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Brussels, Belgium, DSW, 2009. 62 p.In September, DSW and the European Parliamentary Forum (EPF) produced the 2009 edition of our Euromapping report, an annual publication that provides an overview of the comparative ODA and SRH funding contributions and commitments of an individual donor country over time. This year's publication has been produced with the support of the European Commission, which has allowed us to release the publication along with a coordinated advocacy and media campaign in 7 European countries. In addition to being a quick reference guide on European funding levels for family planning and reproductive health, Euromapping is intended as an advocacy tool for NGOs and decision makers to monitor the level and composition of ODA as a means of verifying whether governments are living up to their political and policy commitments.
POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1994 Mar; 20(1):239-45.In January 1994, a meeting convened in Tokyo by the government of Japan of 15 experts in the field of population, development, and international cooperation resulted in adoption of a document entitled "Towards a Global Partnership in Population and Development: The Tokyo Declaration." This declaration prefigured the key issues and action recommendations of the September 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The Declaration (presented in this document in its entirety) opens with an introduction which describes the current (and changing) political climate in regard to population issues in which the ICPD will take place. Part 1 of the declaration includes a consideration of the relationship between population and sustainable development, women's role in decision-making and the status of females, reproductive health and family planning (FP), population distribution and migration, and south-south cooperation. The declaration contains specific recommendations for action in each area, with the recommendations addressed to governments, the UN, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), donors, and the international community. Part 2 stresses a move from commitment to action and strongly recommends that by the year 2015 all governments 1) ensure the completion of the equivalent of primary school by all girls and boys and, as soon as that goal is met, facilitate completion of secondary educational levels; 2) in cases where mortality rates are highest, achieve an infant mortality rate below 50/1000 live births with a corresponding maternal mortality rate of 75/100,000 births; 3) in cases with intermediate levels of mortality, achieve an infant mortality rate below 35/1000, an under age 5 years mortality rate below 45/1000, and a maternal mortality rate below 60/100,000; and 4) provide universal access to a variety of safe and reliable FP methods and appropriate reproductive health services (with safe and effective FP methods available in all country's national FP programs by the year 2000). The international community is further urged to support the goals of the ICPD, and the international donor community is asked to support the participation of NGOs in the ICPD. Part 2 ends with an appeal to the international community to mobilize resources to meet these goals. Finally, the declaration calls upon the international community to stabilize world population and address the interrelated issues, and the participants of the Tokyo meeting pledged their individual support to this effort.
Government of Sierra Leone. National report on population and development. International Conference on Population and Development 1994.
Freetown, Sierra Leone, National Population Commission, 1994. , 15,  p.The government of Sierra Leone is very concerned about the poor health status of the country as expressed by the indicators of a high maternal mortality rate (700/100,000), a total fertility rate of 6.2 (in 1985), a crude birth rate of 47/1000 (in 1985), an infant mortality rate of 143/1000 (in 1990), and a life expectancy at birth of only 45.7 years. A civil war has exacerbated the already massive rural-urban migration in the country. Despite severe financial constraints, the government has contributed to the UN Population Fund and continues to appeal to the donor community for technical and financial help to support the economy in general and population programs in particular. Sierra Leone has participated in preparations for and fully supports the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. This document describes Sierra Leone's past, present, and future population and development linkages. The demographic context is presented in terms of size and growth rate; age and sex composition; fertility; mortality; and population distribution, migration, and urbanization. The population policy planning and program framework is set out through discussions of the national perception of population issues, the national population policy, population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program [including maternal-child health and family planning (FP) services; information, education, and communication; data collection, analysis, and research; primary health care, population and the environment; youth and adolescents and development; women and development; and population distribution and migration]. The operational aspects of the program are described with emphasis on political and national support, FP service delivery and coverage, monitoring and evaluation, and funding. The action plan for the future includes priority concerns; an outline of the policy framework; the design of population program activities; program coordination, monitoring, and evaluation; and resource mobilization. The government's commitment is reiterated in a summary and in 13 recommendations of action to strengthen the population program, address environmental issues, improve the status of women, improve rural living conditions, and improve data collection.
