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Brussels, Belgium, DSW, 2009. 62 p.In September, DSW and the European Parliamentary Forum (EPF) produced the 2009 edition of our Euromapping report, an annual publication that provides an overview of the comparative ODA and SRH funding contributions and commitments of an individual donor country over time. This year's publication has been produced with the support of the European Commission, which has allowed us to release the publication along with a coordinated advocacy and media campaign in 7 European countries. In addition to being a quick reference guide on European funding levels for family planning and reproductive health, Euromapping is intended as an advocacy tool for NGOs and decision makers to monitor the level and composition of ODA as a means of verifying whether governments are living up to their political and policy commitments.
New York, New York, UNFPA, Technical Division, Gender, Human Rights and Culture Branch, 2008. 32 p.This publication identifies priority areas for intensified action on gender-based violence: policy frameworks, data collection and analysis, focus on sexual and reproductive health, humanitarian responses, adolescents and youth, men and boys, faith-based networks, and vulnerable and marginalized populations. It is intended to provide a common platform and technical guidance for UNFPA at country, regional and global levels and effectively guide capacity-development initiatives, resources and partnerships.The strategy also outlines UNFPA's comparative advantages, experience and leadership potential within the context of United Nations reform, and suggests opportunities for improving the efficacy of its programme implementation and technical support.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003 Sep. 5 p. (HIV Prevention Now Programme Briefs No. 9)In combating HIV/AIDS, it is essential to translate awareness of the implications of the epidemic into effective policies and programmes. The ability of communities, nation states, and the international community to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, called for within the Millennium Declaration, requires an understanding of the social, cultural and economic factors that drive the pandemic. HIV prevention programmes can and should take advantage of the cumulative knowledge, methods and experience acquired in the area of population and development. Population and development strategies can be adapted, based on the realities of the population groups, and used to help provide an enabling environment for action and to support the implementation of effective HIV prevention policies and programmes, especially within UNFPA's core areas of prevention among young people and pregnant women, and comprehensive condom programming. (excerpt)
In: Women, international development, and politics: the bureaucratic mire. Updated and expanded edition, edited by Kathleen Staudt. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Temple University Press, 1997. 311-329.The world has witnessed a remarkable surge in the women's movement that has put forward over the last two decades a bold vision of social transformation and challenged the global community to respond. This article reviews the response of one set of key players: the international donor agencies dealing with women's development issues. It focuses on the actions of four donors, two bilateral (Norway and Canada) and two multilateral (the World Bank and the United Nations Development Program) and attempts to assess their performance in the last twenty years in broad strokes. It asks three basic sets of questions. First, what were the articulated objectives of their special policies and measures to promote women's advancement? Were they responsive to the aspiration of the women's movement? Second, did the donors adopt any identifiable set of strategies to realize the policy objectives? Were they effective? And finally, what were the results? Was there any quantitative and qualitative evidence to suggest progress? The two bilateral donors--Canada and Norway--were selected because they have a reputation among donors of mounting major initiatives for women. They number among the few agencies who adopted detailed women-in-development (WID) or gender-and-development (GAD) policies. In contrast, the two multilateral donors--United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the World Bank---were chosen not on the strength of their WlD/GAD mandates and policies, but because of the influence they wield in shaping the development strategies of the countries of the South. The World Bank through its conditionalities often dictates policy reforms to aid-recipient governments. The UNDP, as the largest fund, has a big presence within the United Nations system. The actions of these two agencies-- what they advocate and what they omit or marginalize--have a strong impact on the policy analysis and investments of the aid-recipient countries. The study is primarily based on published and unpublished data collected from the four donor agencies. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, . 31 p.The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) knows the linkages between women's status and execution of sustainable development initiatives. This booklet has taken the next step and explains how to include women in development, especially population initiatives. Women specific projects are 1 primary approach to realize women's participation. They include projects designed to improve their situation (education, skill development, training, or economic activities) or those designed to increase awareness of women's issues among policy makers, the media, and the public. These projects are often successful in motivating women to use family planning services. The 2nd approach involves mainstreaming women into development projects in all work plan categories. This approach provides women opportunities to work with men, to draft policy, and to take part in national development and is pivotal to the long term success of population efforts. One must 1st recognize obstacles to designing projects and programs that include women, however. 1 such obstacle is few discussions with women to learn their perceptions of national priorities and needs. The booklet features how one can be an advocate for maternal-child health/family planning (MCH/FP) and information, education, and communication (IEC) programs, research, policy, planning, special programs (e.g., those that train women in environmental management), and basic data collection and analysis. For example, statistics that prove that demand for family planning services exceed supply of those services allows an advocate to promote MCH/FP programs. UNFPA also recommends a gender impact statement be prepared for all development projects. For IEC programs, it may include questions about specific cultural, legal, financial and time constraints for females in having full access to education and how a project may change these traditional obstacles.
