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Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):2.Each year we celebrate World Habitat Day on the first Monday in October. The theme of the event being spearheaded from Jakarta, Indonesia this year and marked in cities around the world is The Millennium Development Goals and the City. It is my intention to use this theme and World Habitat Day as an occasion to launch a new integrated slum upgrading and disaster mitigation programme in Indonesia. We chose this theme because the year 2005 marks the fifth anniversary of the Millennium Declaration in which world leaders agreed on a set of eight ambitious goals. These goals are aimed at eradicating poverty, achieving universal primary education, empowering women, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, fighting AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensuring environmental sustainability, and forging a new partnership for development. These goals are people-centred, timebound and measurable. They are simple but powerful objectives that every woman, man, and young person in the street from Washington to Monrovia, Jakarta to Nairobi and Oslo to Cape Town can understand. They have the political support because they mark the first time our leaders have held themselves accountable to such a covenant. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1): p..Cities, towns and villages have not been a priority for women’s action in the last decade. Is this because the Beijing Platform for Action was weak in addressing problems that women face daily where they live and work in human settlements? In the next 10 years, women activists and decision-makers should focus more on the living environment as it affects urban poor women, especially the homeless and slum dwellers. Promoting gender equality, the advancement of women and improving the living environment has never been easy. Moreover, there is some misunderstanding of what the terms human settlements and gender mainstreaming are all about. But this has been addressed in the Habitat Agenda, Beijing Platform for Action, the Declaration of Cities in the New Millennium and other UN documents respectively. Nevertheless, Ms. Jan Peterson, Chair of Huairou Commission, a leading umbrella organisation for grassroots women’s organizations working at community level to improve homes and communities, has on a number of occasions stated that gender mainstreaming as a strategy has in fact hidden women and their concerns and that we should go back to emphasize women. (excerpt)
In: Feminism / postmodernism / development, edited by Marianne H. Marchand and Jane L. Parpart. London, England, Routledge, 1995. 204-220.This chapter has suggested several possible reasons for the difficulty in operationalizing GAD projects but it may be worthwhile to focus further on what constitutes agreed-upon approaches in the field of development studies and practice and on the language used to justify and popularize different perspectives. As we have seen, development discourse is largely based on assumptions that have not changed substantially during the past thirty years and that never have been questioned very closely. Development practice has generally involved a heavy infusion of resources from outside with a predilection towards the "technological fix." Development theorists and practitioners have learned little from past mistakes, nor have they fundamentally changed their way of thinking or their mode of operation. As a result, isolated knowledge in the form of case studies or academic papers generated in either the North or South has had relatively little impact on most development practice. At the same time, we tend to minimize the recognition that the major actors in the development arena are both politically and economically motivated. In development planning and theorizing we seldom take into account the fact that donors seldom act exclusively from a sense of shared concern for the improvement of living conditions for people of the Third World but out of a desire to improve their own position. New power affiliations emerging out of development assistance have destroyed or eroded many traditional human relationships and values in the South. (excerpt)
POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1992 Sep; 18(3):571-82.The UN Conference on Environment and Development, commonly known as the Earth Summit, took place June 3-14, 1992, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The majority of the 172 countries were represented by heads of state, making this the largest-ever gathering of world leaders. The conference offered the following legally binding conventions for signature: a treaty aimed at preventing global climate change through controlling man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, and a treaty aimed at preventing the eradication of biologically diverse species and protecting flora and fauna. Each was signed by 153 countries at the conference. The US, however, failed to sign the treaty on biodiversity out of concern that provisions in the treaty would unduly restrict the biotechnology industry in that country. The treaty on climate change specifies a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000 as an objective to be met voluntarily. The convention on biological diversity requires that countries adopt a variety of regulatory measures aimed at conserving biological resources. The summit also adopted several nonbinding documents. For example, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development outlines 27 principles which express a commitment to improving the environment, while Agenda 21 is a lengthy and detailed blueprint discussing how individual countries and the world as a whole can achieve in the next century environmentally sound development. Population issues were not central in any of the Rio documents, but were given significant attention in the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21. The full text of the Rio Declaration as well as the preamble and chapter five of Agenda 21 on demographic dynamics and sustainability are reproduced.
Government of Sierra Leone. National report on population and development. International Conference on Population and Development 1994.
