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  1. 1

    Global biodiversity strategy. Guidelines for action to save, study, and use Earth's biotic wealth sustainably and equitably.

    World Resources Institute; World Conservation Union [IUCN]; United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]; UNESCO

    Washington, D.C., WRI, 1992. vi, 244 p.

    Humanity depends on all other forms of life on Earth and its nonliving components including the atmosphere, ocean, bodies of freshwater, rocks, and soils. If humanity is to persist and to develop so that everyone enjoys the most basic of human rights, it must protect the structure, functions, and diversity of the world's natural systems. The World Resources Institute, the World Conservation Union, and the UN Environment Programme have joined together to prepare this strategy for global biodiversity. The first 2 chapters cover the nature and value of biodiversity and losses of biodiversity and their causes. The 3rd chapter presents the strategy for biodiversity conservation which includes the goal of such conservation and its contents and catalysts and 5 actions needed to establish biodiversity conservation. Establishment of a national policy framework for biodiversity conservation is the topic of the 4th chapter. It discusses 3 objectives with various actions to accomplish each objective. Integration of biodiversity conservation into international economic policy is 1 of the 3 objectives of the 5th chapter--creating an international policy environment that supports national biodiversity conservation. Correct imbalances in the control of land and resources is a clear objective in creating conditions and incentives for local biodiversity conservation--the topic of the 6th chapter. The next 3 chapters are devoted to managing biodiversity throughout the human environment; strengthening protected areas; and conserving species, populations, and genetic diversity. The last chapter provides specific actions to improve human capacity to conserve biodiversity including promotion of basic and applied research and assist institutions to disseminate biodiversity information.
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  2. 2

    IUCN action.

    International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources [IUCN]

    Earthwatch. 1984; (16):7.

    The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), cooperates with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and other agencies to: actively promote policies designed to attain a balance between population and resources, within national conservation strategies and through field activities to preserve nature and natural resources; take into account the fundamental issues of population and resources in its policies, programs, resolutions, and public statements, where appropriate; keep trends in population and resources under review, reporting back to each IUCN General Assembly; encourage nongovernment organizations, including local conservation groups and family planning associations, to work together to spread awareness of the links between population, resources, and the environment; encourage governments to undertake periodic assessments of population trends, natural resources, and likely economic conditions, their interrelationships and the implications for the achievement of national goals; encourage governments to establish a population policy and to consider the special environmental problems of the urban and rural poor and to promote sustainable rural development; encourage nations to take effective action to obtain the basic right of all couples to have access to safe and effective family planning methods, as established in the World Population Plan of Action; and generally encourage national and international development policies which help create the conditions in which human population can successfully be brought into balance with carefully conserved natural resources.
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  3. 3

    Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Development.


    As part of the preparation for the up-coming International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group met at UN headquarters on January 20-24, 1992. The group noted that the momentum of population growth was expected to add 3 billion people to the global population between 1985 and 2025, with more than 90% of the growth occurring in the developing countries which are least able to respond to the attendant resource and environmental demands. The expert group discussed the interaction of population and resources, specifically the impact of population growth on the environment and carrying capacity. The meeting then focused on environmental discontinuities and uncertainties and on environmental degradation, specifically the loss of agricultural land, the destruction of tropical forests, fresh-water resource, the loss of biological diversify, and climate change. Following their deliberations, the expert group drafted 18 recommendations addressed to governments, social institutions, and international organizations. The group urged that governments establish or strengthen the integration of environmental and population concerns into development policy-making and planning and support technologies to achieve sustained economic growth and development while striving to replace the use of fossil fuels with renewable resources. Areas of the environment subject to acute population pressure should be identified and policies devised to reduce that pressure. Ecologically helpful labor-intensive projects should be implemented for their dual benefits. Women should be included in these activities, and their status in society, therefore, should be improved through improved education and participatory opportunities. The uses of water should be optimized to acknowledge its scarcity. The delivery of service to alleviate poverty should proceed in a manner that invites community participation, which, along with education, will be vital to institute these changes. Adequate resources for urban management should be allocated to local authorities. Environmentally displaced people should receive assistance while the cause of their uprooting is simultaneously addressed. Land-use planning and promotion of emergency prevention is increasingly important as populations settle in areas vulnerable to natural disasters. International organizations are urged to support efforts to minimize the health impacts of environmental degradation and increase their assistance in the areas of population, sustainable development, and the environment, especially in training and national planning. Awareness of the interrelatedness of these issues should be promoted in every way possible, especially through education, training, and the support of databases. Policy-oriented research should focus on identifying critically endangered areas. As policies are devised for sustainable development, special attention should be paid to improving the circumstances of indigenous people, and their accumulated experience with sustainable development should be sought and used. Finally, conflicting goals between countries should be identified by governments to allow open analysis, successful negotiation, and satisfactory solutions.
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  4. 4

    Technology and ecology.

    de Souza HG

    In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 154-60.

