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  1. 1

    World development report 2012. Gender equality and development.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2011. [458] p.

    The lives of girls and women have changed dramatically over the past quarter century. The pace of change has been astonishing in some areas, but in others, progress toward gender equality has been limited -- even in developed countries. This year's World Development Report: Gender Equality and Development argues that gender equality is a core development objective in its own right. It is also smart economics. Greater gender equality can enhance productivity, improve development outcomes for the next generation, and make institutions more representative. The Report also focuses on four priority areas for policy going forward: (i) reducing excess female mortality and closing education gaps where they remain, (ii) improving access to economic opportunities for women, (iii) increasing women's voice and agency in the household and in society, and (iv) limiting the reproduction of gender inequality across generations.
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  2. 2

    Poverty and development [editorial]

    Fosu AK

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Oct; 85(10):734.

    posited that the process of development entails changes in incomes over time. Larger income levels achieved via positive economic growth, appropriately discounted for population growth, would constitute higher levels of development. As many have noted, however, the income measure fails to adequately reflect development in that per-capita income, in terms of its levels or changes to it, does not sufficiently correlate with measures of (human) development, such as life expectancy, child/infant mortality and literacy. The United Nations Development Programme's (UNDP) human development index (HDI) constitutes an improved measure for development. HDI has been modified to be gender-sensitive with variants that reflect gender inequality. Various measures reflecting Sen's "capability" concept, such as civil and political rights, have also been incorporated. Countries where the level of poverty is relatively large tend also to exhibit low values of human development, thus lowering the mean values of the development measures. Where inequalities of development indicators are very large, however, the average values may not sufficiently reflect the conditions of the poor, requiring the need to concentrate on poverty per se. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Gender, poverty and the millennium development goals.

    Miller B

    Monday Developments. 2003 Jun 9; 21(10):13.

    Education alone is not sufficient to reach gender equality, the third of the Millennium Development Goals”, Sarah Newhall, president of Pact and co-chair of InterAction's Commission on the Advancement of Women, told the annual CAW breakfast. Education is a necessary but insufficient action to achieve gender equality," she said. While recognizing that the inclusion of "gender equity testifies to the power and impact of the global women's movement," June Zeitlin, CEO of the Women's Economic Development Organization, noted that the remaining seven Millennium goals are presented as "gender neutral." The Millennium Development Goals were adopted by heads of state in 2000 as a global development framework. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Objectives and priorities of the Eighth Plan.

    Nepal. National Planning Commission

    In: The International Conference on Population and Development, September 5-13, 1994, Cairo, Egypt. Nepal's country report, [compiled by] Nepal. National Planning Commission. Kathamandu, Nepal, National Planning Commission, 1993 Sep. 40-9 p.

    This document contains the first appendix to Nepal's report to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The appendix lists the objectives and priorities of Nepal's Eighth Development Plan (1992-97) as achieving sustainable economic growth, poverty alleviation, and reduction of regional imbalances. The next section discusses the major policies of the plan that relate to: 1) population policy (reducing the fertility rate from 5.8 to 4.5; increasing life expectancy; reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality; and managing internal migration); 2) poverty alleviation (for the 49% of the population affected); 3) manpower and employment (creating jobs); 4) health (improving general health, extending health services to rural areas, extending maternal-child health services and family planning programs, and developing specialized health services); 5) urban development; 6) environmental protection and resource conservation; 7) child development; 8) food and nutrition; and 9) women in development (promoting the equal and meaningful participation of women in development, in policy-making, and in traditional and nontraditional sectors).
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  5. 5

    Statement: Japan.

    Honda H

    [Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 3 p.

    This is a statement delivered by the Ambassador of the Multilateral Cooperation Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan at the Thirty-second Session of the UN Commission on Population and Development. It focuses on population growth, structure, and distribution in Japan. The population of Japan increased rapidly shortly after World War II, but population growth was slowed through various efforts made by both the government and the private sector. The population has expanded during the 20th century at an average annual rate of 830 thousand people and is expected to decrease in the 21st century at an average annual rate of 60 thousand people. As to its population structure, Japan's long-term low fertility has resulted in a decline in its working-age population and a corresponding decline in the size of its national labor force. Japan is dealing with two vital issues, namely: 1) ensuring that it has an adequate working population and 2) ensuring that it is able to give adequate support to its elderly citizens. Supporting measures for elderly people are being discussed; these include pensions, medical care, and long-term care. Other measures are being considered for easing the most important concerns associated with aging and realizing a society devoted to human welfare and longevity. In addition, Japan is taking steps to institute a public insurance system to guarantee elderly care by the year 2000. As to the issue of population distribution, the Ambassador states that the population is concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya. This excessive concentration of both population and industry has produced various problems in the urban centers and has led to the depopulation of rural communities. Regional Development Plans have been implemented for solving these problems.
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  6. 6

    International migration and development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Volume I.

