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Basingstoke, United Kingdom, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.  p.This Report explores the integral links between environmental sustainability and equity and shows that these are critical to expanding human freedoms for people today and in generations to come. The point of departure is that the remarkable progress in human development over recent decades that the Human Development Report has documented cannot continue without bold global steps to reduce environmental risks and inequality. We identify pathways for people, communities, countries and the international community to promote environmental sustainability and equity in mutually reinforcing ways.
In: Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. Proceedings of the United Nations / Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques Expert Group Meeting, New York, 23-26 August 1988. New York, New York, Taylor and Francis, 1991. 345-77.Drawing from recent studies concerning the consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries, this paper argues against the common notion that population growth stands as a major obstacle for economic development in developing countries, emphasizing the complexity of demographic and economic interrelations. The studies discussed were presented at the UN Expert Group Meeting on Consequences of Rapid Population Growth in Developing Countries. The 1st section of the paper examines the prospects for continued population growth and its implication for the age structure of developing countries. Considering historical and current data, the 2nd section discusses inter country relations between population and economic growth rates, and how population growth affects such inter-country economic relations. The 3rd section examines the following sectoral issues: employment, savings rates, income distribution, and investment. While the 4th section considers the impact of population growth on resources and the environment, the 5th and 6th sections consider possible benefits of population growth. These possible benefits include bringing about economies of scale and hastening technical and institutional change. The 7th section examines the impact of population growth on kinship structures, and the 8th section considers a methodology for quantifying externalities resulting from population growth. Finally, the last section presents the conclusions of the UN Expert Group Meeting.
Population Research Leads. 1985; (19):1-15.The Population Division's evaluation of the role of population factors in the planning process through the application of economic-demographic models shows that procedures for considering the short and long-term implications of population growth can be significantly improved. The Division's research projects demonstrate that models can help planners to achieve an efficient allocation of scarce resources, set clear-cut national objectives and provide a national sense of political and social purpose. There are many advantages in applying economic-demographic models to development planning in order to integrate population factors within the development process, yet care must be taken in adopting and/or applying a certain model at the national level. Aside from the question of adopting a model, the question of the applicability and application of models is emphasized. The choice of model structure is discussed in terms of 4 major issues: 1) the choice of a central core; 2) the trade-off between simplicity and complexity and the appropriate degree of endogeneity; 3) the choice of a demand or supply orientation; and 4) the criteria for selecting a particular model for use. A representative selection of economic demographic models is presented. Included are the TEMPO (designed to illustrate the benefits of reduced fertility) and Long-Range Planning Models (LAPM--designed to illustrate the implications of policy assumptions for economic development, particularly in regard to health and education), both developed by the US government. Also described are the BACHUE and the UN Fund for Populations Activities (UNFPA)/ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) models. It is argued that these latter models offer the greatest promise as tools for planning in the ESCAP Region, at the present time. As the BACHUE model is primarily concerned with employment and the distribution of income and the UNFPA/FAO model with agriculture, incorporating both into the planning process could be desirable.
In: Ghosh PK, ed. Third world development: a basic needs approach. Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 1984. 115-45. (International Development Resource Books No. 13)The basic needs approach is critically examined, and the appropriateness of donor agency support for the basic needs approach is questioned. The basic needs approach is plagued by operational problems. It is difficult 1) to define minimum basic need levels, especially if absolute standards are advocated; 2) to measure basic needs; and 3) to implement basic needs programs in such a way as to ensure that only the poorest segments of the population derive benefits and that the benefits remain in the hands of the poor. Basic needs advocates fail to deal with the question of economic growth. They assume that economic growth will continue and ignore the fact that there is a trade-off between satisfying basic needs and investing in growth. They also ignore the issue of trade-offs between fulfilling present and future basic needs. The basic needs approach implies a specific development pattern, and the longterm consequences of this implied development pattern are not sufficiently examined by advocates of the approach. The basic needs approach requires a development pattern that stresses rural development and labor intensive production instead of industrialization, capital intensive production, and growth of the modern sector. Ultimately, the development pattern advocated by this approach will result in an international division of labor between the developing and developed countries which will not improve international marketing conditions for the developing countries since developed countries will not be willing to substantially increase their importation of labor intensive products from the developing countries. Donor agencies need to adopt a cautious attitude toward funding and promoting the basic needs approach. Many developing countries strongly resent the basic needs approach. They feel that donors and the developed countries do not have the right to force them to focus their energies on eradicating poverty. They also fear that the approach is an attempt to reduce financial assistance. Donor agencies lack sufficient expertise to evaluate poverty-oriented programs and to assess the long range impact of many of these programs. In one country, a donor-supported basic needs program to increase agricultural productivity had the unexpected result of reducing the price of agricultural products. Another project aimed at improving living standards in a particular rural community unexpectedly increased property values and, ultimately, led to the migration of the former residents to an urban slum. Furthermore, donor agencies do not have the right to impose development strategies on aid recipients. Development strategies must be formulated by the recipients, and donors should support only those strategies which accord with the development goals of the recipient countries.