    The most common global concerns are the threat to the earth's ecological balance, challenges originating from new technologies, and the ability of developing countries to respond to these changes in a way conducive to sustainable development. Creative learning means that political systems assimilate new information when making policy decisions. pathological learning implies that political systems prevent new information from influencing policies, eventually leading to the system's failure. Policymakers cannot ignore the new technologies and the changing environment. The UN University had identified the most important research gaps with regard to technological development. recommendations from this study are more research on the relationship between the effects of existing trends in the technological revolution and the formation of development strategies and the significance of identifying alternatives of technological development better suited to the actual needs and conditions of developing countries. For example, biotechnology may produce new medications to combat some tropical diseases, but a lack of commercial interest in industrialized countries prevents the needed research. Research in the Himalayas shows the importance of focusing on the linkages between mountains and plains, instead of just the mountains, to resolve environmental degradation. This finding was not expected. The researchers promote a broader, more holistic, critical approach to environmental problem-solving. Humans must realize that we have certain rights and obligations to the earth and to future generations. We must translate these into enforceable standards at the local, national, and international levels to attain intergenerational equity. Policy-makers must do longterm planning and incorporate environmentally sound technologies and the conservation of the ecological balance into development policy. sustainable development must include social, economic, ecologic, geographic, and cultural aspects.
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  5. 5

    Drafts: Agenda 21, Rio Declaration, Forest Principles.

    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED] (1992: Rio de Janeiro)

    [New York, New York], United Nations, 1992. [500] p.

    Drafts of Agenda 21 of the Rio Declaration on Forest Principles is a massive and detailed account in 4 parts: 1) the preamble and the social and economic dimensions, 2) conservation and management of resources for development, 3) strengthening the role of major groups, and 4) means of implementation. There are 40 chapters largely devoted to issues concerning management of water resources. The Appendix includes the Adoption of Agreements on Environment and Development note by the Secretary General of the Conference and the Proposal by the Chairman of the Preparatory Committee of May 7, 1992; 27 principles were agreed upon. Also included is the nonlegal binding authoritative statement of principles for a global consensus on the management, conservation, and sustainable development of all types of forests by the Secretary General and the preamble and principles. Part I is concerned with international cooperation in increasing sustainable development in developing countries, the reduction of poverty, the change in consumption patterns, demographic dynamics, the protection and promotion of human health conditions, the promotion of sustainable human settlement development, and the integration of the environment and development in decision making. Part II includes atmosphere protection, integration of planning and management of land resources, deforestation, managing fragile ecosystems, conservation of biological diversity, protection of the oceans, seas, and coastal areas as well as a rational use of resources, protection of freshwater resources, environmental sound management of hazardous wastes and solid wastes and sewage, and safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes. Part III is devoted to the preamble, global action for women, children and youth in sustainable development, recognition and strengthening of the role of indigenous people and communities, strengthening nongovernmental organizations, local authorities initiatives in support of Agenda 21, strengthening workers and trade unions, the scientific and technological community, and strengthening the role of farmers. Part IV identifies financial resources and mechanisms, environmentally sound technology transfer, science, promotion of education and public awareness, international institutional arrangements, international legal instruments and mechanisms, and information for decision making.
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  6. 6

    Managing nature is about managing people.

    Hulm P

    EARTHWATCH. 1991; (41):1-4.

    The 18th General Assembly of the IUCN (World Conservation Union) at Perth, Australia in December 1990 had for its for its logo the duck-billed platypus, and for its theme: "Conservation in a Changing World," which the Director-General interpreted to mean "managing nature is about managing people." This organization of 400 non-governmental groups and 60 governments, had 75 diverse resolutions on the agenda. Unifying these moves is the new Population and Natural Resources Programme which as a 5-point plan for the next 3 years. A complementary social program is called the Social Sciences Programme Division, formerly the Programme on Women and Natural Resource Management. 14 papers presented at the workshop on population dynamics and resource demand are summarized briefly. Another workshop was conducted concurrently: "Caring for the World: a Strategy for Sustainability." The debate resulting from the workshops generated plans to put population at the top of the agenda for the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development, and environment at the top of the list for the 1994 UN International Population Conference. The workshop also set up 5 Task Forces: population-driven natural and ecological limits to the quality of life; establishing a balance between humans and other species; relationships between family size and resource use; urbanization and natural resource management; and natural resource management and family health.
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  7. 7

    The environment, public health, and human ecology. Considerations for economic development.