Report: Second Conference of Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, 23-25 September 1987, Beijing, China.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1987. , 72 p.The formal proceedings of the 1987 Asian (AFPPD) Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (FPPD) are provided in some detail. 23 countries participated. The Asian Forum Beijing Declaration preamble, program of action, call to action, and rededication are presented. Background information indicates that these conferences have been ongoing since 1984 to exchange information and experience, to promote cooperation, and to sustain involvement of Parliamentarians in population and development issues. Official delegations represented Australia, Bangladesh, China, Korea, India, Iraq, Japan, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, north and south Korea, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, and Vietnam. Observers were from Bhutan, Cyprus, Indonesia, Kiribati, and Tonga. The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) was involved as Conference Secretariat as well as the Preparatory Committee of China. Other UN and nongovernmental organizations and Parliamentary Councils of the World, Africa, and Europe were involved. Summaries were made of opening conference addresses of Mr. Takashi Sato, Mr. Zhou Gucheng, Chinese Premier Zhao Zivang, Japanese Prime Minister Takeo Fukuda, Dr. Nafis Sadik from the UNFPA, Mrs. Rahman Othman for Mr. Sat Paul Mittal of AFPPD, Australian Prime Minister R.J.L. Hawke, India Prime Minister Rajiv Ghandi, Sri Lankan Prime Minister R. Premedasa, Philippine President Corazon Aquino, Pakistan President Mohammad Zia-ul-Hag, and Bangladesh President Hussain Muhammad Ershad. Election of officers was discussed. The plenary sessions reported on the present situation and prospects for Asian population and development, basic health services and family planning (FP), urbanization, population and food, and aging. Reports were also provided of an exchange among Parliamentarians, the adoption of conference documents and the AFPPD constitution, election of officers, and the closing speakers. Appendices provide a complete list of participants, the constitution which was adopted, and the addresses of Mr. Zhou Gucheng from China's National People's Congress; Mr. Zhao Ziyang, Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Mr. Takeo Fukuda of the Global Committee of FPPD, Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director, UNFPA; and Mr. Sat Paul Mittal, Secretary General, AFPPD.
Science and Technology for Development: Prospects Entering the Twenty-First Century. A symposium in commemoration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., June 22-23, 1987.
Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 1988. 79 p.This Symposium described and assessed the contributions of science and technology in development of less developed countries (LDCs), and focused on what science and technology can contribute in the future. Development experts have learned in the last 3 decades that transfer of available technology to LDCs alone does not bring about development. Social scientists have introduced the concepts of local participation and the need to adjust to local socioeconomic conditions. These concepts and the development of methodologies and processes that guide development agencies to prepare effective strategies for achieving goals have all improved project success rates. Agricultural scientists have contributed to the development of higher yielding, hardier food crops, especially rice, maize, and wheat. Health scientists have reduced infant and child mortalities and have increased life expectancy for those living in the LDCs. 1 significant contribution was the successful global effort to eradicate smallpox from the earth. Population experts and biological scientists have increased the range of contraceptives and the modes for delivering family planning services, both of which have contributed to the reduction of fertility rates in some LDCs. Communication experts have taken advantage of the telecommunications and information technologies to make available important information concerning health, agriculture, and education. For example, crop simulation models based on changes in temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind, solar radiation, and soil conditions have predicted outcomes of various agricultural systems. An integration of all of the above disciplines are necessary to bring about development in the LDCs.
FPAN NEWSLETTER. 1995 Jan-Feb; 15(1):1-3.The International Planned Parenthood Federation/South Asia Region organized a 3-day seminar on Post ICPD Challenges; it was held February 6-8, 1995, in New Delhi, India. 48 participants attended, including Mr. Ram Krishna Neupane (FPA Nepal; Director General), Mr. Prabhat Rana (FPA Nepal; Director, Program Support Services Division), Ms. Prabha Thakkar (Manusi), Ms. Maya Giri (Radio Nepal), and Ms. Ami Joshi (Center for Women in Development). Ms. Avabai B. Wadia, President of the Family Planning Association of India, chaired the inaugural session; Mr. G. Verghees made the inaugural address. Dr. Indira Kapoor (IPPF/ASR; Regional Director), Dr. Pramila Senanayake (IPPF; Assistant Secretary General), and Mrs. Sunetra Puri (IPPF; Director, Public Affairs Department) presented papers on different topics highlighting the linkage between the IPPF VISION 2000 and the ICPD Plan of Action, and the need for a collaborating program in this area. Plenary presentation and discussions were held to provide an overview of plans to take the ICPD forward on women's issues (the empowerment of women, unsafe abortion, sexual and reproductive health). Dr. Ram Krishna Neupane represented Nepalese views in this area. This seminar was the first of its kind to draw together representatives of the media, women's organizations, and service providers; it was successful in eradicating misconceptions regarding the modern methods of contraception, in clarifying the misunderstandings between the media and the service providers, in strengthening commitment, and in preparing a plan of action for each member country in order to implement the ICPD Plan of Action.