Freetown, Sierra Leone, National Population Commission, 1994. , 15,  p.The government of Sierra Leone is very concerned about the poor health status of the country as expressed by the indicators of a high maternal mortality rate (700/100,000), a total fertility rate of 6.2 (in 1985), a crude birth rate of 47/1000 (in 1985), an infant mortality rate of 143/1000 (in 1990), and a life expectancy at birth of only 45.7 years. A civil war has exacerbated the already massive rural-urban migration in the country. Despite severe financial constraints, the government has contributed to the UN Population Fund and continues to appeal to the donor community for technical and financial help to support the economy in general and population programs in particular. Sierra Leone has participated in preparations for and fully supports the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. This document describes Sierra Leone's past, present, and future population and development linkages. The demographic context is presented in terms of size and growth rate; age and sex composition; fertility; mortality; and population distribution, migration, and urbanization. The population policy planning and program framework is set out through discussions of the national perception of population issues, the national population policy, population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program [including maternal-child health and family planning (FP) services; information, education, and communication; data collection, analysis, and research; primary health care, population and the environment; youth and adolescents and development; women and development; and population distribution and migration]. The operational aspects of the program are described with emphasis on political and national support, FP service delivery and coverage, monitoring and evaluation, and funding. The action plan for the future includes priority concerns; an outline of the policy framework; the design of population program activities; program coordination, monitoring, and evaluation; and resource mobilization. The government's commitment is reiterated in a summary and in 13 recommendations of action to strengthen the population program, address environmental issues, improve the status of women, improve rural living conditions, and improve data collection.
NEW YORK TIMES. 1992 Apr 5; 6.In April 1992, the New York Times published the draft text of a declaration of 27 principles promoting environmentally responsible development to be discussed at the UN Conference on Environment and Development in June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This proposed declaration used the declaration of the 1872 UN Conference on the Human Environment as its foundation. The 1992 declaration called for a new and equitable global partnership in creating new levels of cooperation among countries, principal sectors of society, and people. Its intent was to effect international agreements that consider everyone's interests and preserve the principles of the global environmental and developmental system. The declaration heralded humans as the center of sustainable development and that they should have a healthy and productive life at one with nature. UN member states need to reduce and expunge patterns of production and consumption which lead to unsustainability and to foster relevant demographic policies. This was the only principle addressing population's role in sustainable development. The declaration recognized that women must participate fully in environmental management and development so the world can attain sustainable development. It also acknowledged the important role of indigenous people and local communities since they have knowledge of traditional practices. Member states should encourage youth to use their creativity and apply their ideals and courage to shape a global partnership to achieve sustainable development. It proclaimed that all states should incorporate environmental protection fully in the development process. All state must cooperate to preserve, defend, and renew the health and integrity of the earth's ecosystem. The developed countries must address the stress they put on the global environment and of the technologies and financial resources they require. Member states must also work together to eradicate poverty. They should strive to avoid war and to promote peace.
Global biodiversity strategy. Guidelines for action to save, study, and use Earth's biotic wealth sustainably and equitably.
Washington, D.C., WRI, 1992. vi, 244 p.Humanity depends on all other forms of life on Earth and its nonliving components including the atmosphere, ocean, bodies of freshwater, rocks, and soils. If humanity is to persist and to develop so that everyone enjoys the most basic of human rights, it must protect the structure, functions, and diversity of the world's natural systems. The World Resources Institute, the World Conservation Union, and the UN Environment Programme have joined together to prepare this strategy for global biodiversity. The first 2 chapters cover the nature and value of biodiversity and losses of biodiversity and their causes. The 3rd chapter presents the strategy for biodiversity conservation which includes the goal of such conservation and its contents and catalysts and 5 actions needed to establish biodiversity conservation. Establishment of a national policy framework for biodiversity conservation is the topic of the 4th chapter. It discusses 3 objectives with various actions to accomplish each objective. Integration of biodiversity conservation into international economic policy is 1 of the 3 objectives of the 5th chapter--creating an international policy environment that supports national biodiversity conservation. Correct imbalances in the control of land and resources is a clear objective in creating conditions and incentives for local biodiversity conservation--the topic of the 6th chapter. The next 3 chapters are devoted to managing biodiversity throughout the human environment; strengthening protected areas; and conserving species, populations, and genetic diversity. The last chapter provides specific actions to improve human capacity to conserve biodiversity including promotion of basic and applied research and assist institutions to disseminate biodiversity information.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1992. xxxii, 282 p.The WHO Commission on Health and Environment has put together a comprehensive report on the interaction between the state of the environment and human health. There is a need to understand and manage this interaction to bring about a sustainable development which meets people's needs while preserving natural systems. Yet, humankind faces various obstacles to sustainable development, including population growth, migration, urbanization, poverty, resource degradation, and macroeconomic policies. Humans can sustain output of agriculture, forestry, and fishing, if they do not exploit ecological systems. Humans need to at least consider food production, diet, health, land tenure, food contamination, agricultural chemicals, and occupational hazards. They must also effectively and efficiently manage freshwater supplies using means which do not adversely upset natural systems. Humans should move away from using fossil fuels as an energy supply since they are the single largest source of air pollution. They should identify and develop energy supplies which reduce the adverse environment and health effects, e.g., solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. Industrial practices in both developed and developing countries spew air and water pollutants into the environment, generate hazardous wastes, and expose workers to harmful agents. Urbanization poses a special challenge to environmental health, especially where there is little or no infrastructure and services which worsens pollution and environmental health problems. Many environmental and health problems cross boundaries. These include long range transport of air pollution, acid rain, damage of the ozone layer, build up of greenhouse gases, hazardous wastes exported from developed to developing countries, ocean pollution, and loss of biodiversity. Two axioms to a healthier and sustainable world are more equitable access to resources and citizen participation.
