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New York, New York, UN Women, 2017 Sep. 22 p.This background paper highlights the key barriers that contribute towards creating and sustaining the gender gap in innovation and technology, including the limited market awarenss and investment in innovations that meet the needs of women; the gender-blind approach to innovation; the under-representation of women as innovators and entrepreneurs; and the perceived high risk, low reward profile of investing in innovations for women and girls. The paper also outlines the concrete action that UN Women and its partners are taking to address them.
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2016 Mar. 36 p. (CGD Policy Paper 077)This paper seeks to determine the degree to which a gender lens has been incorporated into World Bank projects and the success of individual projects according to gender equality-related indicators. We first examine the World Bank’s internal scoring of projects based on whether they encompass gender analysis, action, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) components, as well as project development objective indicators and outcomes according to these indicators. We conclude that when indicators are defined, targets are specified, and outcomes are published, gender equality-related results appear largely positive. However, many projects (even those possessing a gender “theme” and perfect scores for the inclusion of gender analysis, action, and M&E components) lack gender-related indicators, and when such indicators are present, they often lack specified target goals. The paper concludes with a recommendation for increased transparency in gender-related project data (including data on the funding of gender equality-related components of projects) from donor institutions and a call for an increased number of gender-related indicators and targets in donor projects.
Guidelines or other tools for integrating gender considerations into climate change related activities under the Convention.
[Bonn, Germany], UNFCCC, 2016. 33 p.Drawing on relevant web-based resources, this technical paper aims to provide an overview of existing methodologies and tools for the integration of gender considerations into climate change related activities under the Convention. The paper assesses selected tools and guidelines in terms of their methodology, information and data requirements, capacity-building needs, lessons learned, gaps and challenges, and relevance for social and environmental impacts. Parties may wish to use the information contained in this paper in their consideration of entry points for the integration of gender considerations into the formulation and implementation of strategies for mitigating and adapting to the impacts of climate change.
[New York, New York], Women’s Environment and Development Organization [WEDO], 2015 Oct. 26 p.The impact of climate change is already causing widespread socio-economic and environmental loss and human suffering around the globe. Climate change erodes human freedoms and limits choice. However, the impacts of climate change are not felt equally. Without measures to address the injustice of climate change, those with the fewest resources, countries and individuals alike, will be most susceptible to its negative effects; and those in positions of wealth and power will be the first to benefit from transitions in the economy towards a low carbon society. Climate change impacts and solutions, when viewed through an intersectional lens, encompass a wide diversity of experiences due to age, ethnicity, class, and in particular, gender. Gender is a social construct. While not immutable nor universal, gender shapes expectations, attributes, roles, capacities and rights of women and men around the world. Climate change affects everyone, but women and men experience the impacts differently, and women are often disproportionately negatively affected. Women, compared to men, often have limited access to resources, more restricted rights, limited mobility, and a muted voice in shaping decisions and influencing policy. At the same time, gender roles generally ascribed to women such as informal, reproductive work often relate to caregiving for households and communities, caretaking of seeds and soils, maintaining traditional agricultural knowledge, and responsibility for natural resource management such as firewood and water, and thus these roles create opportunity for engagement as women bring diverse and critical solutions to climate change challenges. Effective climate policy is only possible when it is informed by the experiences of and responds to the rights, priorities and diverse needs, of all people. 2015 is a critical year for climate policy, as well as the broader global sustainable development agenda. It is also a critical time to review progress on gender mainstreaming in the context of climate change responses, including key challenges and opportunities to move toward an equal and sustainable future. This background paper focuses on the UNFCCC. It begins with a review of gender mainstreaming generally; followed by an exploration of gender mainstreaming in the context of UNFCCC policies and programs and a related section on what gender-responsive actions look like; then identifies gaps and opportunities; and finally concludes with recommendations for the UNFCCC.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2011.  p.The lives of girls and women have changed dramatically over the past quarter century. The pace of change has been astonishing in some areas, but in others, progress toward gender equality has been limited -- even in developed countries. This year's World Development Report: Gender Equality and Development argues that gender equality is a core development objective in its own right. It is also smart economics. Greater gender equality can enhance productivity, improve development outcomes for the next generation, and make institutions more representative. The Report also focuses on four priority areas for policy going forward: (i) reducing excess female mortality and closing education gaps where they remain, (ii) improving access to economic opportunities for women, (iii) increasing women's voice and agency in the household and in society, and (iv) limiting the reproduction of gender inequality across generations.
