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[Washington, D.C.], Center for Global Development, 2015 May 27. 6 p. (Essays)In September this year, world leaders will meet in New York at the United Nations General Assembly. Top of the agenda will be the passage of a resolution laying out global development goals for the fifteen years to 2030, covering progress in areas from poverty reduction to forestry preservation. They will follow on from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which have become a common yardstick of global progress over the past decade and a half. The MDGs, born out of the Millennium Declaration agreed to at the UN General Assembly in 2000, are widely seen as a considerable success of the international system. And they may well have played a role in speeding global progress toward better health and education outcomes over the last few years. That alone might justify coming up with a new set of global goals for the post-2015 period. But the power of the original MDGs to motivate was in their simplicity and clarity. Sadly, the process that has created proposals for the new set of goals has guaranteed the opposite outcome. The over wrought and obese drafts proposed by negotiating committees so far almost ensure that the post-2015 goals will have comparatively limited value and impact. While it is probably too late for the process to be rescued, particular post-2015 goals and targets might still be useful, and the broader hopes for sustainable development may well be salvaged by other UN meetings this year.
Washington, D.C., Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2013 May.  p.This report tracks the evolution of the MDGs and their impact on global health policy in the Bush and Obama administrations. While the Bush administration had a mixed reaction to the goals, they were embraced by President Obama. Despite the shift, the goals appear to have had little direct effect on global health programming in either administration. Nonetheless, they helped focus resources toward long-standing U.S. priorities including maternal and child health and infectious disease control. As policy makers consider the next wave of priorities, such as universal health coverage and prevention and treatment of noncommunicable diseases, a global consensus beyond the MDGs could help guide an effective response while ensuring the unmet needs associated with the current goals are not forgotten.
Millennium Development Goal 8, The Global Partnership for Development: Time to deliver. MDG Gap Task Force Report 2011.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2011.  p.The objective of MDG 8 is to assist all developing countries in achieving the goals through a strengthened global partnership for international development cooperation. The present report describes how that partnership is producing significant results on many fronts, but notes that many important gaps between expectations and delivery remain. (Excerpt)
Scaling up global social health protection: prerequisite reforms to the International Monetary Fund.
International Journal of Health Services. 2009; 39(4):795-801.People living in low-income countries require protection from the economic and social impacts of global economic competition, yet, historically, the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) fiscal austerity programs have weakened the potential for redistribution both within poor countries and between rich and poor countries. The current development paradigm's focus on "sustainability" is an obstacle to developing systems of global social protection and an impediment to future progress. Reforming IMF policy conditionality and democratizing the IMF's decision-making processes will be necessary for offsetting growing inequalities in health financing among poor nations.
Brussels, Belgium, DSW, 2009. 62 p.In September, DSW and the European Parliamentary Forum (EPF) produced the 2009 edition of our Euromapping report, an annual publication that provides an overview of the comparative ODA and SRH funding contributions and commitments of an individual donor country over time. This year's publication has been produced with the support of the European Commission, which has allowed us to release the publication along with a coordinated advocacy and media campaign in 7 European countries. In addition to being a quick reference guide on European funding levels for family planning and reproductive health, Euromapping is intended as an advocacy tool for NGOs and decision makers to monitor the level and composition of ODA as a means of verifying whether governments are living up to their political and policy commitments.
Lancet. 2009 May 2; 373(9674):1500-2.The world is off track to achieve the health-related targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. Maternal mortality has stagnated for two decades, child mortality is not declining fast enough, HIV/AIDS still infects people faster than the pace of antiretroviral treatment roll-out, and inequalities are widening within and across countries. Addressing these crises will require increased funding and more efficient spending. The next Board meetings of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the GAVI Alliance, scheduled for May and June, respectively, present an opportunity to tackle these issues. We propose that the exceptional approach created for the fight against AIDS should be expanded: the entire global health agenda must adopt a rights-based approach, which in some countries requires challenging the model of national financial autonomy. We therefore recommend that the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance gradually move towards becoming a global fund for all the health MDGs, which will require substantially greater resources to address the broader mandate. As a first step the next Global Fund and GAVI Alliance board meetings should expand the review of their architecture to provide greater support to national health plans, including co-financing non-disease-specific human resources for health. A global fund for the health MDGs would eventually allow the delivery of prevention and treatment services for specific diseases through revamped general health services, reducing transaction costs and streamlining the global health architecture. Such radical, yet rational, action is our best chance of meeting-or at least making significant progress toward-the health-related MDG targets by 2015.