In: Race to save the tropics. Ecology and economics for a sustainable future, edited by Robert Goodland. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1990. 171-89.Sustainability denotes well-being, intergenerational equity, minimal use of exhaustible mineral reserves, slow depletion of nonrenewable energy resources allowing an orderly societal transition to renewable energy sources, and agricultural sustainability. Many parts of the world have already surpassed their carrying capacity. To effectively apply environmental management to economic development, decision makers must understand the fundamental relationship among growth, equality, and ethics. Liberation of women and reduction of excess consumption by the rich are needed to achieve environmental sustainability. We have been able to solve some environmental problems once they have reached a crisis stage by investing money into their solution. Prevention is the only means to address irreversible environmental effects, however. The major reason for biodiversity loss is destruction of tropical forests which support 50% of the world's 5-30 million species on 7% of the land area. A large percentage of the biodiversity in the Philippines, Haiti, El Salvador, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and parts of India is already gone. Some corporations have begun to respond responsibility to the environment. In 1987 the largest investor in economic development in developing countries, the World Bank, implemented environmental policies for all programs. The Bank normally refuses to finance projects designed to convert wildlands of special concern, e.g. to national parks. Projects concerning wildlands other than those of special concern should only occur on already converted land. A more open decision making process is required to justify any deviations from the above policies. If wildlands development is defended, the project should just convert less valuable wildlands. Financing preservation of another wildland is required for any conversion of wildlands not of special concern. If a project does not involve conversion of wildlands, the Bank requires the preservation of wildlands for their environmental services alone.
[Unpublished] 1994.  p.In its preamble, this document provides an assessment of population issues in 1994 as compared to 1974 when the United Nations World Population Plan of Action was approved at the World Conference in Bucharest. It then delineates the following major challenges of primary concern to the international community: 1) reducing poverty, 2) improving the status of women; 3) dealing with the increasing annual increments in population; 4) the continued high rate of population growth; 5) changes in population structure; 6) high levels of infant and maternal mortality; 7) the inability of some governments to influence fertility rates; 8) the unmet needs for family planning; 9) the disequilibrium between rates of change in population and changes in resources, the environment, and development; 10) internal migration and urbanization; 11) international migration; 12) refugees; 13) the increasing number of people who lack the basic tools of survival; 14) the consequences of advances in agricultural technology and in genetic engineering; 15) the relatively high proportion of young people in some countries; 16) the data collection, analysis, and utilization needs of developing countries; and 17) the need for increased support to implement the Plan. After placing the Plan firmly within the framework of other intergovernmental strategies and plans, the document makes a special statement of the importance of the world community working for peace. 88 specific recommendations are then addressed to governments but are also applicable to international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, private institutions or organizations, or families and individuals. The recommendations for action encompass the following issues: socioeconomic development, the environment, and population; the role and status of women; development of population policies; population goals and policies; and promotion of knowledge and policy. Recommendations for implementing these actions consider the role of national governments, that of international cooperation, and the monitoring, review, and appraisal process.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):19-34.As part of the preparation for the up-coming International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group met at UN headquarters on January 20-24, 1992. The group noted that the momentum of population growth was expected to add 3 billion people to the global population between 1985 and 2025, with more than 90% of the growth occurring in the developing countries which are least able to respond to the attendant resource and environmental demands. The expert group discussed the interaction of population and resources, specifically the impact of population growth on the environment and carrying capacity. The meeting then focused on environmental discontinuities and uncertainties and on environmental degradation, specifically the loss of agricultural land, the destruction of tropical forests, fresh-water resource, the loss of biological diversify, and climate change. Following their deliberations, the expert group drafted 18 recommendations addressed to governments, social institutions, and international organizations. The group urged that governments establish or strengthen the integration of environmental and population concerns into development policy-making and planning and support technologies to achieve sustained economic growth and development while striving to replace the use of fossil fuels with renewable resources. Areas of the environment subject to acute population pressure should be identified and policies devised to reduce that pressure. Ecologically helpful