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New York, New York, UNFPA, Technical Division, Gender, Human Rights and Culture Branch, 2008. 27 p.This booklet provides a snapshot of UNFPA's programming efforts to advance gender equality and empower women. It reports on activities undertaken in various priority areas like empowerment, reproductive health, youth and adolescent, conflict and emergency situations, etc. The report is based on contributions from the global, regional and country levels over the course of two years (2007-2008).
The Des Moines Declaration: A call for accelerated action in agriculture, food and nutrition to end poverty and hunger.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2005; 26(3):312-314.Agriculture is the main source of income for poor people living in rural areas. As such, a boost in agricultural productivity in the rural areas of developing countries will greatly enhance earning potential as well as produce more food. However, agricultural production increases will not generate adequate gains in employment, and additional steps must also be taken to increase employment in agro based value added rural enterprises. In addition, food productivity must be increased to improve the lives of people and protect biodiversity in our environment. With close to a billion people still suffering from hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity and with the population of our planet projected to grow by 50% by the middle of the 21st century, either we must produce more food on the land and in the water now available to us, or people will be forced to cut down precious forest areas and cultivate marginal lands to grow the food necessary to fuel our escalating demands. It is crucial that new agricultural innovations and technologies be developed. (excerpt)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Address by Mr Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), on the occasion of the meeting of Parliamentarians, Mbabane, Swaziland, 2 March 2004.
[Paris, France], UNESCO, 2004.  p. (DG/2004/033)It gives me great pleasure to be making my first official visit to the Kingdom of Swaziland at the kind invitation of your Government. Swaziland is a special country and I am delighted to be here. I arrived here yesterday and I immediately had an audience with His Majesty the King and Her Majesty the Queen Mother, in the presence of the Prime Minister. This morning, I am very pleased and honoured to have the opportunity to address this important gathering. In my remarks to you, I would like to place emphasis on the vital role of parliamentarians in all aspects of African development and also their part in advancing UNESCO's activities in African countries. I believe that the work of African parliamentarians is becoming more and more important, especially in the perspective of NEPAD and the African Union. Political systems around the world take many forms but wherever there is a parliament or national assembly or congress, the representatives are a crucial link between the people and the polity. They are not only leaders and shapers of public opinion but they are also recognized and legitimate vehicles through which the people's needs and wishes can be expressed. Through their conscientious labours, they can help to ensure that legislative and decision-making processes are relevant and responsive. (excerpt)
Structural adjustment in sub-Saharan Africa. Report on a series of five senior policy seminars held in Africa, 1987-88.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1989.  p. (EDI Policy Seminar Report No. 18)In June 1986, the National Economic Management Division of the World Bank's Economic Development Institute (EDI) designed a series of senior policy seminars on structural adjustment for Sub-Saharan Africa. The exercise led to three seminars in 1987: Lusaka I, Lusaka 11, and Abidjan I, and, after redesign, two more in 1988: Victoria Falls and Abidjan 11. Seminar participants were invited in teams typically composed of ministers, governors, permanent secretaries, senior advisors, and a significant number of senior technical staff of central banks, the core ministries of finance and planning, and spending ministries such as agriculture and industry. Twenty seven countries participated in the seminars. Of these, six participated in two separate seminars (see annex A). This report is a synthesized record of the five seminars and is likely to be of interest to all those interested in the reform process in Sub-Saharan Africa, namely, the seminar participants, other similarly placed policymakers, advisors to these policymakers, executives of the public and private sectors, staff of academic institutions, and the staff of international organizations such as the World Bank (the Bank) and the International Monetary Fund (the Fund) involved in studying the political economy of structural adjustment. (excerpt)
Women: a UN priority; world conference may be held in 1995 - includes related information on women's role in development.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Mar; 27(1): p..The first UN world conference on women was held in Mexico City in 1975, the second in Copenhagen in 1980, and the third in Nairobi in 1985. Adopted in Kenya at the end of the UN Decade for Women (1976-1985), the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women set goals to the year 2000 in such areas as literacy, health, population, and environment. Economic policies would be more effective and sensitive to human needs", Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar told the Assembly, if women were involved. The advancement of women is not "an impossible dream" dreamt by women, stated Margaret Anstee, Director- General of the United Nations Office at Vienna, "but a component in the enhancement of life for all". She introduced on 18 October issues related to women to the Assembly's Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural). (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1989 Jun; 26(2): p..The proposed blueprint for UNDP in the 1990s will be hammered out in a series of informal meetings between March and May, when it is expected to be made public. The go-ahead was given by UNDP's Governing Council at a special three-day session in New York, in February. The high-level plenary will be part of the Council's 36th regular session, scheduled from 5 to 30 June. With some 5,000 projects worth about $7.5 billion in more than 150 developing countries and territories, UNDP is the United Nations main development aid operation. It is also the world's largest multilateral channel for technical and pre-investment assistance. (excerpt)
Economic and Social Council reviews world economic and social policy, calls for measures to combat AIDS.
