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Contact. 2005 Jan; (179):40-42.In our world today, the statistics on hunger continue to rise alarmingly despite general economic progress and technological advancement. The quality of peace and true democratic value and the realization of human rights remain stubborn challenges facing civilization in the twenty-first century. Both developed and developing countries have missed some crucial links that might have ensured sustainable development and a more promising 'peace' scenario today. In its haste, the global society has overlooked its rich heritage of cultural, moral, and ethical values as well as its basic respect for human life and promotion of human dignity, and has sadly discarded its general code of ethics and spirituality. In other words, the focus of the world has been mainly uni-dimensional on economic success and political power. The recently concluded summits- World Food Summit in Rome and the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg-have brought home the lack of political will and consensus to achieve even modest targets. There is a need for a consensus to achieve even modest targets. There is need for a larger ethical and moral movement beyond politics and the onus is on civil society to take the lead. (excerpt)
The Des Moines Declaration: A call for accelerated action in agriculture, food and nutrition to end poverty and hunger.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2005; 26(3):312-314.Agriculture is the main source of income for poor people living in rural areas. As such, a boost in agricultural productivity in the rural areas of developing countries will greatly enhance earning potential as well as produce more food. However, agricultural production increases will not generate adequate gains in employment, and additional steps must also be taken to increase employment in agro based value added rural enterprises. In addition, food productivity must be increased to improve the lives of people and protect biodiversity in our environment. With close to a billion people still suffering from hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity and with the population of our planet projected to grow by 50% by the middle of the 21st century, either we must produce more food on the land and in the water now available to us, or people will be forced to cut down precious forest areas and cultivate marginal lands to grow the food necessary to fuel our escalating demands. It is crucial that new agricultural innovations and technologies be developed. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2005 Mar-May; 42(1): p..Natural disasters devastate many parts of the world, whether they were high-intensity hurricanes battering the Pacific islands or gigantic ocean waves killing thousands in its wake. From strengthening coordination of humanitarian and disaster relief assistance, including special economic aid to individual countries or regions, to correcting global trade imbalances and promoting information technology for development, the Second Committee worked hard on these issues during the fifty-ninth session of the General Assembly. With 2005 marking the start of the ten-year countdown to 2015, the target date for the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim, among others, at halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education, the Committee worked towards aligning its objectives with the framework of the MDGs. (excerpt)
Economic and Social Council reviews world economic and social policy, calls for measures to combat AIDS.
UN Chronicle. 1987 Nov; 24(4): p..The Economic an Social Council, at its second regular 1987 session, made a broad review of international economic and social policy, adopting 58 texts on matters ranging from specific development and assistance issues to food and population problems to combating the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. In opening the session, Council President Eugeniusz Noworyta of Poland said that international co-operation "should enrich countries and not impoverish some of them". Without restoring mutual confidence, economic cooperation, trade and resource flows would not attain levels commensurate with development needs. Many negative phenomena persisted in international relations which inhibited wide co-operation among countries at different levels of development, and the introduction of an equitable international economic order, taking account of the legitimate interests of all groups of countries. Disparities between the economic potential of States had increased, he said. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23: p..Secretary-General Perez de Cuellar said the international community, in adopting the Programme of Action, had "clearly expressed their human solidarity with their brothers and sisters in Africa'. Determined and continued efforts over time were needed to meet the challenge. "The image of Africa as a dependent continent must disappear. Africa is a continent rich in physical and human resources. The realization of its potential will not only fulfill the hopes and aspirations of the peoples of Africa, but also contribute immeasurably to the economic and social well-being of all the world'. A summary of the 3-part, 24-paragraph Programme of Action follows. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1986 Apr; 23: p..So begins a special report, Within Human Reach: A Future for Africa's Children, prepared by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). According to UNICEF, neglect of the human costs of the African crisis has obscured a full understanding of the "scenario for disaster' that has been unfolding on that continent over the past two decades. "In its day-to-day work in the continent, UNICEF is faced with the maluntrition and ill health which claim the lives of nearly 4 million African children each and every year--even when there is no drought, no famine, no camps, no epidemics, and no media coverage', states UNICEF Executive Director James P. Grant in a preface to the report. "This is the "silent emergency' which, exacerbated by war and drought, has suddenly become the "loud emergency' of which all the world has heard'. However, adds Mr. Grant, "the first priority for action is to protect the lives and the normal growth of children. In times of emergency, the immediate, human argument for "children first' is an obvious one. But there is also a longer-term and more hard-headed case to be made. For there is a profound connection between the mental and physical development of the children and the social and economic development of their nations.' (excerpt)
Lancet. 2005 Mar 26; 365:1136-1137.The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) aspires to be “the driving force that helps build a world where the rights of every child are realized”. This year’s State of the World Children is dedicated to three key threats affecting more than one billion children: poverty, armed conflicts, and HIV/AIDS. The causes are complex and interlinked and must be fought to ensure the rights of the children. We think that the recent appointment of Ann Veneman as the next Executive Director of UNICEF will hinder this fight. Veneman is a political conservative who has served under Republican administrations dating back to President Reagan and was the Secretary of Agriculture during the first term of the Bush administration. In recent years, US agricultural liberalisation policies have promoted a model based on countries specialising in what they are best at producing, exporting these products, and relying on foreign exchange earnings to purchase other food for local consumption. This model contrasts sharply with one of self-sufficiency, which tries to ensure that domestic food requirements are met from local production to guarantee food security. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1992. xxxii, 282 p.The WHO Commission on Health and Environment has put together a comprehensive report on the interaction between the state of the environment and human health. There is a need to understand and manage this interaction to bring about a sustainable development which meets people's needs while preserving natural systems. Yet, humankind faces various obstacles to sustainable development, including population growth, migration, urbanization, poverty, resource degradation, and macroeconomic policies. Humans can sustain output of agriculture, forestry, and fishing, if they do not exploit ecological systems. Humans need to at least consider food production, diet, health, land tenure, food contamination, agricultural chemicals, and occupational hazards. They must also effectively and efficiently manage freshwater supplies using means which do not adversely upset natural systems. Humans should move away from using fossil fuels as an energy supply since they are the single largest source of air pollution. They should identify and develop energy supplies which reduce the adverse environment and health effects, e.g., solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. Industrial practices in both developed and developing countries spew air and water pollutants into the environment, generate hazardous wastes, and expose workers to harmful agents. Urbanization poses a special challenge to environmental health, especially where there is little or no infrastructure and services which worsens pollution and environmental health problems. Many environmental and health problems cross boundaries. These include long range transport of air pollution, acid rain, damage of the ozone layer, build up of greenhouse gases, hazardous wastes exported from developed to developing countries, ocean pollution, and loss of biodiversity. Two axioms to a healthier and sustainable world are more equitable access to resources and citizen participation.