labor-intensive projects should be implemented for their dual benefits. Women should be included in these activities, and their status in society, therefore, should be improved through improved education and participatory opportunities. The uses of water should be optimized to acknowledge its scarcity. The delivery of service to alleviate poverty should proceed in a manner that invites community participation, which, along with education, will be vital to institute these changes. Adequate resources for urban management should be allocated to local authorities. Environmentally displaced people should receive assistance while the cause of their uprooting is simultaneously addressed. Land-use planning and promotion of emergency prevention is increasingly important as populations settle in areas vulnerable to natural disasters. International organizations are urged to support efforts to minimize the health impacts of environmental degradation and increase their assistance in the areas of population, sustainable development, and the environment, especially in training and national planning. Awareness of the interrelatedness of these issues should be promoted in every way possible, especially through education, training, and the support of databases. Policy-oriented research should focus on identifying critically endangered areas. As policies are devised for sustainable development, special attention should be paid to improving the circumstances of indigenous people, and their accumulated experience with sustainable development should be sought and used. Finally, conflicting goals between countries should be identified by governments to allow open analysis, successful negotiation, and satisfactory solutions.
In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 154-60.The most common global concerns are the threat to the earth's ecological balance, challenges originating from new technologies, and the ability of developing countries to respond to these changes in a way conducive to sustainable development. Creative learning means that political systems assimilate new information when making policy decisions. pathological learning implies that political systems prevent new information from influencing policies, eventually leading to the system's failure. Policymakers cannot ignore the new technologies and the changing environment. The UN University had identified the most important research gaps with regard to technological development. recommendations from this study are more research on the relationship between the effects of existing trends in the technological revolution and the formation of development strategies and the significance of identifying alternatives of technological development better suited to the actual needs and conditions of developing countries. For example, biotechnology may produce new medications to combat some tropical diseases, but a lack of commercial interest in industrialized countries prevents the needed research. Research in the Himalayas shows the importance of focusing on the linkages between mountains and plains, instead of just the mountains, to resolve environmental degradation. This finding was not expected. The researchers promote a broader, more holistic, critical approach to environmental problem-solving. Humans must realize that we have certain rights and obligations to the earth and to future generations. We must translate these into enforceable standards at the local, national, and international levels to attain intergenerational equity. Policy-makers must do longterm planning and incorporate environmentally sound technologies and the conservation of the ecological balance into development policy. sustainable development must include social, economic, ecologic, geographic, and cultural aspects.
In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 25-38.The public debate on the environment leading to the 1992 Earth Summit in Brazil has been restricted to global climate change instead of global change. The Summit should be part of an ongoing process and not a framework convention followed by protocols. Separate conventions for biodiversity and deforestation are likely to emerge, even though one convention integrating both biodiversity and deforestation is needed. Many environmental and development issues overlap, suggesting a need for an international group to coordinate these issues. Negotiating separate conventions for the various issues is costly for developing countries. Rapid population growth contributes to environmental degradation, but no coordinated effort exists to reduce it. The US continues to not support the UN Population Fund which, along with threats of US boycotts and disapproval, curbs initiatives to reduce population. At present population and economic growth rates, an environmental disaster will likely happen in the early 2000s. Developing countries, which also contribute greatly to global warming, will not take actions if industrialized nations do not initiate reductions of greenhouse gases. Developed countries emit the most greenhouse gases, have been responsible for most past emissions, and have the means to initiate reductions. Of industrialized nations, the US stands alone in setting targets to reduce carbon dioxide. Unlike some European nations, the US does not have an energy policy. The US abandoned public transportation for the automobile while Europe has a strong public transportation system. The World Bank has improved greatly in addressing global environmental issues, but only 1% of its energy lending is for energy efficiency. The Bank knows that projects implemented by nongovernmental organizations are more successful than those implemented by governments, yet it continues to lend money to governments. Humans need to redesign existing linear systems to be like nature's circular systems in which by-products are starting products for another reaction.