ICPD NEWSLETTER. 1994 Sep; (4):10-1.Egypt's major achievements in reducing population growth include increasing the proportion of women of reproductive age who practice family planning to more than 50%, decreasing the birth rate, and slowing population growth to 2.18%. The Egyptian Minister of Population and Family Welfare announced the creation of a partnership between ten developing countries, including Tunisia, Indonesia, Mexico, and Zambia, to foster South-South collaboration on problems of global population and development. Their motto is "Partners in Population and Development." These countries hope to share experiences from their very successful family planning programs with other nations and will meet in 1995 to devise a plan to that end. It is possible that other countries may join the partnership in the interim. Egypt will also establish a Specialized Institute of Population Education Studies to be a world forum for all poor countries. The institute will organize training courses and hold conferences and seminars for Egyptians and Arabs.
In: Population policies and programmes. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Policies and Programmes, Cairo, Egypt, 12-16 April 1992. New York, New York, United Nations, 1993. 114-20. (ST/ESA/SER.R/128)The paper addresses: 1) national population principles and objectives; 2) the population dimension of national development policy; 3) national population programs; 4) the rationale, opportunities and needs for external donor support; and 5) processes for population program needs assessment based on the work of one bilateral donor, the United Kingdom Overseas Development Administration. The population dimension to national development policy formulation is most important in relation to policies on: 1) provision of social services (health, education, family planning); 2) environment; 3) development planning and resource allocation; 4) poverty alleviation; 5) labor force and human resource development (youth employment, child labor); 6) social security for the elderly; and 7) the status of women. A population program establishes the strategies to implement the national population policy. Effective family planning programs recognize diverse needs for contraception (youth adults, couples wishing to space their children, those who have completed their families). Ready access to family planning can be achieved through: 1) integrating family planning into clinic-based maternal and child health services; 2) community-based activities; and 3) the retail sector using social marketing. Other population activities include effective dissemination of data including population education in schools. United Kingdom development donor assistance and wider development policies includes: 1) public expenditure rationalization for structural adjustment; 2) civil service reform; 3) health system restructuring; and 4) decentralization. External assistance would include: 1) technical assistance, using local and international expertise; 2) training, in-country and overseas; 3) supplies, including contraceptives; 4) renovation of the existing health infrastructures; and 5) local costs, such as salaries. For donors, one model is the UNFPA program review and strategy development process.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . 88 p.The UNFPA Annual Report provides a regional review of programs, including those that are interregional, a sectoral review, and other activities. The sectoral review covers family planning (FP), IEC, basic data collection, the use of population research for the formation of policy and development planning, women in population and development, special program interests, and population and the environment. Other activities include promotion of awareness and exchange of information, policy and program coordination, staff training and development, evaluations, the International conference on Population and Development, technical cooperation among developing countries, procurement of equipment and supplies, and multibilateral funding of population activities. The appendices include a glossary of terms, the 1991 income and expenditure report, government pledges and payments for 1991, project allocations in 1991 by country and region, governing council decisions for 1991, and 16 resolutions. In spite of the doubling of population from 2 billion in 1960 to 4 billion in 1990, there is optimism because of progress in country's formulation of population policy and programs, i.e., FP use has increased to 51% from 12% to 14% in 1971, and the average number of births has declined 37% from 6 (1965-70) to 3.8. This progress has been accomplished within a short generation, at low cost, and with 70% of the contributions coming from users and country governments in declining economic circumstances. The challenges ahead are dealing with mass poverty and environmental degradation. Actions to reverse the trends should be to change development priorities, attach poverty directly, shift to cleaner technologies, improve the status of women and girls, and include population in development planning. Highlights of 1991 are that income increased 5.6% and pledges 7.2%. The project expenditure rate was 80.6% vs. 80.1% in 1990, and the resource utilization rate was 102.1% vs. 100.2% in 1990. The number and cost of new projects was lower than in 1990. 55 countries were given priority status. Programs were reviewed in 28 countries. There was a 2% increase in professional women staff to 41%.
