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New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 pThis report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
Social Science and Medicine. 1979 Aug; 13A(5):505-514.The focal point of Primary Health Care (PHC) is the community. PHC represents a natural outcome of a political ideology implying that health service is not something to be delivered to the people from above; with the high cost technology teaching hospital as the center of medical universe. But rather, PHC is a concept of health services generated within the community and linking up with a referral system; and it is firmly established as the avenue which most developing countries will explore in the next 20 years. This commitment is largely the result of the Alma-Ata Conference which clarified many of the political; technical; social; administrative and educational aspects of PHC. This paper summarizes this process of consolidation of the concept; gives more examples of national plans in Sudan, Tanzania, Ghana, and India; and then deals with types of support that facilitate community participation. Because PHC involves people rather than merely technology, the role of social scientists is one which needs greater emphasis.
Presented at the National Conference on Population Management as a Factor in Development including Family Planning, Maseru, Lesotho, April 26-29, 1979. 7 pWomen in many parts of Africa have low status, low literacy levels, feel isolated, and are not recognized for their contributions to national development. If programs can be designed to offer women in developing countries an alternative to motherhood, their status can be raised and the birth rate dropped at the same time. Women should be included in all development planning. Family planning programs should be integrated into other, broader programs. Women should be provided with family planning education, allowed to discuss with and motivate each other, and taught the skills and knowledge to communicate family planning to young people. Family planning programs could be integrated with maternal and child health, nutrition, and literacy programs. The work of women's organizations in these areas is cited. Examples of programs which have successfully integrated family planning into other development areas are cited. The International Planned Parenthood Federation has long been involved in promoting the role of women in family planning development.