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  1. 1

    Trends in maternal mortality: 1990 to 2015. Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division.

    World Bank

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2015. 100 p.

    In 2000, the United Nations (UN) Member States pledged to work towards a series of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), including the target of a three-quarters reduction in the 1990 maternal mortality ratio (MMR; maternal deaths per 100 000 live births), to be achieved by 2015. This target (MDG 5A) and that of achieving universal access to reproductive health (MDG 5B) together formed the two targets for MDG 5: Improve maternal health. In the five years counting down to the conclusion of the MDGs, a number of initiatives were established to galvanize efforts towards reducing maternal mortality. These included the UN Secretary-General’s Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health, which mobilized efforts towards achieving MDG 4 (Improve child health) as well as MDG 5, and the high-level Commission on Information and Accountability (COIA), which promoted “global reporting, oversight, and accountability on women’s and children’s health”. Now, building on the momentum generated by MDG 5, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) establish a transformative new agenda for maternal health towards ending preventable maternal mortality; target 3.1 of SDG 3 is to reduce the global MMR to less than 70 per 100 000 live births by 2030.
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  2. 2

    New developments in the analysis of mortality and causes of death.

    Hansluwka H; Lopez AD; Porapakkham Y; Prasartkul P

    Bangkok, Thailand, World Health Organization, Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment, and Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research, 1986. 546 p. (UNFPA Project No. INT/80/P09)

    This book on new developments in mortality analysis is a product of a joint WHO/UN research program. Part 1 examines mortality transition in terms of the causes and mechanisms of mortality decline in Europe and North America, reflecting on the study of development processes in countries now undergoing development. Part 2 deals with the use of mortality data in health planning and the use of mortality and other epidemiologic information in the assessment of preventable deaths. Attention is paid to the development of an index of preventable deaths. Part 3, Methodological Developments, examines intersectoral aspects of mortality projections (in terms of health care inputs), the measurement of social inequality and mortality, and maternal death and its impact on the female population. Part 4 deals with cause of death analysis: estimation of global mortality patterns by cause of death, trends and differentials in Thailand, and maternal mortality and differentiation by cause of death. Part 5 discusses nutrition, including a Southern Asia-based study of the relationship between nutritional deficiencies and infant and child mortality, and a study on advances in child nutrition and health that have taken place despite slow economic development. Part 6 discusses mortality change: achievements and failures in South and East Asia, a study on changing health in Japan, mortality decline in Mexico, and socioeconomic correlates of mortality in Pakistan. The section concludes with articles on trends and differentials in mortality in Malaysia and Thailand, and a study of the effects of declining mortality and population aging in rapidly-developing Jamaica.
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  3. 3

    [Taking off into health for all by the years 2000] Decollage vers la sante pour tous en l'an 2000.

    World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1982; 35(1):2-10.

    The goal of health for all by the year 2000 was first stated at the 1977 World Health Assembly and global strategy was launched at the 32nd World Health Assembly in 1979. This article focuses on life expectancy at birth as the most widely used indicator of the health status of populations and also the health status indicators most closely correlated with socioeconomic development. Developing countries have set a target of life expectancy of 60 years; at present 86% of these countries are exposed to mortality conditions which leave life expectancy at age 50. Among 80 countries with GNP per capita of more than $500 61 have life expectancy over 60 years and of the 35 with a life expectancy of 70 or more 28 have GNP over $2500. The largest concentration of countries below the target level is in Asia. Discovering the leading causes of death is crucial in raising life expectancy; in developed countries they are cardiovascular disease, malignant neoplasms, and accidents, accounting for 70% of all deaths. In developing countries there is variation with regard to level of modernization of the cause of death structure but in at least 1/2 the 3 latter causes are also predominant with diarrheal disease and infectious and parasitic conditions related to malnutrition the main causes in the other 1/2. When assessing the health care needs of developing countries the difference between countries regarding their ability to reduce mortality from the traditional diseases must be considered before deciding on use of resources.
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