New York, New York, UNFPA, Technical Division, Gender, Human Rights and Culture Branch, 2008. 32 p.This publication identifies priority areas for intensified action on gender-based violence: policy frameworks, data collection and analysis, focus on sexual and reproductive health, humanitarian responses, adolescents and youth, men and boys, faith-based networks, and vulnerable and marginalized populations. It is intended to provide a common platform and technical guidance for UNFPA at country, regional and global levels and effectively guide capacity-development initiatives, resources and partnerships.The strategy also outlines UNFPA's comparative advantages, experience and leadership potential within the context of United Nations reform, and suggests opportunities for improving the efficacy of its programme implementation and technical support.
New York, New York, UNFPA, Technical Division, Gender, Human Rights and Culture Branch, 2008. 27 p.This booklet provides a snapshot of UNFPA's programming efforts to advance gender equality and empower women. It reports on activities undertaken in various priority areas like empowerment, reproductive health, youth and adolescent, conflict and emergency situations, etc. The report is based on contributions from the global, regional and country levels over the course of two years (2007-2008).
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006. 88 p.The resource pack takes the form of brief "sheets" on a range of issues. The sheets are relatively independent of each other, but are organised into different sub-topics (as outlined in the Structure section on page 10). A user does not need to read through all the sheets at one sitting, but rather can use them as needed. Each topic contains references to further reading. In some cases, these are the main source for what is written in the resource pack; in other cases, they refer to related writing. The sheets also describe a range of experiences of using GRB in different countries to illustrate different aspects and tools. These examples include some in which gender was not incorporated, despite opportunities to do so. The resource pack builds on, rather than repeats, the existing general materials on GRB. In particular, it should be seen as a complement to the BRIDGE resource pack and to the Commonwealth Secretariat's publication, Engendering Budgets: A practitioner's guide to understanding and implementing gender-responsive budgets. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006 Dec.  p.A human rights-based approach to programming is a conceptual framework and methodological tool for ensuring that human rights principles are reflected in policies and national development frameworks. Human rights are the minimum standards that people require to live in freedom and dignity. They are based on the principles of universality, indivisibility, interdependence, equality and non-discrimination. Through the systematic use of human rights-based programming, UNFPA seeks to empower people to exercise their rights, especially their reproductive rights, and to live free from gender-based violence. It does this by supporting programmes aimed at giving women, men and young people ('rights holders') the information, life skills and education they need to claim their rights. It also contributes to capacity-building among public officials, teachers, health-care workers and others who have a responsibility to fulfill these rights ('duty bearers'). In addition, UNFPA strengthens civil society organizations, which often serve as intermediaries between governments and individuals, and promotes mechanisms by which duty bearers can be held accountable. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, 2002 Oct. 28 p.This manual was compiled during a seminar entitled "Approccio di genere in situazioni di emergenza, conflitto e post-conflitto" (Gender approach in emergency, conflict, and postconflict situations), which was held in Rome on 2-6 April 2001. The seminar was organized by the UNDP Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery in Rome and the Emergency division of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and included participants from various Italian non governmental organizations (NGOs) and UN agencies directly involved in emergency, crisis response and recovery operations. During the seminar, a needs assessment session was held and participants expressed their interest in having a "how to" manual that could help them better integrate a gender approach during humanitarian, recovery and development activities. The first chapter contains information on the approaches to women and gender issues over the last 20 years. It provides the basic concepts necessary to understand how to address gender issues and improve the impact of humanitarian assistance. In the second chapter, the relevant international instruments protecting the rights of people affected by war and other emergency situations are presented. Relevant passages are quoted and explained. The full text of these instruments can be found in the annexed CD-ROM. The third chapter contains information that can be used as reference in programming and organizing humanitarian interventions with a gender perspective. (excerpt)
Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Office of the United Nations Resident Coordinator in Cambodia, . 13 p.UN commitment to the advancement of women began with its founding Charter in 1945 when the equal rights of men and women were included in the preamble. The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights refers to non-discrimination on the grounds of sex and the right to equal pay for equal work. Since then the UN has adopted conventions on the Political Rights of Women (1952), the Nationality of Married Women (1957), Recovery Abroad of Maintenance (1956), Consent to Marriage (1962) and on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women in 1979. The UN also declared 1975 as International Women's Year and held the first world conference on women in Mexico City. There were such conferences in Copenhagen (1980), Nairobi (1985) and in Beijing in 1995 that adopted platforms for action across all parts of society. In 2000, gender equity was included as one of the eight Millennium Development Goals. Gender equity and the empowerment of women was reinforced as central to the UN program at the 2005Millennium Summit. In Cambodia, the UN System is committed to addressing gender concerns as a priority in its implementation of the United Nation's Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) 2006-2010. The UN puts great emphasis on addressing gender at this critical juncture of political, rural and economic development in Cambodia, and the UNDAF outlines a common vision on how gender equity can be attained. This framework takes stock of current gender programs and priorities, and suggests ways in which they can go forward within the UN System in Cambodia and with development partners. (excerpt)