POPULATION BRIEFING PAPERS. 1986 Jul; (17):1-4.The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) is the largest internationally funded source of aid to population and family planning programs worldwide. UNFPA can be directly credited with increasing inter-national awareness of the consequences of population trends, creating a better understanding of the complex interrelationships between population and development, and responding to government requests for much needed assistance in formulating population policies, financing projects, and implementing programs designed to help achieve national development goals. Most projects financed by UNFPA are administered by specialized UN bodies; UNFPA has also been a pioneer among the UN agencies in utilizing nongovernmental organizations, which now implement about 10% of UNFPA projects. Voluntary contributions from national donors have increased over 30-fold since UNFPA's early years, then the US provided some 65% of total support. The growing commitment of most developing countries to family planning programs has translated into an overwhelming demand for UNFPA project grants. It is currently estimated that UNFPA's 1986 income may reach only about $120 million, a $34 million shortfall from the amount needed to fulfill the fund's priority commitments.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. vii, 59 p. (Report No. 68)This report of a Mission visit to Ghana from May 4-25, 1981 contains data highlights; a summary of findings; Mission recommendations regarding population and development policies, population data collection and analysis, maternal and child health and family planning, population education and communication programs, and women and development; and information on the following: the national setting; population features and trends (population size, growth rate, and distribution and population dynamics); population policy, planning, and policy-related research; basic data collection and anaylsis; maternal and child health and family planning (general health status, structure and organization of health services, maternal and child health and family planning activities, and family planning services in the private sector); population education and communication programs; women, youth, and development; and external assistance in population. Ghana gained independence in 1957. The country showed early promise of rapid development. Although well-endowed with natural and human resources, Ghana now suffers from food scarcity, inadequate infrastructure and services, inflation, inequities in income distribution, unemployment, and underemployment. Per capita gross national product (GNP) was $400 in 1981; between 1960-81 the average annual growth of GNP was -1.1%. A high rate of natural increase of the population has compounded development problems by intensifying demands for food, consumer goods, and social services while simultaneously increasing the constraints on productivity. The population, estimated at 13 million in mid-1984, is growing at a rate of 3.25% per annum. Immigration and emigration have contributed to changes in the size and composition of the population. Post-independence development policies favored the urban areas, encouraging a steady rural-to-urban shift in the population. At the same time, worsening socioeconomic conditions spurred the emigration of professional, managerial, and technical personnel and skilled workers. Ghana was the 1st sub-Saharan African nation to establish an official population policy. Since the formulation of the policy in 1969, successive governments have remained committed to its emphasis on fertility reduction while increasing attention to the problems of mortality and morbidity and rural/urban migration. Recognizing the need to intensify the commitment to population policies, the Mission recommends support for a program to further the awareness of policy makers of the relationship between population trends and their areas of responsibility. The Mission recommends the creation of a special permanent population committee and the strengthening of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning's Manpower division. The Mission also makes the following recommendations: the provision of training, technical assistance, and data processing facilities to ensure the timely provision of demographic data for socioeconomic planning; data collected in the pilot program of vital registration be evaluated before the system is expanded; the complete integration of maternal and child health and family planning and general health services within the primary health care system; and improvement in women's access to resources such as education, training, and agricultural inputs.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 175-86. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)In carrying out the recommendations of the World Population Plan of Action, the UN has expanded its technical cooperation activities with the countries concerned in diverse population development fields, including studies of the interaction between social, economic, and demographic variables, the formulation and implementation of policies, the integration of demographic factors in the planning process, the training of national staff, and the improvement of the data base and institutional arrangements. Discussion focuses on country problems and policies, national institutional capacity in population and development planning, strengthening national institutional capacities, and integration of population and development in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region. The interaction between structural change in population and social and economic development is generally recognized at the aggregate, sectoral, and regional levels, yet it has not thus far been possible to take this factor fully into account in the development planning process in many countries. In too many cases, population policies have been formulated and implemented in isolation and not in harmony with development policies or as an integral part of overall development strategy. Deficiencies in achieving integrated population policies and integration of demographic factors in the development planning process often have been caused or aggravated by a deficient knowledge of the interactions between demographic and socioeconomic factors and by insufficient expertise, resources, and proper institutional arrangements in the field. The population policies most frequently formulated and implemented during the last decade dealt with fertility, population growth, migration (internal and international), and mortality. Many governments continue to assign relatively low priority to the formulation of population policy and the formulation of related institutional arrangements. The fact that population is still understood as family planning by a number of governments also delays the legislative procedure necessary to establish government institutions for population research and study. The need exists to create a viable national institutional capacity through the establishment of a population planning unit within the administrative structure of national planning bodies. The substantive content of the work programs of these units would vary from country to country. There also is a need for a broader approach to the adoption of population policies and development planning strategies. Some progress has been made in integrating population into development planning in the ESCAP region, but the progress has been slow.
