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  1. 1
    051468

    Science and Technology for Development: Prospects Entering the Twenty-First Century. A symposium in commemoration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., June 22-23, 1987.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]; National Research Council

    Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 1988. 79 p.

    This Symposium described and assessed the contributions of science and technology in development of less developed countries (LDCs), and focused on what science and technology can contribute in the future. Development experts have learned in the last 3 decades that transfer of available technology to LDCs alone does not bring about development. Social scientists have introduced the concepts of local participation and the need to adjust to local socioeconomic conditions. These concepts and the development of methodologies and processes that guide development agencies to prepare effective strategies for achieving goals have all improved project success rates. Agricultural scientists have contributed to the development of higher yielding, hardier food crops, especially rice, maize, and wheat. Health scientists have reduced infant and child mortalities and have increased life expectancy for those living in the LDCs. 1 significant contribution was the successful global effort to eradicate smallpox from the earth. Population experts and biological scientists have increased the range of contraceptives and the modes for delivering family planning services, both of which have contributed to the reduction of fertility rates in some LDCs. Communication experts have taken advantage of the telecommunications and information technologies to make available important information concerning health, agriculture, and education. For example, crop simulation models based on changes in temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind, solar radiation, and soil conditions have predicted outcomes of various agricultural systems. An integration of all of the above disciplines are necessary to bring about development in the LDCs.
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  2. 2
    064029

    Cote d'Ivoire. Finalization of Central Region Family Planning Promotion Project.

    Kumah OM

    [Unpublished] 1990. [5], 6, [2] p.

    Final plans for the Cote d'Ivoire Central Region Family Planning Promotion Project were reviewed during a visit by the Johns Hopkins University Population Communication Services Senior Program Officer who visited Abidjan, September 17-21, 1990. The purpose of the visit was to review the project proposal with officials of the Ivorian Family Welfare Association and of the Regional Economic Development Services Office for West and Central Africa (REDSO/WCA); to meet with officials of Dialogue Production who will produce a video involving students in Bouake; and to discuss with REDSO/WCA the prospects for information, education and communication (IEC) and family planning service delivery. The family planning policy of Cote d'Ivoire changed from pro-natalist to pro-family planning in 1989. Changes in policy, budget, strategy and organization were therefore reviewed. It was suggested that emphasis on male attitude and spousal communication be dropped in favor of concentration on women and school-going adolescents. Some of the recommendations were to complete and distribute the project document; to arrange for Mr. Dahily, the Project Coordinator-Designate, to participate in the JHU Advances in Family Health Communication Workshop scheduled in Tunis in November 1991; to obtain quotes form Dialogue Productions and other video production firms; to choose candidates for Assistant Project Coordinator and Administrative Secretary for interviews in October, and to contact the University of Abidjan Center for Communication Training and Research, the National Public Health Institute, and other subcontractors also by October 1990.
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  3. 3
    021300

    Republic of Korea: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, April 1982. 81 p. (Report; no. 47)

    Korea has seen a rapid growth in both population and economy over the last 2 decades. Rapid urbanization along with high population density has been pushing people towards Seoul. The government wishes to control this migration and the natural increases in population. The excellent progress in family planning over the last 20 years is described. Modern contraceptive methods are available for free or for a nominal charge in clinics that are staffed by predominantly nonmedical personnel. The population problem is still great, and the authors suggest several means to reorganize family planning institutions. In general, the hopes of this reorganization rest on careful compilation and analysis of demographic factors, expansion of already present health care facilities, extention of medical insurance to lower income groups, restructuring of budgeting monies to doctors and family planning workers, and the more liberal use of incentives and population education.
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  4. 4
    023698

    Thailand: report of Second Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, May 1983. 74 p. (Report No. 55)

    Reports on the need for population assistance in Thailand. Areas are identified which require assistance to achieve self-reliance in formulating and implementing population programs. Thailand has had a family planning program since 1970 and UNFPA has been assisting population projects and programs in Thailand since 1971. A Basic Needs Assessment Mission visited the country in April 1981. Thailand is experiencing a rapid decline in the population growth rate and mortality rates have been declining for several decades. The Mission makes recommendations for population assistance and identifies priority areas for assistance, such as population policy formation; data collection; demographic research; health and family planning; population information, education, and communication; and women and development. The Mission recommends that all population efforts be centralized in a single agency with no other function. Thailand is also in need of more personnel in key agencies dealing with population matters. The Mission also recommends that external aid be sought for technical assistance and that population projections be revised based on the 1980 census. Thailand has made a great deal of progress in developing its health infrastructure and services, but some problems still remain, especially in areas of staff recruitment and deployment and in providing rural services. The Mission also recommends that external assistance be continued for short term training seminars and workshops abroad for professionals. Seminars should be organized to assist officials in understanding the importance of population factors in their areas.
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  5. 5
    027674

    Africa.

    Katongole R

    New York, N.Y., United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA] [1983] 54 p. (Population Profiles No. 20)

    This review traces how various population programs in Africa have evolved since the 1960s. Before the establishment of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the late 1960s, the efforts of private groups or non-governmental organizations in the areas of family planning, are highlighted. The vital contribution of private donors in facilitating the work of the Fund in Africa is given emphasis throughout the review. Early studies show that family planning activities in Africa, and governmental population policies fall into a definite pattern within the continent and that the distribution of colonial empires was a major determinant of that pattern. In most of Africa, the 1st stirrups of the family planning movement began during the colonial period. During the 1960s there was marked increase in the demand for family planning services. Lack of official government recognition and not enough assistancy from external sources made early family planning programs generally weak. The shortage of trained personnel, the unsureness of government support, opposition from the Roman Catholic Church to population control, and the logistics of supplying folk in remote rural areas who held traditional attitudes, all posed serious problems. The main sectors of the Fund's activities are brought into focus to illustrate the expansion of population-related programs and their relevance to economic and social development in Africa. The Fund's major sectors of activity in the African region include basic data collection on population dynamics and the formulation and implementation of policies and programs. Family planning, education and communication and other special programs are also important efforts within the Fund's multicector approach. The general principles applied by UNFPA in the allocation of its resources and the sources and levels of current finding are briefly discussed and the Fund's evaluation methodology is outlined. A number of significant goals have been achieved in the African region during the past 15 years through UNFPA programs, most prominently; population censuses, data collection and analysis, demographic training and reseaqrch, and policy formulation after identification of need. This monograph seeks to provide evidence for the compelling need for sustained commitment to population programs in Africa, and for continuing international support and assistance to meet the unmet needs of a continent whose demographic dynamism is incomparably greater than that of any other part of the world.
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