Asia-Pacific Population Journal. 2006; 21(2-3):9-20.The 2005 World Summit was an important event for those of us working to realize commitments made at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo over ten years ago to improve the lives of poor women and men in the developing world. At the United Nations Headquarters in New York, the largest ever gathering of world leaders in history convened in September 2005 resolved to achieve universal access to reproductive health by 2015, promote gender equality and end discrimination against women - the pillars of the ICPD Programme of Action. The World Summit's success does not mean the challenges to achieve the goals contained in the ICPD Programme of Action have ended. Ideological and conservative opposition remains. In some countries where the right policies and effective models are in place, resource and capacity constraints make it difficult to scale-up, monitor and coordinate development programmes. In addition, in places where development programmes have shown demonstrable results, the development community has had limited success in reaching and transforming the lives and futures of the poorest and most disadvantaged. (excerpt)
Gender mainstreaming since Beijing: a review of success and limitations in international institutions.
Gender and Development. 2005 Jul; 13(2):11-22.The Beijing Platform for Action prioritised gender mainstreaming as the mechanism to achieve gender equality. A decade later, policy makers and practitioners are debating whether this has succeeded or failed. This article aims to contribute to this debate by reviewing progress made to date, through a review of gender mainstreaming policies in international development institutions. Categorising progress into three stages - adoption of terminology, putting a policy into place, and implementation - the article argues that while most institutions have put gender mainstreaming policies in place, implementation remains inconsistent. Most important of all, the outcomes and impact of the implementation of gender mainstreaming in terms of gender equality remain largely unknown, with implications for the next decade?s strategies. (author's)
Linking women's human rights and the MDGs: an agenda for 2005 from the UK Gender and Development Network.
Gender and Development. 2005 Mar; 13(1):79-93.The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a potentially powerful tool for progress on development and human rights. Women?s human rights activists should recognise and build on the political will mobilised around the MDGs. However, the MDGs reflect problems in the dominant development approach. They seek to use women in their existing social roles to ?deliver? other aims, and do not address the need to eradicate gender inequality, resulting in lack of commitment to address key issues for women, including gender-based violence. There are further problems with the MDGs? indicators, analytical approach, and accountability mechanisms. The MDGs should be reframed as human rights obligations. To this end, links should be fostered between the 2005 reviews of implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action and progress on the Millennium Declaration and the MDGs. (author's)
Gender and Development. 2005 Mar; 13(1):94-104.This article explores ways in which the MDGs can be made to work to promote women?s equality and empowerment. Drawn from the author?s extensive experience of feminist activism in the Caribbean region, it discusses strategies to improve the MDGs. Overall, as a feminist I think of the MDGs as a Major Distraction Gimmick - a distraction from the much more important Platforms for Action from the UN conferences of the 1990s, in Rio 1992 (Environment), Vienna 1993 (Human Rights), Cairo 1994 (Population), Copenhagen (Social Development) and Beijing 1995 (Women), Istanbul 1996 (Habitats), and Rome 1997 (Food), on which the MDGs are based. But despite believing this, I think it worthwhile to join other activists within women?s movements who are currently developing strategies to try to ensure that the MDGs can be made to work to promote women?s equality and empowerment. (excerpt)
Gender and Development. 2005 Mar; 13(1):67-78.This article examines the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) from a women?s human rights perspective. It outlines some of the practical ways in which human rights principles, and the provisions set out in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in particular, can be used to ensure that the MDGs are met in a way that respects and promotes gender equality and women?s human rights. (author's)
ARROWs for Change. 2004; 10(2):1-2.The 2004 global and regional roundtables reviewing and monitoring progress of the Cairo Programme of Action (POA) implementation concluded that this document remains a critical comprehensive UN document which outlines an agenda and framework linking human rights principles with population and development, poverty eradication, social justice, gender equality, women's empowerment, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and NGO participation. Ten years into the POA, progress in implementation in the Asia-Pacific region remains poor. ARROW's eight-country regional monitoring study revealed that one million women have died unnecessarily in childbirth, pregnancy and unsafe abortion since Cairo. Only China has attained the goal of reducing maternal mortality by 50% by the year 2000. Nationally, the ICPD POA has not yet been clearly institutionalised in national development frameworks like women's development, health, population and in poverty. Although there has been significant progress in theregion in the area of violence against women and the creation of national machineries like ministries and commissions, women are still not able to exercise control over their reproductive and sexual lives due to the following barriers. (excerpt)