    Russell SS; Jacobsen K; Stanley WD

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. [11], 168 p. (World Bank Discussion Paper 101; World Bank Discussion Papers. Africa Technical Department Series)

    International migration affects almost every aspect of development in which the World Bank works. Accordingly, this paper investigating international migration in sub-Saharan Africa as it relates to development was designed and produced to provide World Bank staff with a greater understanding of country-specific settings for which World Bank projects are designed. Analysis of previously collected and published data from a host of sources was used to aid staff in policy analysis, sector work, loan preparation, and evaluation of the consequences of structural adjustment. 35 million of a total 80 million worldwide international migrants are estimated to be in sub-Saharan Africa. This figure represents approximately 8% of the region's 1983 population of 443 million. International migration, whether gradual or sudden and unexpected, surely affects countries' development. Changes in remittances impact demand for education and health services, structural adjustment, and labor markets to mention just a few potential interactions. This study was designed to consider international migration for employment, but internal migration and refugee flows are also examined. Using data on migrant stock, the study looks at migration scale, trends, and characteristics as they relate to development issues in selected sectors. Migration trend interaction is considered with remittances, labor markets, highly skilled manpower, education, health, and agriculture. Country policy toward international migration in the region are considered. The authors envisage no significant reduction in regional international migration in the future.
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  7. 7

    Recent findings on the consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries.

    Horlacher DE; Heligman L

    In: Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. Proceedings of the United Nations / Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques Expert Group Meeting, New York, 23-26 August 1988. New York, New York, Taylor and Francis, 1991. 345-77.

    Drawing from recent studies concerning the consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries, this paper argues against the common notion that population growth stands as a major obstacle for economic development in developing countries, emphasizing the complexity of demographic and economic interrelations. The studies discussed were presented at the UN Expert Group Meeting on Consequences of Rapid Population Growth in Developing Countries. The 1st section of the paper examines the prospects for continued population growth and its implication for the age structure of developing countries. Considering historical and current data, the 2nd section discusses inter country relations between population and economic growth rates, and how population growth affects such inter-country economic relations. The 3rd section examines the following sectoral issues: employment, savings rates, income distribution, and investment. While the 4th section considers the impact of population growth on resources and the environment, the 5th and 6th sections consider possible benefits of population growth. These possible benefits include bringing about economies of scale and hastening technical and institutional change. The 7th section examines the impact of population growth on kinship structures, and the 8th section considers a methodology for quantifying externalities resulting from population growth. Finally, the last section presents the conclusions of the UN Expert Group Meeting.
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  8. 8

    A demographic perspective on developing Asia and its relevance to the Bank.

    Pernia EM

    Manila, Philippines, Asian Development Bank, Economics Office, 1987 May. 28 p. (Economics Office Report Series No. 40)

    Even though population growth rates continue to decline in developing member countries (DMCs) of the Asian Development Bank, they will experience absolute population increases larger than those in the past. More importantly, the labor force continues to grow and absolute increases will be greater than any other time in history. Family planning education and access to contraceptives have contributed to the decline in population growth rates, but nothing can presently be done to decrease the rates of increase of the labor force because the people have already been born. Since most of the DMSs' populations are growing at 2% or more/year, much needed economic growth is delayed. For example, for any country with a growing population to maintain the amount of capital/person, it must spread capital. Yet the faster the population grows the lesser the chances for increasing that amount. The Bank's short to medium term development policy should include loans for projects that will generate employment using capital widening and deepening and that develop rural areas, such as employment in small industries, to prevent urban migration. Other projects that engulf this policy are those concerning primary, secondary and adult education; health; food supply; and housing and infrastructure. The long term development policy must bolster population programs in DMCs so as to reduce the growth of the economically active segment of the population in the 21st century. In addition, the Bank should address fertility issues as more and more women join the work force. The Bank can play a major role in Asian development by considering the indirect demographic and human resource impacts of each project.
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  9. 9

    Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women in Asia and the Pacific.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1987. xii, 282 p. (ST/ESCAP/434.)

    Growing worldwide recognition of the unequal participation of women in development culminated in the declaration of 1975 as International Women's Year and of the subsequent 10 years as the UN Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace (1976-1985). The present report summarizes the progress achieved for and by women in Asia and the Pacific during the UN Decade for Women. This report should be read critically since the coverage of the country responses to the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) questionnaires was uneven. The international attention directed to the issue of women and development spurred the establishment of national machineries for the promotion of women's interests in many of the Asian and Pacific countries where none had existed, and the strengthening of those already active. In Bangladesh, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and New Zealand, the national machinery was formed at the ministerial level. In other countries, a ministry already has the task of advancing women. In other countries, focal points are positioned directly under the leadership of the head of the executive branch. In Afghanistan, China, Mongolia, and Viet Nam the responsibility has been given to the national women's organizations that emerged after radical socio-political transformations. Countries of a 4th group have attached their machineries to a sectoral ministry or organization. During the UN Decade for Women, India, Nepal, Samoa, and Thailand included for the 1st time in their planning history a separate chapter in their national development plans on the integration of women into the development process. India, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand formulated separate national plans of action for the advancement of women. In other countries, including Fiji and Vanuatu, national plans of action were drafted and submitted to their governments by non-governmental women's organizations. 17 ESCAP member countries have signed, ratified, or acceded to the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
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