In: Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. Proceedings of the United Nations / Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques Expert Group Meeting, New York, 23-26 August 1988. New York, New York, Taylor and Francis, 1991. 345-77.Drawing from recent studies concerning the consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries, this paper argues against the common notion that population growth stands as a major obstacle for economic development in developing countries, emphasizing the complexity of demographic and economic interrelations. The studies discussed were presented at the UN Expert Group Meeting on Consequences of Rapid Population Growth in Developing Countries. The 1st section of the paper examines the prospects for continued population growth and its implication for the age structure of developing countries. Considering historical and current data, the 2nd section discusses inter country relations between population and economic growth rates, and how population growth affects such inter-country economic relations. The 3rd section examines the following sectoral issues: employment, savings rates, income distribution, and investment. While the 4th section considers the impact of population growth on resources and the environment, the 5th and 6th sections consider possible benefits of population growth. These possible benefits include bringing about economies of scale and hastening technical and institutional change. The 7th section examines the impact of population growth on kinship structures, and the 8th section considers a methodology for quantifying externalities resulting from population growth. Finally, the last section presents the conclusions of the UN Expert Group Meeting.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. vi, 45 p. (Population Policy Paper No. 14; ST/ESA/SER.R/80)The formulation, implementation and evaluation of population policies in Malaysia is the focus of this case study by the Population Division of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs of the UN. The introduction presents the historical background and socioeconomic conditions of Malaysia, with explanations of past and present population and development policy. The demographic setting is examined in the next section, which explains historical and current demographic trends based on fertility, age, birth, death, and nuptiality rates. Population policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation up to 1984 comprises the 2nd section of the report. Tables provide statistical information regarding birth rates, types of evaluation tools, and trends in family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices. The final section addresses population policy and program direction since 1984. A rationale for a new policy is offered, as well as demographic targets, reactions to the new policy, and suggestions for coordination and monitoring plans. The concluding section summarizes the goals of the comprehensive population policy, and outlines the government's efforts toward that objective.
Bangkok, Thailand, World Health Organization, Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment, and Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research, 1986. 546 p. (UNFPA Project No. INT/80/P09)This book on new developments in mortality analysis is a product of a joint WHO/UN research program. Part 1 examines mortality transition in terms of the causes and mechanisms of mortality decline in Europe and North America, reflecting on the study of development processes in countries now undergoing development. Part 2 deals with the use of mortality data in health planning and the use of mortality and other epidemiologic information in the assessment of preventable deaths. Attention is paid to the development of an index of preventable deaths. Part 3, Methodological Developments, examines intersectoral aspects of mortality projections (in terms of health care inputs), the measurement of social inequality and mortality, and maternal death and its impact on the female population. Part 4 deals with cause of death analysis: estimation of global mortality patterns by cause of death, trends and differentials in Thailand, and maternal mortality and differentiation by cause of death. Part 5 discusses nutrition, including a Southern Asia-based study of the relationship between nutritional deficiencies and infant and child mortality, and a study on advances in child nutrition and health that have taken place despite slow economic development. Part 6 discusses mortality change: achievements and failures in South and East Asia, a study on changing health in Japan, mortality decline in Mexico, and socioeconomic correlates of mortality in Pakistan. The section concludes with articles on trends and differentials in mortality in Malaysia and Thailand, and a study of the effects of declining mortality and population aging in rapidly-developing Jamaica.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. vii, 59 p. (Report No. 68)This report of a Mission visit to Ghana from May 4-25, 1981 contains data highlights; a summary of findings; Mission recommendations regarding population and development policies, population data collection and analysis, maternal and child health and family planning, population education and communication programs, and women and development; and information on the following: the national setting; population features and trends (population size, growth rate, and distribution and population dynamics); population policy, planning, and policy-related research; basic data collection and anaylsis; maternal and child health and family planning (general health status, structure and organization of health services, maternal and child health and family planning activities, and family planning services in the private sector); population education and communication programs; women, youth, and development; and external assistance in population. Ghana gained independence in 1957. The country showed early promise of rapid development. Although well-endowed with natural and human resources, Ghana now suffers from food scarcity, inadequate infrastructure and services, inflation, inequities in income distribution, unemployment, and underemployment. Per capita gross national product (GNP) was $400 in 1981; between 1960-81 the average annual growth of GNP was -1.1%. A high rate of natural increase of the population has compounded development problems by intensifying demands for food, consumer goods, and social services while simultaneously increasing the constraints on productivity. The population, estimated at 13 million in mid-1984, is growing at a rate of 3.25% per annum. Immigration and emigration have contributed to changes in the size and composition of the population. Post-independence development policies favored the urban areas, encouraging a steady rural-to-urban shift in the population. At the same time, worsening socioeconomic conditions spurred the emigration of professional, managerial, and technical personnel and skilled workers. Ghana was the 1st sub-Saharan African nation to establish an official population policy. Since the formulation of the policy in 1969, successive governments have remained committed to its emphasis on fertility reduction while increasing attention to the problems of mortality and morbidity and rural/urban migration. Recognizing the need to intensify the commitment to population policies, the Mission recommends support for a program to further the awareness of policy makers of the relationship between population trends and their areas of responsibility. The Mission recommends the creation of a special permanent population committee and the strengthening of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning's Manpower division. The Mission also makes the following recommendations: the provision of training, technical assistance, and data processing facilities to ensure the timely provision of demographic data for socioeconomic planning; data collected in the pilot program of vital registration be evaluated before the system is expanded; the complete integration of maternal and child health and family planning and general health services within the primary health care system; and improvement in women's access to resources such as education, training, and agricultural inputs.