[Sydney], Australia, Youth for a Sustainable Future Pacifika, 2006.  p.The Millennium Development Goals, better known as the MDGs, are a set of goals committed to reducing poverty, illiteracy, inequality and disease in developing countries. In September 2000, leaders from 189 nations including 14 Pacific Island nations, agreed to achieve the MDGs by endorsing the Millennium Declaration. The Declaration is a special documentation because it specifies responsibility for all countries to enhance the global agenda on human development. This means that even developed countries like the United States, Australia and New Zealand, are responsible for assisting developing countries in meeting the goals. (excerpt)
London, England, Earthscan, 2005.  p.How can the global community achieve the goal of gender equality and the empowerment of women? This question is the focus of Goal 3 of the Millennium Development Goals endorsed by world leaders at the UN Millennium Summit in 2000 and of this report, prepared by the UN Millennium Project Task Force on Education and Gender Equality. The report argues that there are many practical steps that can reduce inequalities based on gender, inequalities that constrain the potential to reduce poverty and achieve high levels of well-being in societies around the world. There are also many positive actions that can be taken to empower women. Without leadership and political will, however, the world will fall short of taking these practical steps--and meeting the goal. Because gender inequality is deeply rooted in entrenched attitudes, societal institutions, and market forces, political commitment at the highest international and national levels is essential to institute the policies that can trigger social change and to allocate the resources necessary to achieve gender equality and women's empowerment. Many decades of organizing and advocacy by women's organizations and networks across the world have resulted in global recognition of the contributions that women make to economic development and of the costs to societies of persistent inequalities between women and men. The success of those efforts is evident in the promises countries have made over the past two decades through international forums. The inclusion of gender equality and women's empowerment as the third Millennium Development Goal is a reminder that many of those promises have not been kept, while simultaneously offering yet another international policy opportunity to implement them. (excerpt)
UNFPA state of world population 2005. The promise of equality: gender equity, reproductive health and the Millennium Development Goals.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005.  p.The world has an unprecedented opportunity to realize the promise of equality and freedom from want. During the next decade, hundreds of millions of people can be released from the stronghold of poverty. The lives of 30 million children and 2 million mothers can be spared. The spread of AIDS can be reversed. Millions of young people can play a larger role in their countries' development and, in turn, create a better world for themselves and generations to come. Gender equality and reproductive health are indispensable to the realization of this promise. In the year 2000, leaders from 189 countries met at the United Nations Millennium Summit and forged a unique global compact to reduce poverty. From the Summit's declaration, eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were derived, with 2015 set as the date for their achievement. In 2002, the UN Millennium Project brought together more than 250 leading experts to advise the UN Secretary-General on how to implement the MDGs. Their conclusions are reflected throughout this year's State of World Population report. Gender equality is a human right, one of the Millennium Development Goals and key to achieving the other seven. The UN Millennium Project concluded that reproductive health is essential to achieving the MDGs, including the goal of gender equality. Investments in gender equality and reproductive health offer multiple rewards that can accelerate social and economic progress, with lasting impact on future generations. (excerpt)
International migration and the Millennium Development Goals. Selected papers of the UNFPA Expert Group Meeting, Marrakech, Morocco, 11-12 May 2005.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2005.  p.The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) hosted an Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and the Millennium Development Goals in Marrakech, Morocco on 11-12 May 2005. Invited experts were requested to speak on a number of topics relating to migration and development, including: poverty reduction, health, gender, environment, and global partnerships for development with a view towards exploring migration as both a facilitating and constraining factor in the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This report is a compilation of selected papers presented at the meeting together with a synopsis of the discussion highlighting some of the more salient points raised by the experts. It also reflects an attempt to spur the debate further by suggesting possibilities for programmatic activities in the areas of data and research, policy and capacity development. As international migration gains greater scope and impact, UNFPA and other international entities have a critical role in facilitating strategic directions that strengthen responses to its challenges while capitalizing on the opportunities that migration presents to the individual migrants, their larger community and both sending and receiving countries. (excerpt)
Women, gender and HIV / AIDS. Women bear the heaviest HIV / AIDS burden, but they can’t prevent its spread by themselves.