[Unpublished] 1989. 7 p.The World Bank President at a meeting of the World Resources Institute in 1989 addressed the issues of World Bank accomplishments, public awareness, industrial nations' responsibilities, and the link of poverty to population and the environment. Collective responsibility is urged. The cumulative effect of human activity will determine the fate of the planet. The World Bank has created a central Environment Department. Staff assigned full time to environmental issues has increased to 65 over 3 years. Environmental Issues Papers have been prepared for the most active borrowers, which in August 1989 included 70 countries. The Environmental Technical Assistance Program has US$5 million to distribute for environmental projects. Regional studies in an Asian urban environmental clean up and a Mediterranean environmental project were initiated and jointly funded with the European Investment Bank. By June 30, 1989, more than 100 projects with environmental components will be approved for funding, which is 35% of total yearly projects. 60% of all agricultural projects funded have environmental components. Funding for forestry projects is expected to double to US$950 million in the next 3 years, and US$1.3 million will be lent for environmental projects. Bringing environmental awareness to developing countries has been made difficult be fears that advanced countries are trying to impede economic development and to interfere with foreign sovereignty. Collective responsibility has not been agreed upon. Industrialized countries must be prepared to accept and remedy their own environmental shortcomings. 71% of industrial emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) comes from North America and Western Europe, which has only 8.2% of the world's population. Meanwhile, 7% of CO2 emissions come from developing countries, which have 70% of the world's population. The US produces 5 tons of CO2/person, while the world average is 1 ton/person. The US exports agricultural chemicals that are hazardous to human health. The US leads all industrial nations, except Canada, in energy use/unit of production of goods and services. 33% of all chlorofluorocarbons are released in the US. The population growth rate has a serious and life-threatening impact on human life. Natural resource constraints will limit growth. The solution is to provide family planning and expand the carrying capacities right now.
[New York, New York], United Nations, 1992.  p.Drafts of Agenda 21 of the Rio Declaration on Forest Principles is a massive and detailed account in 4 parts: 1) the preamble and the social and economic dimensions, 2) conservation and management of resources for development, 3) strengthening the role of major groups, and 4) means of implementation. There are 40 chapters largely devoted to issues concerning management of water resources. The Appendix includes the Adoption of Agreements on Environment and Development note by the Secretary General of the Conference and the Proposal by the Chairman of the Preparatory Committee of May 7, 1992; 27 principles were agreed upon. Also included is the nonlegal binding authoritative statement of principles for a global consensus on the management, conservation, and sustainable development of all types of forests by the Secretary General and the preamble and principles. Part I is concerned with international cooperation in increasing sustainable development in developing countries, the reduction of poverty, the change in consumption patterns, demographic dynamics, the protection and promotion of human health conditions, the promotion of sustainable human settlement development, and the integration of the environment and development in decision making. Part II includes atmosphere protection, integration of planning and management of land resources, deforestation, managing fragile ecosystems, conservation of biological diversity, protection of the oceans, seas, and coastal areas as well as a rational use of resources, protection of freshwater resources, environmental sound management of hazardous wastes and solid wastes and sewage, and safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes. Part III is devoted to the preamble, global action for women, children and youth in sustainable development, recognition and strengthening of the role of indigenous people and communities, strengthening nongovernmental organizations, local authorities initiatives in support of Agenda 21, strengthening workers and trade unions, the scientific and technological community, and strengthening the role of farmers. Part IV identifies financial resources and mechanisms, environmentally sound technology transfer, science, promotion of education and public awareness, international institutional arrangements, international legal instruments and mechanisms, and information for decision making.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1989. xiii, 100 p. (UNEP-World Bank Symposium)The World Bank and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) have published a book of selected papers presented at a series of workshops (1983-1988) on environmental accounting and its use in development policy and planning. The book also contains three contributions not presented at the workshops but written by workshop participants. Most chapters centers on financial and economic factors and the possibilities of revising the UN System of National Accounts (SNA) to include environmental and natural resource issues. The first chapter reviews environmental and resource accounting and includes a discussion of the failings of current national income measures as well as the depletion of natural resources. The second chapter proposes a measure of sustainable net national product. The third chapter presents a proper measurement of income from depletable natural resources. The fourth chapter suggests a means to introduce natural capital into the SNA. The fifth chapter describes measuring pollution with the national accounts system. Next the book provides guidelines to correct national income for environmental losses. A whole chapter is devoted to the French model of environmental accounting in development policy. A chapter on linkages between environmental and national income accounts follows the French model. The ninth chapter is a discussion on environmental and nonmarket accounting in developing countries. The tenth chapter outlines a proposed environmental accounts system. The eleventh chapter discusses environmental accounting and the system of national accounts. An account of recent developments and future works conclude this volume. The appendix lists the participants at the joint UNEP-World Bank workshops.