In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 107-23. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)The Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Family was assinged the identification of those areas in current scientific knowledge and concerns regarding fertility and family that were of greatest salience for policy formulation and implementation. Particular attention was to be paid to shifts that had occurred since the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest. This article is mainly an overview of the work of the Group and is organized around 3 main themes: 1) advances in knowledge of fertility levels and trends; 2) advances in understanding the relations between development, fertility and the family; 3)theoretical advances and practical experience with regard to policy formulation and implementation. 1) Knowledge of existing patterns of fertility and their composition has increased markedly over the last decade as a result of more data, better estimation techniques for measuring fertility levels and of new approaches to studying the reporductive process and family formation (e.g., the development of analytical models that allow quantification of the role of the various proximate determinants of fertility). A far-reaching realization is that proximate determinants of fertility may respond to the same set of factors but their responses may exhibit different elasticities. 2) In the understanding the relations between development, fertility and family, 2 main areas of concern can be identified. He level and type of analyses to date, especially the empirical ones, have been carried out at the micro-level, focusing on the individual decision maker. Although such models are advances over earlier ones developed largely from classical demographic transition theory, yet, their use has not been entirely satisfying because of the common failure to adequately specify the concepts involved and/or to substitute for them broad socioeconomic indicators in empirical work. In addition, institutional supports for and interrelations with particular patterns of fertility and family have been neglected, resulting, theoretical and practical impoverishment. The 2nd area of concern is the identification of those dimensions of family structure and function that are most intimately interlocked with modernization and fertility change. The discussion focuses on the interplay between modernization, the relationship between the generations, and between the sexes. Finally, there is an increasing awareness that a number of aspirations regarding fertility and family may be contradictory with respect to general advances in policcy formulation and implementation. 4 important trends can be discerned: 1) assessment of the potential utility and effectiveness of policy and programmatic efforts; 2) trends in the definition of desirable goals; 3) new directions in terms of the institutiona means for achieving these goals; and 4) shifts in the perception of the individual's freedom of choice.
[UN/WHO Working Group on Data Bases for Measurement of Levels, Trends and Differentials in Mortality, Bangkok, 20-23 October 1981] Groupe de Travail ONU/OMS sur les Bases des Donnees Destinees a la Mesure des Niveaux, Tendances et Differences dans la Mortalite, Bangkok, 20-23 octobre 1981.
World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1981; 34(4):239-40.The meeting was jointly organized by the UN and the World Health Organization (WHO) to discuss the experience of various governments and national institutions in the collection, analysis, and use of mortality data relevant to the establishment of policies in the health and development sectors of their countries in order to make governments aware of the potential uses of the data. Topics covered included: 1) use of mortality data for health and development programs, 2) use of continuous registration systems, 3) approaches for collection of mortality data, 4) collection of mortality data through multipurpose surveys, 5) birth or death records as a sampling frame for studies of mortality, and 6) special data collection systems for studying health processes. Recommendations concerned vital registration, censuses and surveys, other data needs, research strategies, data management and the role of international organizations and funding agencies, stressing the achievement of "birth and death registration for all by the year 2000" as the final goal.
Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa and their Policy Implications.