UN Chronicle. 1987 Nov; 24(4): p..The Economic an Social Council, at its second regular 1987 session, made a broad review of international economic and social policy, adopting 58 texts on matters ranging from specific development and assistance issues to food and population problems to combating the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. In opening the session, Council President Eugeniusz Noworyta of Poland said that international co-operation "should enrich countries and not impoverish some of them". Without restoring mutual confidence, economic cooperation, trade and resource flows would not attain levels commensurate with development needs. Many negative phenomena persisted in international relations which inhibited wide co-operation among countries at different levels of development, and the introduction of an equitable international economic order, taking account of the legitimate interests of all groups of countries. Disparities between the economic potential of States had increased, he said. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23: p..A five-year plan of action to revitalize and develop the economies and resources of Africa was adopted at the conclusion of the thirteenth special session of the General Assembly, convened from 27 May to 1 June at Headquarters to address the continent's critical economic situation. The United Nations Programme of Action for African Economic Recovery and Development, 1986-1990, was adopted without a vote, after what was described as "delicate,' "determined', "very tough' negotiations. The session, originally scheduled to conclude on 31 May, was extended by one day to accommodate reaching agreement on the text. Crucial priority areas were addressed: agriculture, environment, infrastructure, human resources and external resources. Divided into three parts, the Programme provides an analysis of Africa's critical economic situation; an inventory of objectives and costs of specific action--oriented measures--both activities and policies --to be taken at national, sub-regional and regional levels and aimed primarily at medium-term and long-term rehabilitation; suggestions for international commitments, including debt constraints and increased South-South co-operation; and follow-up and evaluation machinery. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1986 Jan; 23: p..Some 110 countries pledged $740 million for United Nations development activities at the 1985 United Nations Pledging Conference for Development. Contributions were made to more than 30 funds and programmes related to social and economic development, technical co-operation, training and research, capital development and environmental management. Some pledging countries stipulated that their contributions were subject to parliamentary approval. Some major donors, including Australia, Japan and the United States, said they were unable at this time to make pledges because their budgetary time-tables did not coincide with that of the Conference. Several other nations stated that contributions to specific programmes and organizations would be announced at a later date. (excerpt)
Assistance to Africa among main issues discussed during Secretary-General's trip to Europe and Africa - Javier Perez de Cuellar.
