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Universal access to reproductive health. Accelerated actions to enhance progress on Millennium Development Goal 5 through advancing Target 5B.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2011.  p. (WHO/RHR/HRP/11.02)The World Health Organization (WHO) Department of Reproductive Health and Research convened a technical consultation involving stakeholders from countries, regions and partner agencies to review strategies applied within countries for advancing universal access to sexual and reproductive health with a view to identifying strategic approaches to accelerate progress in achieving universal access. Case-studies from seven countries (Brazil, Cambodia, India, Morocco, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan and Zambia) illustrating application of a variety of strategies to improve access to sexual and reproductive health, lessons learnt during implementation and results achieved, allows identification of a range of actions for accelerated progress in universal access. In order to achieve MDG 5 a holistic approach to sexual and reproductive health is necessary, such that programmes and initiatives will need to expand beyond focusing only on maternal health and address also family planning, sexual health and prevention of unsafe abortion. Programmes should prioritize areas of engagement based upon country and regional needs while establishing practical ways to ensure equity through integration of gender and human rights. The strategic actions in countries outlined here will help accelerate progress towards attainment of MDG Target 5B within the wider context of implementation of the WHO Global reproductive health strategy. (Excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Jun 30; 369(9580):2159-2160.Anthony Costello and colleagues call for a funder's forum for research capacity to bring Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 back on track. They conclude that newborn care, skilled birth attendance, human resources, quality improvement, and participatory or empowerment interventions are high priorities. We agree fully; but we would point out that at least 15 of these 40 issues require locally trained professional staff . Being involved in such training, we agree that gaps between (new) knowledge and effective action in achieving MDGs can only be filled by a local cadre enabled to study regionally relevant child health issues and then trained to address them. Development and empowerment of a cadre in southern African child health requires funds for training and retaining local staff . WHO, The Lancet, and other journals have, over the past 5 years, published critical evidence about this urgent need. But despite billions having been pledged and spent by international and non-governmental organisations, eroded southern African child health services and under-resourced training institutions experience great difficulty in funding this critical aspect of development. In Malawi at present, we can only offer some aspects of postgraduate training through a limited number of foreign fellowships. And we do employ promising young local doctors as paediatric registrars in research studies. A collaboration established between paediatric departments in Blantyre, Malawi, and Durban, South Africa, offers post graduate child health training at the highest possible level and qualification. A real change in development strategy towards sustained commitment and funding is needed from the international community. Training, job satisfaction, and the associated remuneration in Europe have long been the main reasons for young doctors' migration from Africa. (full text)
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2007 Jun; 97(3):227-228.The Alliance for Women's Health is a FIGO-based interagency consortium, comprising the World Health Organization, United Nations Population Fund, World Bank, UNICEF, International Planned Parenthood Federation, International Confederation of Midwives and International Pediatric Association. In conjunction with the XVIII World Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Kuala Lumpur in November 2006, the Alliance held a precongress workshop examining access in five priority emerging issues: human papillomavirus vaccine/cervical cancer screening, emergency contraception, adolescent reproductive health, emergency obstetric care and sexually transmitted infections. Reports from the five working groups, published in this and subsequent issues of the International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, provide current evidence-based recommendations on improving access to sexual and reproductive health services supported by applicable rights. The World Bank presented a framework for the discussion during theopening plenary session. The importance of sexual and reproductive health services is well recognized and was articulated in the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development which was held in Cairo in 1994. However, the inclusion of universal access to reproductive health as a target for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) only occurred in October 2006 after prolonged negotiations reflecting the reluctance, in circles of influence, to provide support where there are certain sociopolitical sensitivities. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23: p..Secretary-General Perez de Cuellar said the international community, in adopting the Programme of Action, had "clearly expressed their human solidarity with their brothers and sisters in Africa'. Determined and continued efforts over time were needed to meet the challenge. "The image of Africa as a dependent continent must disappear. Africa is a continent rich in physical and human resources. The realization of its potential will not only fulfill the hopes and aspirations of the peoples of Africa, but also contribute immeasurably to the economic and social well-being of all the world'. A summary of the 3-part, 24-paragraph Programme of Action follows. (excerpt)
A bilingual regional workshop: Methodologies for Designing and Implementing Multimedia Communication Strategies and National Communication Policies, Niamey, Niger, 1-5 April, 2002. Final report. [Un atelier régional bilingue : Méthodologies pour la conception et l'implémentation de stratégies de communication multimédia et de politiques de communication nationales à Niamey, au Niger. Du 1er au 5 avril 2002. Rapport final]
Rome, Italy, FAO, 2002. vii, 59 p.The principal objective of the meeting was to provide a forum for the exchange of views on and discussions of specific needs and expectations of different national communities. Three documents, as well as this final report, were published as a result of the workshop: A methodological guide to creating a multimedia communication strategy; A guide to creating and implementing national policies on information and communication for sustainable development in Africa; A report on the definition and implementation of national communication for development policies, with case studies from Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger and Guinea-Bissau. We hope that workshop participants were inspired and enabled to develop and implement sectoral strategies for multimedia communication and national communication for development policies in their countries. The FAO Extension, Education and Communication Service (SDRE) is ready and willing to provide technical support to their activities. (excerpt)
Americas in harmony. Health and environment in sustainable human development. An opportunity for change and a call to action.