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1992. xiv, 385 p.The World Resources Institute, the UN Environment Programme, and the UN Development Programme collaborate to produce the World Resources series to provide organizations and individuals with accessible and accurate information on the trends and conditions of natural resources and protection of the environment. This information is needed to reach sustainable development, eliminate poverty, improve the standard of living, and preserve biological life-sustaining systems. This 5th volume stresses sustainable development as does the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development. Part I, entitled Sustainable Development, includes an overview chapter and 3 case studies of possible means to achieve sustainable development in industrialized countries, low income countries, and rapidly industrializing countries. Part II focuses on one region of the world, Central Europe, to discuss how it was able to degrade the environment, the magnitude of the damage, and what possible steps to take to ameliorate the situation. Part III addresses basic conditions and trends, key issues, major problems and efforts to resolve them, and recent developments in population and human development, food and agriculture, forests and rangelands, wildlife and habitat, energy, freshwater, oceans and coasts, atmosphere and climate, and policies and institutions (governmental and nongovernmental organizations). Part IV lists core and supporting data from the World Resources Data Base. This volume contains an index and a World Resources Data Base index.
From empty-world economics to full-world economics: recognizing an historical turning point in economic development.
In: Population, technology, and lifestyle: the transition to sustainability, edited by Robert Goodland, Herman E. Daly, Salah El Serafy. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1992. 23-37.The human economy has moved from an era in which manmade capital was the limiting factor in economic development to the present when remaining natural capital has become the limiting factor. Natural capital is the stock from which comes natural resources. As human populations have grown and many countries have developed economically, manmade capital has been developed and accumulated to exploit often unowned natural capital and resources as if they had no price. No self-interested social class exists to protect these resources from overexploitation. Current levels of extracting and harvesting natural capital are simply not sustainable. This concept of full-world economics, however, is not accepted as academically legitimate by those of the empty-world school. Neoclassical economics considers factors of production to be substitutable and not complementary; this is not the case for the world's stock of natural capital. Assuming that natural capital has become the limiting factor, economic logic dictates the need to maximize its productivity and increase its supply. Investment and technology should therefore focus upon preserving and restoring natural capital while improving the productivity of natural capital more than manmade capital. Population growth must be reduced in developing countries and both population growth and per capita resource use must be constrained in more developed countries. Supporting these objectives, the World Bank, the UN Environment Program, and the UN Development Programme have started a biospheric infrastructure investment called the Global Environment Facility. It will provide concessional funding for programs investing in the preservation or enhancement of the protection of the ozone layer, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, protection of international water resources, and protection of biodiversity. These issues will gain prominence in development bank lending policies.
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. 1992 Sep; 267(3):32, 36-8.Groups focused on women's rights, family planning and health, environmental protection, reduced consumption of natural resources, economic development and population control differ greatly in their views of population pressure's role in preventing sustainable development. Yet, it is these same groups that should be working together to achieve sustainable development. Some speakers at the 1991 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, encouraged world leaders to take immediate steps to deal with population growth and stated that poverty, environment, and population are intertwined. At the same time in the same city, panel participants at the Global Forum, attended by almost 2000 nongovernmental organizations, considered population control as a violation of women's rights, as a means to circumvent poverty eradication in developing countries, and as a means to suppress the poor in developing countries. These debates, whether population control or economic development is the best means to reduce population growth have been occurring since 1968. In the interim, the world population has increased form 3.5-5.5 billion. The population growth rate has fallen from 2-1.7%, however, but 97 million more people will appear on this earth each year during the 1990s. Because any discussion of contraceptives and family planning may be misinterpreted by members as abortion, many environmental groups do not address it. They also fear undertaking immigration issues, since past attempts were labelled as racist. Nevertheless, more and more organizations, e.g., the Natural Resources Defense Council, are beginning to address the need to focus on population growth to prevent environmental degradation. Further, some foundations, e.g., the Pew Charitable Trusts, are offering grants to environmental groups to begin population programs. All too often development plans neglect family health and do not consider the concerns of the target population.