Laws and policies affecting fertility: a decade of change. Leis e politicas que afetam a fecundidade: uma decada de mudancas.
Population Reports. Series E: Law and Policy. 1984; (7):E105-E151.In the last decade over 50 countries have strengthened laws or policies relating to fertility. Approximately 40 developing countries have issued explicit statements on population policy emphasizing the relationship to national development. In several countries constitutional amendments have been passed reflecting a more positive attitude toward family planning. High-level units, e.g. small technical units, interministerial councils and coordinating councils have been established to formulate policies or coordinate programs. Other actions relating to fertility include: increased resources for family planning programs, both in the public and in the private sector; elimination of restrictions on family planning information, services and supplies; special benefits for family planning acceptors or couples with small families, and measures to improve the status of women, which indirectly affects childbearing patterns. The recognition that policies, laws and programs to influence fertility are an integral part of efforts to promote social and economic development was reaffirmed at the International Conference on Population in Mexico City in 1984. 147 governments expressed their support for voluntary programs to help people control their fertility. Governments cite at least 4 reasons for increased attention to policies affecting fertility and family planning. Some of these are the desire to slow population growth to achieve national development objectives, concern for maternal and child health, support for the basic human right to determine family size, and equity in the provision of health services. In addition to the strongest laws and policies to lower fertility in Asia, legal changes are occurring in Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East. Family planning programs, laws on contraceptives and voluntary sterilization, compensation, incentives and disincentives, the legal status of women and fertility and policy-making and implementation are reviewed, as well as equal employment, education, political and civil rights and equality of women within marriage and the family.
Asian-Pacific Population Programme News. 1984; 13(2):25-30.Differences between the Report of the UN World Population Conference and the Report of the Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference were discussed in reference to 1) the relative importance placed on family planning and development in lowering fertility levels, 2) the degree to which family planning and development programs should be integrated, and 3) setting family planning targets. The UN conference was held in Bucharest, Hungary, in 1974 and the Asian and Pacific Conference was held in Colomb, Sri Lanka in 1982. The relative importance of family planning and development on fertility was a major issue at the Bucharest conference. The World Population Plan for Action (WPPA) formulated at the Bucharest conference did not recommend family planning as a strategy for reducing fertility; instead, the WPPA recommended that countries interested in reducing fertility should give priority to development programs and urged developed countries to promote international equity in the use of world resources. In contrast, the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development as formulated at the Colomb conference, strongly recommended both development and family planning programs as a means to reduce fertility. It urged governments to adopt strong family planning policies, to make family planning services available on a regular basis, and to educate and motivate their populations toward family planning. In regard to integration strategies, the WPPA called for integrating family planning programs and development programs wherever possible, and particularly recommended integrated delivery of family planning and health services. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action supported an integrated approach, but only in those situations where it was proven to be a workable approach, i.e., where it improved the efficiency of family planning services. Combining family planning and maternal and child health programs is known to be an advantageous approach, but the consequences of integrating family planning with other health programs and with development programs needs further study. The WPPA recommended that governments set targets for life expectancy and infant mortality, but it did not mention setting fertility targets or establishing an ideal family size. It did urge governments to create the type of socioeconomic conditions which would permit couples to have the number of children they desired and to space them in the manner they wished. The WPPA noted that substantial national effort would be required to reduce the birthrate to the UN projected rate of 30/1000 population in developing regions by 1985. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action urged countries to set specific targets which would make it possible for them to attain replacement level fertility in the year 2000. It will be interesting to observe the degree to which the Asian and Pacific countries will be able to influence the participants at the upcoming International Conference on Population to their way of thinking on these critical issues. A copy of the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development is included in an annex to the article.