UN Chronicle. 1985 Jul-Aug; 22: p..Efforts to resolve political and economic problems in Africa were among the main concerns as Secretary- General Javier Perez de Cuellar met with government leaders and United Nations officials during a 25-day trip (30 June-24 July) to Europe and Africa. He visited Switzerland, Italy, Yugoslavia, Austria, Kenya, Ethiopia, Morocco and France. Highlights of the trip included his opening addresses to the Organization of African Unity (OAU) Summit Meeting in Addis Ababa, the second regular (1985) session of the Economic and Social Council in Geneva, and the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women, held in Nairobi from 15 to 26 July. The need for a multilateral response to urgent problems of development was a recurring theme. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1994 Dec; 31(4): p..The 16-Chapter Cairo Programme of Action reaffirms the connection among population growth, poverty, patterns of production and consumption and the environment. it states: "Progress in any component can catalyse improvement in others." The Programme emphasizes the need for harmonizing population trends and patterns of development in order to increase the standard of living of current populations, while at the same time not jeopardizing the needs of future generations. It also emphasizes the imperatives of empowering women and guaranteeing choice in regard to family planning, and stresses that advancing gender equality and ensuring women's ability to control their own fertility are "cornerstones" of population and development programmes. The principle of "sovereignty", which guarantees that each country would decide for itself which programme recommendations are relevant to its conditions and needs, is also enshrined in the Programme. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1990 Dec; 27(4): p..A new Programme of Action aimed at advancing the world's poorest countries offers a "menu approach" for donors to increase their official aid to the least developed countries (LDCs), stressing bilateral assistance in the form of grants or highly concessional loans and calling on donors to help reduce LDC debt. The Programme was adopted by consensus at the conclusion of the Second United Nations Conference on the LDCs (Paris, 3- 14 September). The UN recognizes more than 40 developing countries as "least developed". Although individual nation's indicators vary, in general LDCs have a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of approximately $200 a year, a low life expectancy, literacy rates under 20 per cent and a low contribution of manufacturing industries to GDP. Reflecting the emergence during the 1980s of new priorities in development strategy, the Programme of Action for the LDCs for the 1990s differs from the Action Programme adopted at the first UN Conference on LDCs held in 1981 in Paris. The new Programme emphasizes respect for human rights, the need for democratization and privatization, the potential role of women in development and the new regard for population policy as a fundamental factor in promoting development. Greater recognition of the role of non-governmental organizations in LDC development is also emphasized. (excerpt)
A process of negotiation - creation of a Preparatory Committee for the UN Conference on Environment and Development.
UN Chronicle. 1997 Summer; 34(2): p..In this companion piece to his "Essay", Professor Koh looks back to the debates, deliberations and discussions that culminated in the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro. In order to prepare for the Earth Summit, the United Nations decided to set up a Preparatory Committee (PrepCom). Its organizational session was held in New York from 5 to 16 March 1990. It had five objectives: to elect its chairman; to decide on the size of the Bureau and the distribution of the number agreed upon among the five regional groups; to decide how many working groups to establish and which regional groups would provide candidates for their chairmenship; to adopt a provisional agenda for the Earth Summit; and to adopt its rules of procedure. Any reasonable person would think that you would need only one or two days, not two weeks, to agree on five such seemingly simple tasks. This was not the case, the two weeks were barely enough to complete our tasks. Of the five, the only simple one was electing me. All the other candidates wisely withdrew when they realized the pain and suffering which the chairman would have to endure for the next two years and three months! The first thing I did on assuming the chair was to propose that we should refrain from polluting the air in our meeting rooms by prohibiting smoking at all our meetings. Before the nicotine addicts could rally their forces, I asked if there was any objection. Seeing none, I banged the gavel and pronounced that there was a consensus in favour of my proposal. The then UN Secretary-General, Javier Perez de Cuellar, watched in surprise because no UN chairman had succeeded in defeating the tobacco lobby at the United Nations before. (excerpt)
Population conference set for 1994; ageing, international migration examined - International Conference on Population and Development.
UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2): p..Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund and Secretary-General of the Conference, said preparations for the event reflected the enormous needs and challenges of the future, as well as the notable advances that had been made in the population field, particularly by developing countries in implementing policies and programmes. Egypt and Tunisia both have offered to host the Conference, scheduled for August 1994. Further preparatory meetings are planned in August 1993 and early 1994. It would be the fifth international population conference convened by the UN. Conferences held in Rome in 1954 and in Belgrade in 1965 were purely technical meetings, limited to scientific discussions on population topics. Subsequent intergovernmental conferences in Bucharest in 1974 and in Mexico City in 1984 were concerned with establishing objectives, principles and goals, and making recommendations in the population field. (excerpt)
UNCHS - Habitat: global facilitation of human settlements efforts - United Nations Centre for Human Settlements, includes a related article announcing an April 1996 Washington, D.C. conference on Habitat II.
