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In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 175-188.This analysis looks at the United Nations Population Fund's (UNFPA's) work in the area of population-environment-development linkages. It then analyses the collective effects of 6 billion people, their consumption patterns, and resource use trends, in six different critical resource areas. (excerpt)
POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1992 Sep; 18(3):571-82.The UN Conference on Environment and Development, commonly known as the Earth Summit, took place June 3-14, 1992, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The majority of the 172 countries were represented by heads of state, making this the largest-ever gathering of world leaders. The conference offered the following legally binding conventions for signature: a treaty aimed at preventing global climate change through controlling man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, and a treaty aimed at preventing the eradication of biologically diverse species and protecting flora and fauna. Each was signed by 153 countries at the conference. The US, however, failed to sign the treaty on biodiversity out of concern that provisions in the treaty would unduly restrict the biotechnology industry in that country. The treaty on climate change specifies a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000 as an objective to be met voluntarily. The convention on biological diversity requires that countries adopt a variety of regulatory measures aimed at conserving biological resources. The summit also adopted several nonbinding documents. For example, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development outlines 27 principles which express a commitment to improving the environment, while Agenda 21 is a lengthy and detailed blueprint discussing how individual countries and the world as a whole can achieve in the next century environmentally sound development. Population issues were not central in any of the Rio documents, but were given significant attention in the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21. The full text of the Rio Declaration as well as the preamble and chapter five of Agenda 21 on demographic dynamics and sustainability are reproduced.