Global Fund-supported programmes' contribution to international targets and the Millennium Development Goals: An initial analysis.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Oct; 85(10):805-811.The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is one of the largest funders to fight these diseases. This paper discusses the programmatic contribution of Global Fund-supported programmes towards achieving international targets and Millennium Development Goals, using data from Global Fund grants. Results until June 2006 of 333 grants supported by the Global Fund in 127 countries were aggregated and compared against international targets for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Progress reports to the Global Fund secretariat were used as a basis to calculate results. Service delivery indicators for antiretrovirals (ARV) for HIV/AIDS, case detection under the DOTS strategy for tuberculosis (DOTS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention were selected to estimate programmatic contributions to international targets for the three diseases. Targets of Global Fund-supported programmes were projected based on proposals for Rounds 1 to 4 and compared to international targets for 2009. Results for Global Fund-supported programmes total 544 000 people on ARV, 1.4 million on DOTS and 11.3 million for ITNs by June 2006. Global Fund-supported programmes contributed 18% of international ARV targets, 29% of DOTS targets and 9% of ITNs in sub-Saharan Africa by mid-2006. Existing Global Fund-supported programmes have agreed targets that are projected to account for 19% of the international target for ARV delivery expected for 2009, 28% of the international target for DOTS and 84% of ITN targets in sub-Saharan Africa. Global Fund-supported programmes have already contributed substantially to international targets by mid-2006, but there is a still significant gap. Considerably greater financial support is needed, particularly for HIV, in order to achieve international targets for 2009. (author's)
London, England, ActionAid International, . 27 p. (P1625/01/04)UNAIDS estimated that in Africa in 2003, more than 2.3 million people died from AIDS, 3 million were newly infected and a total of 12 million children were orphaned. Antiretroviral drugs are reaching a mere 50,000 of those with AIDS in developing countries. The HIV/AIDS pandemic is clearly a human and developmental disaster. This paper looks at the response to the HIV/AIDS crisis by the World Bank as a key member of the international donor/lending community, a leader in the international health community, and as Africa's principal development partner. In its seminal document, Intensifying Action Against HIV/AIDS, the World Bank acknowledges both its special leadership role in fighting HIV/AIDS and the need that it be held accountable for its stewardship. (excerpt)
[New York, New York], Women's UN Report Program and Network, 2007.  p.The theme of International Women's Day 2007 is Ending Impunity for Violence Against Women. Gender-blind International Financial Institution (IFI) operations-those of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and the regional development banks-financing private-corporate led growth, debt repayment, and low inflation and public spending often aggravate existing discrimination against women and girls, particularly among marginalized groups such as indigenous peoples. Such IFI investments intensify poverty, human displacement, trafficking in and violence against women, prostitution, sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. The IFIs may not intend their investments to contribute to violence against women, but the impacts are all too real. For example, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)-funded Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, supposedly designed to boost development, has degraded theenvironment, driven many women and girls in communities around the pipeline into prostitution, and increased sexually transmitted diseases, sexual harassment and violence against women. The East Asian financial crisis-brought on ten years ago largely by bad IMF advice designed to stimulate foreign investment-strained household gender relations, increasing domestic violence against women and girls, family abandonment by household heads, and female suicide. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 May 5; 369(9572):1499-1501.The World Bank has a new 10-year health strategy. Since its previous health strategy, developed in 1997, the global health landscape has been transformed. International spending on health has increased from about US$7 billion in 2000 to almost $14 billion in 2005. While the Bank used to be the pre-eminent international health-financing agency, spending about $1.5 billion a year on health, it now operates in a more crowded field, with established players, such as WHO, UNICEF, and bilateral donor agencies, and newer players such as the US President's Emergency Fund for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the GAVI Alliance. Unsurprisingly, the Bank has taken a step back to think about its role. In doing so it has prioritised strengthening of health systems, citing expertise in health financing; incentives for health workers; logistical, and financial management; governance of health systems; demand-side interventions,such as conditional cash transfers and reforms for patient choice; sector-wide strategic planning; health-service quality-control; epidemiological surveillance; and public-private collaboration. The Bank also seems intent on establishing itself as the lead global agency for health-systems policy-development, even suggesting that WHO and UNICEF should focus on the technical aspects of disease control and health-facility management. (author's)