UN Chronicle. 1996 Spring; 33(1): p..The United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS)--widely known as Habitat--was established in Nairobi in 1978, two years after the first Habitat Conference. It formulates and implements relevant UN programmes and serves as a think-tank within the UN system, assisting Governments in improving the development and management of human settlements. Habitat activities are based on the concept that human settlements "are the physical articulation of the social, economic and political interaction of people living in communities", states a UNCHS brochure. "Whether the communities are urban or rural, their development involves a transformation of the environment from its natural state to a built one. The elements required to meet basic human needs include housing and its related infrastructure, places of work, social services and recreation, and the institutions to produce and manage them." (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1993 Mar; 30(1): p..The growing economic divide between North and South may well be reflected in the upcoming World Conference on Human Rights, as many developing and industrialized countries define their human rights concerns in sharply different terms. One basic difference over how much emphasis to place on the "right to development" may set the tone for a pointed debate at the Vienna conference. Many developing countries contend that political and civil rights cannot be separated from or be given priority over economic, social and cultural rights. Increasingly, they have asserted that development is an essential human right and objected to what many see as the industrial countries' narrow view of human rights as solely involving political and civil liberties. Indeed, in their view, economic development and an adequate living standard are preconditions of expanded political and civil rights. Further, the "collective rights" of people, some argue, may take precedence over certain rights of individuals. (excerpt)
UN proclaims 1996 as Poverty Eradication Year: progress on 'Agenda for Development.' - includes related article on outline of program for September 5-13, 1994 International Conference on Population.
UN Chronicle. 1994 Mar; 31(1): p..The year 1996 was proclaimed the Year for the Eradication of Poverty by the General Assembly on 21 December. That text was among 52 resolutions and 18 decisions adopted by the General Assembly on the recommendation of its Second Committee (Economic and Financial). Issues considered ranged from the environment to the international economy, from population and human settlements to international humanitarian assistance. The Assembly welcomed the intended completion of the Secretary-General's proposed Agenda for Development" this year. It also decided to convene in Japan in 1994 a World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction. The concept of development had to be rethought, Nitin Desai, Under- Secretary-general for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, told the Second Committee on 8 October. The world today is not the same as 30 years ago, when the concept of development was originally framed, he said. The urge to rethink development had grown from the gap between promise and results, as well as from interdependence, the globalization of production, the impact of regional integration and the effects of global communication. A development policy had to give priority to health and education, as well as such areas as the protection of the environment. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005.  p.Promoting development and eradicating extreme poverty is an urgent global priority that demands bold action. This ambitious agenda, embodied in the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), requires governments, civil society, and international agencies to address population issues, in particular to secure people's right to sexual and reproductive health, as agreed by 179 countries at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, and its 5-year review. However, reproductive health and rights remain elusive for the vast majority of the world's people. Complications during pregnancy and childbirth are among the leading causes of death and illness for women in developing countries, and the HIV/AIDS pandemic takes approximately 3 million lives each year. This undermines development by diminishing the quality of people's lives, exacerbating poverty, and placing heavy burdens on individuals, families, communities, and nations. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005.  p.The 1994 Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD PoA) recommended a regular review of its implementation. This publication presents the official outcomes of the ICPD at Ten review. The declarations, resolutions, statements and action plans included here are taken from the official meeting reports of the United Nations Regional Commissions and the Commission on Population and Development, held between 2002-2004. Each region undertook a review process most relevant to its situation, so the review outcomes may vary across regions. The Introduction to this volume is comprised of the Opening Statement by Louise Fréchette, Deputy Secretary-General, United Nations at the General Assembly Commemoration of the Tenth Anniversary of the ICPD, held on 14 October 2004. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2000 Spring; 37(1): p..In the 1990s, the United Nations held a number of world conferences to address urgent problems faced by all Member States. These high-profile meetings forged a global consensus for new development agendas and strategies in preparing for the new century. The Government of Mongolia has taken a number of follow-up actions, in collaboration with its development partners, to implement the policies articulated at the global conferences. One such innovative project, initiated by the Government of Mongolia and implemented in dose cooperation with UN agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) represented in the capital Ulaanbaatar, is the "One World UN Conferences Series". Consisting of six national conferences, the project emerged as a national response to the United Nations objective to promote and ensure an integrated and coordinated implementation and follow-up to major UN conferences and summits of the 1990s. The Series covered the conferences on children, human rights, population, social development and women, dosing in June 1999 with a "Millennium Summit". (excerpt)