The food, population and development equation, statement made at Southeastern Dialogue on the Changing World Economy, Atlanta, Georgia, 25 October 1980.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p.The 1st type of assistance asked for from developing countries is the collection of basic data. The 2nd type of program is family planning. Countries must formulate their family planning themselves based on assessment of needs. The 3rd area that has evolved is that of population dynamics--the study of demographic variables and their consequences. The 4th area is the field of communication and education to support family planning and population programs. The 5th area is in population policies. Finally, there is the residual category of special activities concerned with youth, women and the aged. Population, therefore, represents a broad core area of 5 to 6 categories. The UNFPA is a voluntary organization which provides assistance only to developing countries. The projections of the UN indicate that, as a result of efforts in population, there is for the 1st time in the history of mankind a decline in the population growth rate of developing countries. Nevertheless, mankind must be prepared for an additional 2 billion people by the turn of the century. Population efforts in the end must aim at the stabilization of total world numbers to enable individuals to develop to their full capacity and to improve the quality of life for all.
Population consensus--the need for a common idiom, statement made at the Royal Institute of International Affairs, Chatham House, London 14 February 1973.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 11 p.Today, international agreement on the fundamental question of the necessity to rationalize the growth of the world's population is increasing. Even countries which a few years ago resolutely opposed any move in the United Nations to support population activities now give at least qualified endorsement to the work of the UNFPA. The following considerations are suggested as a continuing basis for the consensus: 1) the pressure of population on resources is increasingly making development efforts difficult in many parts of the world; 2) it is the responsibility of all governments to take stock of population growth and movements in their countries, and formulate appropriate policy; 3) having determined their policy, governments have the responsibility to devise effective means of delivery of family planning and related services; 4) it is the responsibility of each government to devise responsive channels through which individual needs and desires can make themselves known; 5) each government must recognize the need for international co-operation in research and in the transfer of skills and resources; and 6) there must be a common acceptance that population is part of the wider issue of development and cannot be tackled on its own. The future of UNFPA is outlined in light of these criteria for international consensus.
Washington, D.C., Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, 1983 May. 62 p. (Contract: AID/DSPE-C-0076)1 of a series of Population and Development Policy Final Country Reports, this report on Jordan provides an account of the rationale, procedures, and outcomes for PDP activities. After reviewing country background (population characteristics and trends, development trends and characteristics, population policies, family planning service and information, research capabilities, and opportunities and needs for population policies, family planning service and information, research capabilities, and opportunities and needs for population assistance) and the PDP Program of Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, research findings and dissemination activities are reported and follow-up activities are recommended. Jordan's population size is small--an estimated 3 million in 1980, but various other characteristics made it a priority for PDP assistance. In 1979 the annual rate of growth was estimated to be anywhere between 3.5-4.8%. Fertility surveys indicate that over half of married women in Jordan surviving through their childbearing years have at least 7 children. Battelle PDP's Core Project in Jordan was designed to encourage the formulation of population policy. The project, titled Major Issues in Jordanian Development, was coordinated by the Queen Alia Welfare Fund. The project ran from July 1981 to April 1983 and encompassed 2 major types of activities: 6 2-person teams of researchers and government program managers collected and analyzed existing information on population and development issues, and 4 of the 6 research review papers prepared under the project directly addressed development issues of interest to the government i.e., education and training of women, social defense, income distribution, and demand for health services; and dissemination of the findings of the research review and analysis projects to national decision makers and opinion leaders in Jordan. The 6 research reviews were undertaken by pairs of authors, most of which included 1 government representative and 1 private or university researcher. Close monitoring and extensive technical assistance was provided to this project through several field visits and frequent correspondence. Brief descriptions are included of the 6 major issue papers. The paper on demographic trends in national planning reviews the literature on determinants of fertility and the effects of population growth and provides a historical analysis of the role of population variables in Jordan's past development plans. In the paper devoted to the education and training of women, women's schooling was found to be the most robust determinant of married women's fertility in the 1972 and 1976 Jordanian Fertility Surveys. The paper dealing with poverty and its implications for development reviews the extant data on per capita and poverty line data. The team that analyzed the demand for medical services proposed a regional plan for community-based health services. The topics of the final 2 papers were consequences of rapid population growth on development and social defense.
