United Nations Regional Economic Commissions and looks forward to integrating Fund-supported population work even more closely with the overall economic and social development programs being assisted by the United Nations system. Issues discussed in this statement are: financing; assistance to projects in Africa; the General Assembly Resolution 2815 (XXVI) and recommendations for the implementation of the resolution; UNFPA reorganization; field staff; UNFPA flexibility; country programming; and proposals to improve the implementation of projects funded by UNFPA.
In: Latin American Conference on Population and Development Planning, Cartegena, Colombia 10-11 May 1979: final report. New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1979. 1-9. (RLA/78/P15; UNFPA/79/CDPP/LA/4)The World Population Conference at Bucharest underlined the need to understand the many ways in which population and development processes are interrelated, while the World Population Plan of Action adopted by the Conference stressed the primacy of development concerns and their relationship to population studies and action. The decade of the 70s witnessed a greater realization of the need to analyze the structures of societies and their effects on their inhabitants rather than exclusive preoccupation with aggregate economic growth and industrialization. The dominant perception of population programs as being synonymous with family planning was simultaneously being replaced by a realization of the breadth and complexity of the issues and an increased focus on mortality, migration, and spatial distribution of populations. Population influences all inputs of development planning and is influenced by them in turn. The work of the UNFPA over its first decade proved that population is susceptible to programmatic treatment. Analysis of the linkage of population and development planning requires greater disaggregation in the data to understand the processes at work in society, more attention to population movements and distribution, and search for understanding of the mutual impact of population and development processes and programs. The goal of such activities is to develop more sensitive and suitable population policies which are integrated into development policies and programs.
In: Martinez Manautou J, ed. The demographic revolution in Mexico 1970-1980. Mexico City, Mexican Institute of Social Security, 1982. 17-97.Provides summaries of Mexican demographics, with tables showing annual growth rate (1900-1980), demographic growth rates, crude birth and mortality rates, life expectancy at birth by sex (all for 1940-1980), marital status of women and average age at 1st union (1979), rural and urban population with age distribution (1940-1980), fertility rates overall and broken down by urban and rural groups (1971-1979) and specific age groups (1971 and 1979). Discusses population policy development which has changed from formally pronatalist in the 1940s to a gradual realization of the need for slower growth. Relevant laws and regulations are briefly noted. Policy is viewed in the context of international movements (notably the World Action Plan for Population). The National Plan for Family Planning is summarized and placed in the context of overall development and planning and coordination of overall health services. Organizations within the health sector which provide family planning services are briefly described. The coordination of the national family planning program is based organizationally on the general sense of family planning in 3 dimensions: health, demography, and family and community development; it has 2 types of general objectives: intrinsic, at the family level, and extrinsic, at the social level. Family planning activities are developed according to multidisciplinary, micro and macrosocial, and coordinated activity perspectives. The organization of the coordination office of the national program and the composition of the National Plan are detailed, including establishment of common bases for family planning, coordinated intrasectoral programming, and participation of international organizations.
People. 1983; 10(2):6-9.The main findings of the World Health Organization (WHO) recent global review of the progress that has been made in the Health for All campaign are presented. The attempt was made to assess progress on the basis of the following 12 global indicators: endorsement of Health for All as a policy at the highest official level; establishing mechanisms for involving people in Health for All strategies; spending at least 5% of the gross national product (GNP) on health; a reasonable percentage of national health expenditures devoted to local health care; primary health resources equitably distributed; the number of developing countries with well-defined strategies for Health for All, accompanied by explicit resource allocations and sustained outside support; primary health care available to the whole population; adequate nutritional status for children; infant mortality rate to be below 50/1000 live births; life expectancy at birth of over 60 years; adult literacy for men and women over 70%; and gross national product per head over $500. 39 of the 70 countries have signed regional charters pledging themselves to strive to achieve Health for All by the Year 2000. Another 9 countries have committed themselves through other policy statements. 31 countries have reported on efforts to involve communities, half of them by adopting policies and half through actual mechanisms, although not necessarily on a national scale. 26 of the 70 countries are spending more than $5 a head each year on health care. Many countries are placing more emphasis on providing resources for local care, but the shift is nowhere near what is required. WHO has been unable to establish the per capita spending on primary health since it permeates so many levels and sectors of the health services. Activities to increase food supply and improve nutrition are being integrated into primary health care in the form of nutritional surveillance, preventing and controlling deficiency disorders, promoting breastfeeding, direct treatment of malnutrition, oral rehydration therapy, food supplements, immunization, and the addition of iodine to salt. Only 7 of the 54 countries reporting infant mortality rates were below 50/1000, and these included 3 developed countries. Rates in the remaining 47 ranged from 56/1000, to 250/1000. Of the 70 countries, 51 had life expectancy rates varying between 40 and 59; in 1979, 13 had rates over 60 and 6 did not report. Only 4 countries reported male and female literacy rates over 70%. Over 60% of the countries reviewed had a per capita GNP of less than $500.
Integrating population programmes, statement made at 10th Asian Parasite Control Organization Family Planning Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 5 September 1983.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 6 p. (Speech Series No. 95)The relationship between the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and UNFPA has been a vital force in the integration of family planning programs with nutrition and health services. The success of the integrated programs is evidenced by its rapid expansion from a pilot project in 1975 to projects in many countries in Asia, the Pacific and Latin America. The programs are efficient and effective in delivery of family planning services, as well as in linking and integrating these family planning services with other social and development programs. The programs have been designed to meet the needs of the people at the village level, taking into account their cultural sensitivities. This approach has encouraged acceptance and cooperation by the local communities and has made the program credible to the villagers. In fact, this seems to be the key to effective implementation of any type of development project. The coming 1984 International Conference on Popultion is also discussed. It is hoped that the present meeting will produce policy and operational suggestions which can be discussed at the International Conference.
In: Impact, effectiveness and efficiency of the AFPH programs on family planning status in 20 provinces, [compiled by] Mahidol University. Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]. Bangkok, Thailand, Mahidol University, IPSR, 1983. 3-9. (IPSR Publication No. 76)The Population Project, implemented by the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand, has as its goal the integration of family planning with existing public health services. 20 provinces were selected for the project from 1979-1982. Thailand's population policy, instituted in 1970, was aimed at reducing the growth rate, which had inhibited national development. The plan featured 2 5-year plans, and the Population Project was designed to meet the goals of these plans. The strategies to achieve these goals include: expansion and improvement of family planning services; training of public health personnel; expansion of information services; and increased evaluation and research on family planning. Financial aid for the project came from the World Bank, as well as various international governmental aid agencies. It was estimated that to achieve the reduced growth rate goal, 3 million new contraceptive acceptors and 1.6 million continuing users were required. The project operated on 2 levels, national and provincial. On the national level, training of non-medical personnel and expansion of family planning services were the aims. On the provincial level, the project's objective was to accelerate the expansion of family planning services in rural areas of 20 provinces that were characterized by low rates of family planning practice. The project was administered by the ministry of Public Health, with operation of the project under the Central Operation Unit, Provincial Operation Unit, and the Central Coordination Unit. The 5 levels of operation were: village; tambon; district; provincial; and national. Activities included service, training, communication, evaluation and research, and administrative management. By September 1981, the project realized an increase in health centers in rural areas, an increase in non-medical personnel, and the provision of additional vehicles. These inputs were realized across all 20 provinces participating in the project.