YouandAIDS. 2003 Aug; 2(1):16-17.In September 2000, at the United Nations Millennium Summit world leaders endorsed a set of time-bound and measurable goals and targets to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, discrimination against women and create a global partnership for development. This global compact - now known as the Millennium Development Goals - was endorsed by all members of the United Nations. It sets out a series of time-bound and quantifiable targets ranging from halving extreme poverty to halting the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015. The Summit's Millennium Declaration also outlined a consensus on how to proceed, with a stronger focus on human rights, good governance and democracy as well as conflict prevention and peace-building. The political framework for achieving the Millennium Development Goals was provided by the new global deal struck in 2002 in Monterrey, Mexico, between North and South. The rich nations represented at the Monterrey "Financing for Development" summit pledged to remove trade barriers and provide more aid and meaningful debt relief to developing countries that undertake tough political and economic reforms. This global compact was reaffirmed at the World Summit for Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in August 2002. (excerpt)
ARROWs for Change. 2004; 10(2):1-2.The 2004 global and regional roundtables reviewing and monitoring progress of the Cairo Programme of Action (POA) implementation concluded that this document remains a critical comprehensive UN document which outlines an agenda and framework linking human rights principles with population and development, poverty eradication, social justice, gender equality, women's empowerment, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and NGO participation. Ten years into the POA, progress in implementation in the Asia-Pacific region remains poor. ARROW's eight-country regional monitoring study revealed that one million women have died unnecessarily in childbirth, pregnancy and unsafe abortion since Cairo. Only China has attained the goal of reducing maternal mortality by 50% by the year 2000. Nationally, the ICPD POA has not yet been clearly institutionalised in national development frameworks like women's development, health, population and in poverty. Although there has been significant progress in theregion in the area of violence against women and the creation of national machineries like ministries and commissions, women are still not able to exercise control over their reproductive and sexual lives due to the following barriers. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2006 Nov 25; 368(9550)The first African Regional Health Report, finally released this week more than a year after its initial launch target, is one of the first products to emerge from Luis Sambo's Directorship of WHO's African Regional Office. In his inaugural speech on Feb 1, 2005, Sambo urged his colleagues, in country offices and regional headquarters, to "intensify efforts at identifying the best practices in health" and "document and disseminate" them so they can be replicated. This regional health report is, he believes, a key step in upgrading WHO AFRO's stewardship role in the region. It is a disappointing effort, one that reveals WHO's weaknesses rather than its strengths. It is clearly intended as an overview rather than as a detailed analysis, but even so it still suffers from being light on facts and heavy on well-rehearsed rhetoric. Much is simply lifted from past World Health Reports that have emerged from Geneva headquarters, supplemented by data from the World Bank and other institutions. There are some useful asides: briefly reported successes, such as a remarkable reduction in road traffic deaths in Rwanda and improvements to health-service access in South Africa's rural areas. However, it will take much more than an assemblage of isolated anecdotes to create a strategy for Africa's renaissance. (excerpt)
Round Table. 2006 Jul; 95(385):383-386.The author, formerly Head of Secretariat at the Commission for Africa, responds to the criticisms of the Commission's report and process made by Ian Taylor. While the latter is right to emphasize the need for sound governance and for addressing the issue of looted assets, he appears to have overlooked sections of the report which do just that. He is also wrong to assert that aid does not work; the CfA believes that, when combined with other mechanisms, it is effective. (author's)
Economist. 2006; 154(3):443-466.In its Millennium Declaration of September 2000, the United Nations adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), to be reached in 2015 through concerted efforts worldwide. According to UN-calculations, the estimated costs in terms of additional development aid of meeting the MDGs in all countries vary from 121 billion US dollars in 2006 to 189 billion US dollars in 2015. The present communication reviews the figures reported. It appears that while Asia is well on track to achieve the goals, essentially through efforts of its own, Africa is lagging behind, albeit that according to detailed survey data on weight-for-length among adults collected in Africa for the US aid agency, rates of undernutrition are about 58 percent of the levels used as a reference by the UN, which are based on assessment of food production. Yet, child undernutrition comes out higher in these surveys. Besides mentioning reservations about the adequacy of these MDG-yardsticks, we consider the cost estimates for Africa as presented in the UN-reports and subsequently assessed in the literature. It appears that these estimates are too low, even if all MDG-funds were concentrated on this continent, essentially because they are set up as shopping lists that are necessarily incomplete and, among others, disregard many of the indirect cost of delivering the goods to the target beneficiaries, including the cost of providing adequate security and avoiding corruption. Nonetheless, recalling how hopeless the situation looked some 30 years ago for China, India, and Bangladesh, where unprecedented numbers have now escaped extreme poverty during the past decade and a half, we submit that over a time horizon of about twice the 15 years of the MDG's and with adequate international support, realization of the MDG-targets should be possible for Africa too. (author's)