Journal of Modern African Studies. 1982; 20(1):45-67.Discusses the question of government policy toward control of population growth in its relation to economic development, especially in Africa, where population growth rates are high and the rate of economic growth very low. The author reviews the debate between supports of Marx and Malthus, and the family planning versus development debate which he sees as evolving from it. Merit may be found in the arguments of all sides, but some middle ground between the radical positions must be found. It must be recognized that a population problem exists, and that family planning can play a supportive role in keeping fertility rates down, but that a certain level of socioeconomic development must be reached before much can be done about the problem while recognizing that high fertility is itself and impediment to reaching this level of development. Cultural conditions leading to high fertility must also be considered, as well as the political and administrative dimension; both are briefly examined. The author concludes that assistance for population activities is worthwhile and desirable, but not at the expense of other areas of development which contribute to lowered fertility by themselves. The United States should review its policies with this in mind. In a postscript, the author notes that U.S. policy would appear to be undergoing review by the current administration; a shift towards urban Africa and towards encouragement of participation by private industry, evidently underway, would lessen the effect of U.S. development assistance on poverty and the high fertility rates in Africa.
Washington, D.C., U.S. International Development Cooperation Agency, 1981 Jan. 59 p.This strategy statement prepared by the USAID field mission includes a brief description of the political background of aid to Honduras and an analysis of the country's economic situation including an examination of the extent and causes of poverty among different population subgroups, an overview of the economy and assessment of its ability to absorb aid, a discussion of development planning as reflected in the 5-year plan and "Immediate Action Plan" drafted in late 1980; an assessment of progress to date in development efforts and of the Honduran govenment's commitment to development objectives; and a discussion of other donors. Favorable and unfavorable factors influencing achievement of development efforts are then identified, program strategy prior to and during the current planning period are discussed, and specific issues such as the role of the private sector, human rights, the role of women, and public sector management are examined. AID's sectoral objectives and courses of action in agriculture and rural development, population, health and nutrition, education, urban and regional development, and energy are outlined, with problems, current activities, and strategy for 1983-87 identified for each sector. Efforts to improve regional cooperation and AID program efficiency are described. Proposed assistance levels and staff levels are discussed. A series of tables containing data on public sector operations, central government budget expenditures, balance of payments, and key economic indicators are included as appendices.
Population education in schools of the Council of Churches in Indonesia [DGI]. Education project summary.
[Unpublished] . 3 p. (UNFPA Project No INS/77/P03)The long-term objectives of this project to be carried out from April 1978-May 1980 are to make population education an integral part of the curriculum of schools operated by the Council of Churches of Indonesia (DGI). Educational objectives are: 1) understanding factors causing population change in relation to development and quality of life, 2) develop competencies to critically examine population issues, and 3) understanding and encouraging support for population policies of Indonesia. Subject areas to be targeted are: 1) religion (Christianity), 2) moral education, 3) social studies, 4) natural sciences, and 5) language. Primary grades 4-6 (1092 schools, 30 master teachers), junior high grades 7-9 (325 schools, 18 teachers), and senior high grades 10-12 (265 schools, 12 teachers) in 30 SPGs and 2 IKIPs of the DGI are targeted. The DGI is responsible to the Population Education Division of the Bureau of Education and Training of the BKKBN and within the DGI the Division of Health and Responsible Parenthood's Population Education Bureau is responsible for implementation. DGI operations are divided into 15 regions. Funding includes total UNFPA contribution of $172,190 and government contribution of Rp. 63,946,000 with Sirami (Netherlands), Church World Service, Osfam and World Neighbors, Asia Foundation and Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) contributing $390,000.
Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa and their Policy Implications.
In: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa [UNECA]. Population dynamics: fertility and mortality in Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, UNECA, 1981 May. 1-31. (ST/ECA/SER.A/1; UNFPA PROJ. No. RAF/78/P17)The Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa, held in Monrovia late in 1976, examined the various aspects of the interrelationships of fertility and mortality to development process and planning in Africa. Focus in this report of the Expert Group Meeting is on the following: background to fertility and mortality in Africa; usefulness and relevance of existing methodology for collecting and processing and for analyzing fertility and mortality data; fertility and mortality levels and patterns in Africa -- regional studies and country studies; fertility trends and differentials in Africa; mortality trends and differentials; biological and socio-cultural aspects of infertility and sterility; the significance of breast feeding for fertility and mortality; nutrition, disease and mortality in young children; evolution of causes of death and the use of related statistics in mortality studies in Africa; and fertility and mortality in national development. It was suggested that a strategy for development with equity must direct itself, among other things, to the issue of how to monitor progress in the elimination of underdevelopment, poverty, malnutrition, poor health, bad housing, poor education and employment through the use of indicators which measured changes in those variables at the national and local levels. In order to achieve development with equity, it was obvious that demographers and policymakers should ensure that there was regular monitoring of socioeconomic differentials in mortality and morbidity rates since such differentials essentially measured inequality in a society. The following were included among the recommendations made: recognizing that fertility and mortality data for a majority of African countries are now 20 years out of date, efforts should be directed toward collecting and analyzing fertility and mortality data by the use of both direct and indirect methods; and international and national organizations should support country efforts to improve the supply of data and analytical work on census and other existing data.
In: Population and development. New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, 1981. 23-32.Speaks of the need to integrate population policy and development programs as advocated by the IPPF as early as in 1930, which most countries now adopt though more in a theoretical than operational way. Some areas in which population and development problems are associated are in the educational process which in Latin American Countries is part of the development plans; reduction of the growth rate to balance with employment opportunities; geographic distribution of the population to reduce the pace of urbanization and promoting regional and rural development; international migration; female literacy; a community based program which concerns itself with economic development as well as primary health and family planning services of the community. National and international contributions and commitment to family planning have to be increased. The comment that follows estimates a total population of 600 million in Latin America by the year 2000 without an explicit population policy and a total population of 510 million through following a policy similar to Mexico's. Efforts must be directed towards achieving population goals in this century to prevent a collapse in the next.
In: Poverty and population control, edited by Lars Bondestam and Staffan Bergstrom. Academic Press, London, England, 1980. 213-221.Add to my documents.
Improvement of planning and implementation of population projects funded by United Nations Fund for Population Activities.
[Unpublished] 1971 Sep 29. 46 p.UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities) was formulated by the U.N. with the goal of providing assistance to developing countries in controlling their rapid population growth in order to achieve greater and quicker social and economic development. Inadequate development of the "ideal" contraceptive technology, lack of awareness of rapid population growth as a problem, and inadequate program planning and management were cited as the main barriers to efficient operation of population programs. It was agreed that UNFPA would concentrate its efforts in areas where the concept of family planning is still controversial. Major questions surround funding policies: 1) whether to fund fewer large projects or more smaller projects; 2) whether to provide direct or indirect assistance; and 3) whether to support research or action projects. Advantages of action through UNFPA and constraints on such action are cited and discussed. The organizational structure of UNFPA is summarized. General discussion is given to the major areas of UNFPA endeavor. Evaluation of the success of UNFPA-sponsored programs is a necessary part of the Fund's activities.
Colombo, Sri Lanka, [Ministry of Plan Implementation?] 1980. 29 p.Speeches delivered by representatives of the 3 major political parties and the remarks of various officials of international donor organizations are presented. The seminar coincided with a visit to Sri Lanka of a UNFPA needs mission. The party representatives were in agreement that population growth in Sri Lanka must be curbed if development is to be achieved, and that all parties must cooperate in implementing population control and family planning programs. Strong support of the Government's Population Policy and Family Planning Programme was voiced. The history of organized family planning in Sri Lanka, ecological limitations of the country, the need to utilize paramedical personnel in service delivery and to establish better service delivery systems were touched upon by several of the speakers.