Countdown 2015: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All. 2004; (Spec No):65-68.Women, especially young women, are increasingly the face of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. About half of all adults infected with HIV worldwide are women, although this proportion varies by region. In sub-Saharan Africa, 75 percent of those infected are young women and girls, and the proportion of pregnant young women in capital cities who are HIV positive—an indicator of how the epidemic is spreading— remains high in five of the most populous countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent data from South Africa, one of the countries hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, showed that 10.2 percent of all 15- to 24-year-olds were infected in 2003, and three of every four HIV-infected young people were female. In the United States, AIDS is now the leading cause of death among African-American women age 25-34. Even in Thailand and Cambodia, relative HIV-prevention success stories, the epidemic increasingly affects women: The rate of new infection is now higher among women than men, and many of those women are the wives of HIV-positive men. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], 1998. 16 p. (ICRW Working Paper No. 6)How is it that 556 million women and girls throughout the world are illiterate, and this is not viewed as a violation of their right to education? When 600,000 women die annually as a result of complications of pregnancy, and an additional 18 million women suffer from pregnancy-related morbidities that go untreated, how is this not seen as a failure of governments to meet their obligations to promote, protect, and fulfill women's rights to the most basic attainable standard of health? How can the feminization of poverty be viewed as anything less than a violation of women's rights to an adequate standard of living, equal access to employment, credit, property, and training? These alarming statistics constitute the foundation of the literature on women in development (WID), and are generally referred to as "the state of the world's women." The time has come to call these realities what they truly are: human rights violations. It is fitting that the 50th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights--adopted unanimously by the UN General Assembly in 1948--comes at a time when a new discourse on human rights and development is emerging. This new thinking is especially important to the field of women in development, as it holds the potential of launching a revitalized effort toward ensuring gender equity and equality for the next century. This trend, however, has only recently begun to gain a sense of currency among WID researchers and practitioners. Until recently, the promotion and protection of human rights and the realization of sustainable development have been viewed as separate domains. Notably, development measures are rarely viewed as contributing to the realization of specific human rights--for example, the right to food--when that is precisely what such measures have done. (excerpt)
Studies in Family Planning. 2005 Mar; 36(1):71-79.This report was commissioned by the Population Program of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation in December 2004. The author was charged with analyzing the United Nations’ deliberations that led to the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to answer the question of why there is no specific reproductive health goal. This coverage of the MDG process will be complemented by a special section of Studies in the June 2005 issue on reproductive health and the MDGs. The section will include excerpts about reproductive health from the final report of the Millennium Development Project entitled “Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals,” which was submitted to Secretary General Kofi Annan in January 2005, as well as commentaries by leading scholars and policymakers in the fields of population and reproductive health. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], 2003 May.  p.In September 2000, Heads of State and representatives of the Governments of 191 countries met at the United Nations and adopted the Millennium Declaration. The Declaration outlines the central concerns of the global community - peace, security, development, environmental sustainability, human rights and democracy - and articulates a set of inter-connected and mutually reinforcing goals for sustainable development. These, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), are based on the major goals and targets agreed upon at the UN Conferences of the 1990s, which have been synthesised into a global agenda for development. The Millennium Declaration commits the international community and member states of the UN to the achievement of eight major goals. 1. Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achievement of universal primary education 3. Promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women 4. Reduction of child mortality 5. Improvement in maternal health 6. Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 7. Ensuring environmental sustainability 8. Developing a global partnership for development. (excerpt)