    Lee JA

    Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985. x, 288 p. (World Bank Publication)

    This handbook is designed to provide guidance in the identification, detection, measurement, and control of adverse environmental effects. Intended for a wide array of users, it is a general survey of the environmental, health, and human ecological impacts of development projects in sectors such as agriculture, industry, energy, and urban development (including water supply, sanitation, and transportation). The information presented will enable individuals and institutions involved in economic development to recognize potential problems at the outset and appropriately address those problem at the earliest stages of project planning. The 1st chapter describes the World Bank's policy of "sustainable development," which attempts to ensure that the environmental and human resources necessary to sustain economic growth in developing nations are not adversely affected. It discusses the Bank's project cycle and opportunities for environmental input in that cycle and considers the role of cost-benefit assessments and the difficulties of quantifying the benefits of environmental protection measures. Chapter 2 examines 4 environmental problems caused primarily by industrial and energy-related development projects: air pollution, water pollution, solid waste disposal, and noise pollution. The next chapter focuses on direct and indirect health risks to both the inhabitants and the migrant workers in the project area and provides a comprehensive planning guide for dealing with such impacts. Chapter 4 reviews some possible adverse effects of tropical agricultural development and ways to mitigate them and covers issues related to farming, forestry, and the production of livestock and fish. Chapter 5 provides a framework for analyzing the environmental impacts associated with a wide variety of industrial development projects in developing countries. A subsequent chapter, devoted to energy, discusses the environmental damage and possible mitigating measures associated with the exploration, mining, and development of traditional fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, and coal. It then examines the effects of electric power projects and addresses ways to control the impacts of fossil-fuel generating plants, large-scale hydroelectric projects, and renewable sources of energy. The final chapter deals with the planning tools available for managing urban and general development. The handbook contains 2 appendixes -- a checklist of environmental considerations for project analysis and a section on information and data resources for development projects -- and a bibliography.
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  8. 8

    Population and global future, statement made at the First Global Conference on the Future: through the '80s, Toronto, Canada, 21 July 1980.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1980]. 6 p. (Speech Series No. 57)

    The United Nations has always considered population variables to be an integral part of the total development process. UNFPA has developed, in response to national needs, a core program of population assistance which has found universal support and acceptance among the 130 recipient countries and territories. Historically, these are: family planning, population policy formulation and population dynamics. The following emerging trends are foreseeable from country requests and information available to the Fund: 1) migration from rural to urban areas and increased growth in urbanization; 2) an increased proportion of aged which has already created a number of new demands for resources in both developing and developed countries; 3) a move toward enabling women to participate in economic and educational activities; and 4) a need for urgent concern over ecological issues which affect the delicate balance of resources and population.
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  9. 9

    Population growth and development concerns.

    Cabello O

    In: D'Souza AA, de Souza A, ed. Population growth and human development. New Delhi, India, Indian Social Institute, 1974. 17-26.

    Although demographic statistics are grossly inadequate, a fairly convincing panorama of the population situation and trends has been prepared by demographers based on fragmentary information, coupled with assumptions and tested against collateral information. Population study reveals a 1st stage early in the recent historic perspective during which fertility and mortality rates were very high and the corresponding rates of natural growth were low. The 2nd stage of the transition begins with a decline in the death rates while fertility rates remained at high levels, and even increases, population growth accelerates during this period. This stage is characterized by rapid urbanization provoked by displacement of population from rural areas to urban centers. Fertility rates begin to decrease at a later period, in some cases more than 20 years after the decline of death rates--tending to level off with death rates at low levels. In this stage, population growth is near zero and has in some cases decreased. The entire transition may take at least 50 years. The key question is how to determine the crucial character of the interactions between population and the critical problems of our society: poverty; underdevelopment; gaps of income between and within countries; food; and environment. In 3 symposia at Cairo, Honolulu, and Stockholm, it was concluded that there were 3 schools of thought. 1 considered rapid population growth as a major cause of structural rigidities of the less developed economies, and therefore reduction of population growth as a 1st priority for improvement of living standards. Another, putting its faith in technological innovation, considered that the way to development was by socioeconomic changes rather than demographic paths of action. The 3rd considered the demograpic approach as one of many leading to the attainment of economic and social progress. The consensus was that there are limits to the growth of population both in the short-term and in the long-term. A World Population Conference held in Bucharest, Rumania in 1974 addressed the issues of recent population trends; relations between population change and economic and social development; relations between population, resources, and environment; and population, family, and well being.
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  10. 10

    Maternal and child health: general considerations.