1988 report by the Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund. State of world population 1989. UNFPA in 1988.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1989. 208 p.The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has played a major role in many population/family planning accomplishments and it hoped to continue making an impact in 1989 with the help of >100 donors (3 donors, as compared to 1969 when UNFPA began operations) and a budget of $198 million ($3.9 million, 1969). In 1969, 6 developing countries had population policies and, 20 years later, >70 such countries have them. 12-14% of couples used contraception in 1969 and, by the end of 1988, >45% used it. Despite these accomplishments, the world's population is expected to grow 90 million/year in the 1990s. Therefore, the population interventions and programming with clear and achievable goals are still needed. UNFPA asserts that the earth's future is dependent on population trends, environmental conditions, and the role and status of women. Since economic and social development are contingent on the involvement of women, the 1988 UNFPA report dedicates >60 pages and an extensive bibliography to the status of women, especially in developing countries. For example, in Africa, the lifetime chance of a woman dying from pregnancy related causes is 1/21, yet that chance in North America is 1/6366. Due to dwindling fuel sources, such as woodlands, women have farther to travel to collect wood and cook less often, thereby reducing the amount of already scarce nutritious food consumed each day. Further, since in many cultures the males are considered more important than females, they eat while the female children and mothers either do not or just eat the scraps. The remaining sections on population, the environment, and the state of regional UNFPA activities emphasize women's contributions and roles of development.
[Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the Conference on Global Environment and Human Response toward Sustainable Development, Tokyo, Japan, September 11, 1989. 11 p.With the installation of Barner B. Conable as President of the World Bank, the Bank began to incorporate the environmental effects of development projects into its loan decisions. It has also augmented loans for environmental, population, and forestry projects. In 1988, >100 projects with important environmental elements (35% of all Bank and IDA projects) were approved, the majority of which were in agriculture. The Bank has expected the percentage of such projects to increase annually. Further, to assist the countries and the Bank in considering environmental concerns in the beginning stage of designing development projects, the Bank has developed Environmental Assessment Guidelines. The Bank has taken on a formidable task, however, since its primary purpose is to reduce poverty which often conflicts with protecting the environment. Its leadership believes that the 2 goals are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and, if they are to be achieved, the problems must be clearly defined and all the countries of the world must work towards solutions to benefit the global community. Additionally, the Bank has begun to encourage developing countries to switch to cleaner fuels, processes, and systems to curtail global warming. It also monitors research on carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon emissions, all of which contribute to the greenhouse effect, and on climatic change. The Bank has recognized, however, that improvement in the environment cannot occur fast enough, at the rate the earth's population is increasing. Therefore it continues to fund family planning and health projects.
Expanding the role of non-governmental organizations (NGO's) in national forestry programs. The report of three regional workshops in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
Washington, D.C., World Resources Institute, . 44 p.Efforts of the World Resources Institute (WRI), the World Bank, the United Nations Development Programme, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have resulted in a common framework to save tropical forests--the Tropical Forestry Action Plan. A 1st step includes national forestry sector reviews to coordinate aid agency and government involvement in identifying investment priorities and significant policy reforms to reverse deforestation and promote sustainable development and then incorporating them into their national development plans. This represents a shift from the focus of national government and aid agency forestry programs of the late 1970s, which was on commercial or industrial forestry, to forestry which provides for people's basic needs. To be successful, this plan requires the involvement of farmers and local communities. Involving NGOs and their capabilities can complement government and development assistance programs. NGOs' greatest contribution is the promotion of community based, participatory forestry programs that benefit economically or socially disadvantaged groups. WRI and the Environment Liaison Centre hosted 3 regional workshops to discuss NGOs roles in reforestation. Participants agreed that, to establish a basis for constructive collaboration, NGOs, governments, and aid agencies must mutually understand their complementary roles. Further governments and aid agencies must change policies and procedures to assist and enhance NGO involvement in policymaking and the project cycle. This includes finding new mechanisms to direct funds to NGOs, and for governments and aid agencies to respect the autonomy of the NGO and therefore enable it to achieve its goals.