Lancet. 2006 Nov 4; 368(9547):1552-1554.In September, 1994, thousands of policymakers, activists, health specialists, and members of the donor community gathered in Cairo, Egypt, for what turned out to be a unique UN International Conference of Population and Development (ICPD), a true turning point. The Cairo conference put the ideas of comprehensive sexual and reproductive health and rights, choice, women's empowerment, a life-cycle approach, and gender equity at the centre of the international agenda, and signalled the end of the so-called population era. Instead of pursuing demographic targets via family-planning programmes, the goals of the ICPD Programme of Action (signed by 179 countries) were to achieve universal access to safe, affordable, and effective reproductive health care and services, including those for young people, and promoted a gender perspective. The package of services incorporated family planning information and contraceptives, skilled care at pregnancy and childbirth, safe abortion services where and when abortion is legal, and treatment and management of sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. Governments set a realistic timeframe of 20 years, to accomplish the goals established in the Programme of Action. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2001 Jun-Aug; 38(2): p..Thirty years ago, my predecessor U Thant transferred a small trust fund to the new United Nations Development Programme, said Secretary-General Kofi Annan in 1999. "A small group of donors provided a small amount of money for the new fund's operations. Such were the modest beginnings of what we know today as the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) -- one of the United Nations leading success stories of the last half-century." Today, UNFPA is active in 146 countries. As one privileged to participate in the success story of UNFPA, which reflects an evolution, not only of the Fund and the United Nations system overall but also an increasing awareness among people, I will briefly detail a few of the most relevant highlights. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2005 Mar-May; 42(1): p..Natural disasters devastate many parts of the world, whether they were high-intensity hurricanes battering the Pacific islands or gigantic ocean waves killing thousands in its wake. From strengthening coordination of humanitarian and disaster relief assistance, including special economic aid to individual countries or regions, to correcting global trade imbalances and promoting information technology for development, the Second Committee worked hard on these issues during the fifty-ninth session of the General Assembly. With 2005 marking the start of the ten-year countdown to 2015, the target date for the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim, among others, at halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education, the Committee worked towards aligning its objectives with the framework of the MDGs. (excerpt)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Address by Mr Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), on the occasion of the meeting of Parliamentarians, Mbabane, Swaziland, 2 March 2004.
[Paris, France], UNESCO, 2004.  p. (DG/2004/033)It gives me great pleasure to be making my first official visit to the Kingdom of Swaziland at the kind invitation of your Government. Swaziland is a special country and I am delighted to be here. I arrived here yesterday and I immediately had an audience with His Majesty the King and Her Majesty the Queen Mother, in the presence of the Prime Minister. This morning, I am very pleased and honoured to have the opportunity to address this important gathering. In my remarks to you, I would like to place emphasis on the vital role of parliamentarians in all aspects of African development and also their part in advancing UNESCO's activities in African countries. I believe that the work of African parliamentarians is becoming more and more important, especially in the perspective of NEPAD and the African Union. Political systems around the world take many forms but wherever there is a parliament or national assembly or congress, the representatives are a crucial link between the people and the polity. They are not only leaders and shapers of public opinion but they are also recognized and legitimate vehicles through which the people's needs and wishes can be expressed. Through their conscientious labours, they can help to ensure that legislative and decision-making processes are relevant and responsive. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1988 Jun; 25(2): p..African Governments assisted by international financial institutions are making a determined effort to undertake needed economic reforms, but additional financial support is essential if they are to succeed, an Advisory Group on Financial Flows to Africa reported on 22 February. A team of 13 eminent financial experts, headed by Sir Douglas Wass, former Permanent Secretary of the United Kingdom Treasury, was appointed by Secretary-General Perez de Cuellar in April 1987 to examine the external flows of resources to Africa and to recommend ways and means to ensure that the resource flows are adequate for the successful implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action for African Economic Recovery. They submitted their report two days after Mr. Perez de Cuellar returned from a 10-day visit to six African countries, during which African economic problems were extensively discussed with African leaders. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23: p..A five-year plan of action to revitalize and develop the economies and resources of Africa was adopted at the conclusion of the thirteenth special session of the General Assembly, convened from 27 May to 1 June at Headquarters to address the continent's critical economic situation. The United Nations Programme of Action for African Economic Recovery and Development, 1986-1990, was adopted without a vote, after what was described as "delicate,' "determined', "very tough' negotiations. The session, originally scheduled to conclude on 31 May, was extended by one day to accommodate reaching agreement on the text. Crucial priority areas were addressed: agriculture, environment, infrastructure, human resources and external resources. Divided into three parts, the Programme provides an analysis of Africa's critical economic situation; an inventory of objectives and costs of specific action--oriented measures--both activities and policies --to be taken at national, sub-regional and regional levels and aimed primarily at medium-term and long-term rehabilitation; suggestions for international commitments, including debt constraints and increased South-South co-operation; and follow-up and evaluation machinery. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1986 Jan; 23: p..Some 110 countries pledged $740 million for United Nations development activities at the 1985 United Nations Pledging Conference for Development. Contributions were made to more than 30 funds and programmes related to social and economic development, technical co-operation, training and research, capital development and environmental management. Some pledging countries stipulated that their contributions were subject to parliamentary approval. Some major donors, including Australia, Japan and the United States, said they were unable at this time to make pledges because their budgetary time-tables did not coincide with that of the Conference. Several other nations stated that contributions to specific programmes and organizations would be announced at a later date. (excerpt)
Assistance to Africa among main issues discussed during Secretary-General's trip to Europe and Africa - Javier Perez de Cuellar.
UN Chronicle. 1985 Jul-Aug; 22: p..Efforts to resolve political and economic problems in Africa were among the main concerns as Secretary- General Javier Perez de Cuellar met with government leaders and United Nations officials during a 25-day trip (30 June-24 July) to Europe and Africa. He visited Switzerland, Italy, Yugoslavia, Austria, Kenya, Ethiopia, Morocco and France. Highlights of the trip included his opening addresses to the Organization of African Unity (OAU) Summit Meeting in Addis Ababa, the second regular (1985) session of the Economic and Social Council in Geneva, and the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women, held in Nairobi from 15 to 26 July. The need for a multilateral response to urgent problems of development was a recurring theme. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1990 Dec; 27(4): p..A new Programme of Action aimed at advancing the world's poorest countries offers a "menu approach" for donors to increase their official aid to the least developed countries (LDCs), stressing bilateral assistance in the form of grants or highly concessional loans and calling on donors to help reduce LDC debt. The Programme was adopted by consensus at the conclusion of the Second United Nations Conference on the LDCs (Paris, 3- 14 September). The UN recognizes more than 40 developing countries as "least developed". Although individual nation's indicators vary, in general LDCs have a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of approximately $200 a year, a low life expectancy, literacy rates under 20 per cent and a low contribution of manufacturing industries to GDP. Reflecting the emergence during the 1980s of new priorities in development strategy, the Programme of Action for the LDCs for the 1990s differs from the Action Programme adopted at the first UN Conference on LDCs held in 1981 in Paris. The new Programme emphasizes respect for human rights, the need for democratization and privatization, the potential role of women in development and the new regard for population policy as a fundamental factor in promoting development. Greater recognition of the role of non-governmental organizations in LDC development is also emphasized. (excerpt)
Enhancing support of African development - includes a definition of the African Initiative - Special Initiative on Africa - Cover story.
UN Chronicle. 1996 Summer; 33(2): p..The Special Initiative on Africa, launched globally on 15 March by the Secretary-General along with the executive heads of all UN agencies and organizations represented in the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC), aims to give practical expression to the policy commitments made in the past, such as the UN New Agenda for the Development of Africa in the 1990s. Unprecedented in scope, the Initiative reflects the priority accorded to Africa's development by the international community, the mandates emanating from the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and major UN conferences, as well as the undertakings made individually and collectively by African Governments to accelerate the development of their countries. (excerpt)