Washington, D.C., PAHO, 1996. vii, 42 p.This report presents summaries of the presentations, views, recommendations, and criticisms of the 1995 Pan American Conference on Health and the Environment in Sustainable Human Development. This conference was convened in response to government and societal commitments, the current global crisis, and the effects of ongoing global changes. Inequities and social injustices have assumed large proportions. The economy is an end in itself, regardless of the needs of humankind. There is a lack of permanent, balanced, genuine, open, and effective dialogue, especially between economic parties that formulate national policies and development plans and parties in the social domain. The conference aimed to foster increased and shared understanding of the links between health, environment, and sustainable development. The aims also were to formulate effective ways for integrating social needs and health and environmental concerns within national policies, plans, and development programs; and to find means of support. It is expected that the conference will bring about appropriate national and hemispheric dialogue, stronger political leadership, and opportunities for coordinating technical and financial international assistance and cooperation in support of national processes. Seven panel discussions focused on a variety of country, regional, and Charter strategies. An open forum addressed community participation in practice. Seven addresses focused on sustainable development. The report focuses its chapters on the present and future context and 10 areas for action.
Manila, Philippines, Asian Development Bank, Economics Office, 1987 May. 28 p. (Economics Office Report Series No. 40)Even though population growth rates continue to decline in developing member countries (DMCs) of the Asian Development Bank, they will experience absolute population increases larger than those in the past. More importantly, the labor force continues to grow and absolute increases will be greater than any other time in history. Family planning education and access to contraceptives have contributed to the decline in population growth rates, but nothing can presently be done to decrease the rates of increase of the labor force because the people have already been born. Since most of the DMSs' populations are growing at 2% or more/year, much needed economic growth is delayed. For example, for any country with a growing population to maintain the amount of capital/person, it must spread capital. Yet the faster the population grows the lesser the chances for increasing that amount. The Bank's short to medium term development policy should include loans for projects that will generate employment using capital widening and deepening and that develop rural areas, such as employment in small industries, to prevent urban migration. Other projects that engulf this policy are those concerning primary, secondary and adult education; health; food supply; and housing and infrastructure. The long term development policy must bolster population programs in DMCs so as to reduce the growth of the economically active segment of the population in the 21st century. In addition, the Bank should address fertility issues as more and more women join the work force. The Bank can play a major role in Asian development by considering the indirect demographic and human resource impacts of each project.
Development is people, statement made at the World Development Information Day, United Nations, New York, 23 October 1975.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 6 p.During the next 30 years, population will grow on an even larger scale. At the World Population Conference in Bucharest, it was decided that population programs should be considered part of the development process. This was a positive acknowledgement by the world that population is an important problem to be acted on in accordance with each country's policy. Discussions and meetings are continually taking place world wide, showing that national views are not irreconcilable. There are wide variations between cultures and ideologies, as can be expected, but there are also enough elements in common to make agreement on priorities likely. Over 100 countries have accepted assistance from the UNFPA and 78 countries support its work with voluntary contributions, which indicates some consensus. Involvement in population activities shows that development is people. Development programs touch the lives of individuals and change them for better or for worse. Each development decision made must have the consent of the people or it is likely to fail. For most people, development means some type of basic security in their lives--be it food, a job, a place to live, or a secure future for their children. By regarding the individual as a resource rather than a libability, development programs have been able to build houses, open schools, provide basic medical care and jobs. A great deal of good can come from international assistance, but in the end it is the countries themselves who must decide their own priorities and supply their own needs. It is for the benefit of all people that discussions such as this, on population, are held. People are both the resources for and the reason for development.
Berkeley, Calif./London, England, University of California Press, 1981. xii, 173 p. (In series: Royer Lectures)This work, intended for a general as well as professional audience, argues that the acquired abilities of people including education, experience, skills, and health, are basic in achieving economic progress in the developing world. The 1st section examines the phenomenon of poverty in the developing world and stresses the contributions of human capital to productivity and human welfare in the lower income countries. Possible investments in human quality are surveyed, and theoretical and empirical observations concerning education and health are presented. A separate chapter assesses the role of higher education in developing countries, arguing that although governments in many countries impair the role of higher education, achievements have been substantial in a number of them. The next section examined economic consequences of the increases in the value of time that occur with development. A discussion of methodological and conceptual difficulties in measuring the value of time is included. The final section analyzes some serious economic distortions that result from government policies in developed as well as developing countries and that prevent the potential economic productivity of the poor from being realized. Distortions in the school systems of large cities, in allocation of funds for research, and in various aspects of life in developing countries that are affected by the international donor community are examined. Some implications of the findings are suggested in a brief concluding chapter.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1980 Aug. 166 p.This report examines some of the difficulties and prospects faced by developing countries in continuing their social and economic development and tackling poverty for the next 5-10 years. The 1st part of the report is about the economic policy choices facing both developing and richer countries and about the implications of these choices for growth. The 2nd part of the report reviews other ways to reduce poverty such as focusing on human development (education and training, health and nutrition, and fertility reduction). Throughout the report economic projections for developing countries have been carried out, drawing on the World Bank's analysis of what determines country and regional growth. Oil-exporting countries will face greater economic growth; their average GNP per person could grow 3-3.5% in the 1980s. Oil-importing countries will develop slower or fall to 1.8%/year. Poverty in oil-importing developing countries could grow at about 2.4% GNP/person and by 1990 there would be 80 million fewer people in absolute poverty. Factors which will contribute to the economic problems of developing countries are trade (import/export), energy, and capital flow. The progress of developing countries depends on internal policies and initiatives concerning investment and production efficiency, human development and population. Not only can human development increase growth but it can help to reduce absolute poverty.