In: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa [UNECA]. Population dynamics: fertility and mortality in Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, UNECA, 1981 May. 1-31. (ST/ECA/SER.A/1; UNFPA PROJ. No. RAF/78/P17)The Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa, held in Monrovia late in 1976, examined the various aspects of the interrelationships of fertility and mortality to development process and planning in Africa. Focus in this report of the Expert Group Meeting is on the following: background to fertility and mortality in Africa; usefulness and relevance of existing methodology for collecting and processing and for analyzing fertility and mortality data; fertility and mortality levels and patterns in Africa -- regional studies and country studies; fertility trends and differentials in Africa; mortality trends and differentials; biological and socio-cultural aspects of infertility and sterility; the significance of breast feeding for fertility and mortality; nutrition, disease and mortality in young children; evolution of causes of death and the use of related statistics in mortality studies in Africa; and fertility and mortality in national development. It was suggested that a strategy for development with equity must direct itself, among other things, to the issue of how to monitor progress in the elimination of underdevelopment, poverty, malnutrition, poor health, bad housing, poor education and employment through the use of indicators which measured changes in those variables at the national and local levels. In order to achieve development with equity, it was obvious that demographers and policymakers should ensure that there was regular monitoring of socioeconomic differentials in mortality and morbidity rates since such differentials essentially measured inequality in a society. The following were included among the recommendations made: recognizing that fertility and mortality data for a majority of African countries are now 20 years out of date, efforts should be directed toward collecting and analyzing fertility and mortality data by the use of both direct and indirect methods; and international and national organizations should support country efforts to improve the supply of data and analytical work on census and other existing data.
[Unpublished] 1983. Presented at the International Conference on Population, 1984, Expert Group on Fertility and Family, New Delhi, January 5-11, 1983. 14 p. (IESA/P/ICP. 1984/EG./I/5)Referring to the substantive collaboration that the UN Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD) has provided in the field of fertility and family, this paper has attempted to do the following: to present, within the framework of the structure of the DTCD program, a review of the Department's experience in the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action; to distill from this experience the major problems encountered and the lessons learned; and to synthesize a series of recommendations to improve technical cooperation activities. In discussing the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA), focus in on data collection, analysis, and evaluation; demographic training; population and development; and constraints in project implementation. The WPPA called upon international technical cooperation to provide developing countries with support to develop or improve national capacities for data collection, evaluation, analyses, and presenting the data in a form responsive to users. During the 1975-84 decade, data collection and analysis constituted 1 of the major areas of the Department's technical cooperation programs for population activities in the developing nations. DTCD has had little training project involvement directly relevant to fertility and the family, but the fellowship program, the UN Training Centers, and the vast majority of curricula offered in demographic training programs at universities established with the technical cooperation of the UN feature a thorough and rigorous treatment of all aspects of fertility and family planning. The goal of the majority of the projects on population policy and development planning is to assist governments in the process of incorporating population variables into the national development planning process. As such, many projects have provided direct support to fertility studies whose results were used by governments to formulate national policies. The studies aim at providing the government with basic elements for formulating policies on fertility and for implementing related population programs with the technical cooperation of DTCD. In regard to the Department's project implementation, particular problems became salient during the decade of experience. A serious problem posed in the delivery of support to national demographic research concerned the lack of importance placed on the analysis of census survey and vital registration results and preparation of fertility studies.
Technical co-operation in population programmes in Africa since the 1974 World Population Conference.
[Unpublished] 1983 Sep. 16. 5 p. (E/ECA/POP/7 International Conference on Population, 1984; Papers)This paper reviews the technical assistance provided to African countries since the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, Romania by the United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD) in the fields of demographic training, data evaluation and analysis, and incorporation of population factors in development planning. The paper focuses on the substantive aspects of the technical cooperation provided to African countries in these areas from 1974 to 1983. The cooperation was provided essentially in response to the expressed needs and requests of member states for developing their national capabilities to undertake data analysis and evaluation and to use the results to formulate appropriate population policies and implement them as part of national development programs. The ultimate goal is to improve national capacities in these fields so that countries may achieve self reliance in handling their population programs. Almost without exception, the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has been the source of funding for DTCD executed population projects. In the area of demographic training, the training needs, especially from the priority countries in Africa, have yet to be fully met and in all countries there still remains the need for short term training in special demographic expertise and an exchange of interregional experiences. In the area of demographic evaluation and analysis, greater support is required for evaluation and analysis of relevant demographic phenomena, e.g. internal and international migration and the utilization of demographic software packages. Technical cooperation is needed in the areas of population and development so that emerging phenomena (e.g. population growth, especially in urban areas) can be dealt with by evolving suitable population policies and implanting these within overall national development plans. The world financial crisis has hindered the increasing trend in technical cooperation in demographic training, analysis and overall population policies and it is hoped that this situation will improve.