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2005 Jul 2; 331:46-47.I want to congratulate you, Prime Minister Blair, on the hard work that you and your team have put into the Commission for Africa’s report. It is an honest document, probing gently but fearlessly into the reasons why so many endeavours in this great continent have failed. You emphasise the responsibility of African leaders to drive development from within Africa but at the same time make clear the responsibility of the richer countries to commit to serious partnership in the process, with the aim being Africa’s development rather than their own. I am sure you don’t need reminding that these principles will be difficult to put into practice, but I am hopeful that the report will be a template for action. When I heard about the commission last year I tried to contact you, requesting that at least one of the commissioners be involved in health care. Maybe you were overwhelmed by advice, as my letters went unanswered. However, your report has touched on matters of health, with sections on HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. These diseases are of enormous importance and are already being tackled by many groups in Africa. I am not involved in HIV treatment myself, but many of my patients are infected by the virus and my wife is working in a palliative care project for dying children, most of whom have HIV or AIDS, so I know first hand of the misery and hopelessness in so many lives. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2002 Sep-Oct; 4(3):1, 6-7.As we approach the 10th anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), it is fair to ask as to how far we have come toward realizing the goals and objectives adopted at the conference. With a consensus among the participating 179 countries, the conference adopted an ambitious 20-year Program of Action (1995-2015). The program emphasized the integral linkages between population and development, focused on the importance and urgency of meeting the needs of individual men and women in the areas of family planning and reproductive rights, and urged empowerment of women as a highly important end in itself and as a key to improving the quality of life for everyone. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2002 Sep-Oct; 4(3):2-3.Global events organized under the auspices of the United Nations have achieved, to different degrees, more visibility for particular issues or institutions. Beyond the visibility, success may also be measured by the direct impact of a global event on more effective actions for development. It is generally believed that success, in these terms, depends on three political conditions and two technical conditions. These are presented here as a checklist for success and subsequently applied in an overall assessment of major U.N. events held during the 1990s. On this basis, proposals are made regarding the 10th anniversary of the 1994 Conference on Population and Development, better known as the Cairo Conference. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2002 Mar-Apr; 4(1):2.More than 70 nongovernmental organizations have endorsed a declaration in support of a global event on population and development in 2005, which was prepared by the executive board of Population 2005 in February 2002. The statement was presented to the United Nations Commission on Population and Development at its 35th session in New York in April. The declaration reads as follows: In its Program of Action, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 set three sets of specific goals for: 1) provision of family planning and other reproductive health services 2) reduction of infant, child and maternal mortality, and 3) universal access to primary education, with particular attention to the girl child. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2004 Dec; 6(4):9-12.The International Conference on Population and Development, held in Cairo, Egypt (ICPD) from 5 to 13 September 1994, was an epoch-making event. The 179 countries participating in the Conference established, by consensus, several far-reaching goals and objectives within a 20 year framework that provide the basis for urgently needed action by national governments, NGOs and the international community in the areas of reproductive health, population and development: Accessibility to reproductive health services to all individuals of appropriate ages through the primary health care system as soon as possible and no later than the year 2000. Meeting the family planning needs of all countries' populations as soon as possible and no later than the year 2015 so as to provide universal access to a full range of safe and reliable family planning methods and lawful reproductive health services to individuals and couples who need them. Reduction of infant mortality to 50 per 1,000 live births by the year 2000, to below that level by 2005, and to below 35 per 1,000 live births by 2015. (excerpt)