    Wray JD

    Geneva, World Health Organization, [1975]. 29 p. (MCH/WP/75.9)

    Although the technology exists which can eradicate the high levels of maternal and child morbidity and mortality among poor women globally, the means of delivery are not perfected. Programs which use various levels of medical and lay personnel for maternal-child health (MCH) care delivery are criticized and a look at historical evidence suggests alternatives to training outside the field. In New York City between 1898 and 1931, infant mortality from diarrheal diseases and respiratory infections decreased dramatically without the aid of health professionals who had neither specific preventive nor treatment measures to combat these diseases. Scholars attribute this decline in infant mortaltiy to increased resistance to infection in infants produced by a whole complex of changes summed up in the phrase "improved standard of living". This paper argues that only by vastly improving such standards of living by improving housing, sanitation, and food supply (nutrition) can adequate health care results be realized in developing countries. The answer is more global and all-encompassing than simply sending a team of health care workers into the field. The obvious connection between poverty and health of mothers and children suggests that economic development is as important for the health of future generations as MCH programs. MCH programs can be designed to effectively combat disease while development is occurring, but attention to basic human relations is essential to motivate workers and clientele.
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  11. 11

    Maldives: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 50 p. (Report No. 49)

    The rate of population increase in the Republic of Maldives was very low until the 1950s, but rose to more than 3% in the 1960s and early 1970s. An annual increase of 3.2% is estimated in the 1980s. The crude birth rate is high. Population increases like this will put enormous strains on most social activities. 4 clear population policies are emerging; 1) improvement in the health of mothers and children; 2) the need to control population growth, including improving acceptable family planning methods; 3) relief from overcrowding; and 4) development of the atolls to attract voluntary migration. The government has 3 additional aims: 1) increasing the quality and quantity of population statistics and its ability to analyze such data; 2) integrate women into development plans; and 3) improve education of children on environmental subjects, such as the interrelationship of the environment and population. The 1977 census was conducted with United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) assistance. It is hoped that at least 1 Family Health Worker plus at least one Fooluma (traditional birth attendant) will work on each inhabited island; and 2 Community Health Workers and a health center will exist on each atoll. The Maternal and Child Health Program, including child spacing, is incorporated in their job descriptions. There is 1 hospital in Male'; 4 regional hospitals are planned. Male' hospital provides family planning service. A very active National Women's Committee exists. The government is encouraging the establishment of Women's Committees for Island Progress. The average woman has had 5.73 children, of whom 3.99 are alive. The number of children preferred is 3.38. International migration to Male' is a problem. Literacy is high, but there is a shortage of trained personnel. The country needs external assistance.
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  12. 12

    International environmental issues.

    Buckley JL

    Department of State Bulletin. 1982 Jun; 82(2063):57-9.

    There is growing agreement throughout the world that sound economic growth depends upon sound environmental practice. The UN Environmental Program (UNEP) meeting scheduled to be held in Nairobi in May 1982 is expected to strengthen national commitments to environmental management and to promote improved coordination of international environmental programs. In the last decade, the interrelationships among individual components of the various ecosystems have become more complex, creating a need to strengthen understanding of environmental problems and processes. US participation in the conference will be guided by a series of global environmental principles, including the following: 1) environmental policy must be based on the needs of both present and future generations, 2) careful stewardship of the earth's natural resource base will contribute significantly to economic development, 3) biological diversity must be maintained, 4) governments should collaborate on addressing problems that extend beyond national boundaries, and 5) both governments and individuals should ensure that their activities do not produce environmental degradation. The US delegation further intends to register its support for the original UNEP concept and call for a narrowing of its program focus, with emphasis on the following areas: environmental monitoring and assessment, information dissemination to governments, environmental education and training, the regional seas program, management of land and biological resources, and control of potentially toxic substances. Intra-UN program coordination and reduction of country-level operational activities will also be urged.
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