[Unpublished] 1989 Dec. , 36,  p. (ADB/BD/WP/89/142; ADF/BD/WP/89/133; Doc. 0086F)This policy paper on Women in Development (WID) by the African Development Bank presents the policy of the Bank Group on integration of women into the development process. It highlights the sectors in which the Bank Group will intervene for women in this lending, technical assistance and training operations. The 6 chapters deal with the background, rationale and objectives of the policy, the role of women in African development, the constraints on women, and responses of international, donor, regional and national agencies to the issue of WID. A review of the activity of African women in agriculture, food production and processing, fishing, informal sector production, education, health, water, environment, and sanitation describes their significant if unacknowledged role. Constraints of illiteracy, lack of education and vocational training, lack of access to materials, marketing, storage, transportation, bookkeeping and management, and the overall legal, cultural and social barriers add up to low participation by women in decision-making processes in society. The last 2 chapters focus on the Bank Group's policy and strategies for the integration of women into the development process. They are categorized by the sectors: agriculture, formal and informal sector of industry, environment, water and sanitation, education, and health. Sector policies and lending operations will have gender dimensions, regional member countries will be encouraged to desegregate data by gender, and gender impact assessments will be undertaken when possible. General areas where WID policies are pertinent also include: vocational training, health, access to credit, staff development, international coordination, and information. Only concerted and sustained collaborative effort between the Bank Group and member countries' decision and policy makers will ensure successful implementation of the policy.
National Seminar on Population and Development in Malawi, 5 - 9th June, 1989, Chancellor College, Zomba. Report.
Zomba, Malawi, University of Malawi, Chancellor College, Demographic Unit, 1989. ix, 223 p. (UNFPA Project MLW/87/PO1)The role of population in planning for socioeconomic development in Malawi was the topic of a National Seminar held by the Demographic Unit of the University of Malawi in June 1989. 64 participants from the University, Government departments, parastatal, non-governmental and international agencies presented 41 papers. Each of these background and seminar papers are summarized, and 64 recommendations are outlines. The seminar was considered further evidence that the government is becoming aware that fertility, 7.6 children per woman, and related infant mortality, 150/1000, are excessive, according to the UNFPA representative in his keynote address, and the hope that future planning will take population into account. The range of topics covered in the papers included demography, spatial distribution, macroeconomic factors in development, refugees, industry, small enterprises, health services, water supply, education, rehabilitation, status of women, food supply, land ownership, sustainable resources and manpower development. Recommendations specified actions on rural development, roads, legalizing tobacco growing, fuelwood, equalizing food security, taxes, savings, finance, antitrust regulations, incentives for health service in rural areas, housing, female education, handicapped persons, refugees, data and research and many other issues.
Science and Technology for Development: Prospects Entering the Twenty-First Century. A symposium in commemoration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., June 22-23, 1987.
Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 1988. 79 p.This Symposium described and assessed the contributions of science and technology in development of less developed countries (LDCs), and focused on what science and technology can contribute in the future. Development experts have learned in the last 3 decades that transfer of available technology to LDCs alone does not bring about development. Social scientists have introduced the concepts of local participation and the need to adjust to local socioeconomic conditions. These concepts and the development of methodologies and processes that guide development agencies to prepare effective strategies for achieving goals have all improved project success rates. Agricultural scientists have contributed to the development of higher yielding, hardier food crops, especially rice, maize, and wheat. Health scientists have reduced infant and child mortalities and have increased life expectancy for those living in the LDCs. 1 significant contribution was the successful global effort to eradicate smallpox from the earth. Population experts and biological scientists have increased the range of contraceptives and the modes for delivering family planning services, both of which have contributed to the reduction of fertility rates in some LDCs. Communication experts have taken advantage of the telecommunications and information technologies to make available important information concerning health, agriculture, and education. For example, crop simulation models based on changes in temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind, solar radiation, and soil conditions have predicted outcomes of various agricultural systems. An integration of all of the above disciplines are necessary to bring about development in the LDCs.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 484-97. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)The issues dealing with the interrelationships between population growth, food supply, and agricultural development are summarized. Focus is directed to past trends in food supplies, food consumption and nutritional requirements, future demand, future food supplies, agricultural employment, and rural development policies. A table included in the annex gives population growth rates, food production rates, food demand rates of growth, dietary energy supply, and protein supply by country. Meeting the nutritional needs of population growth is possible. Supply and demand vary between countries; supplies are unevenly distributed. Increased production alone will not solve the problems of poverty. Food production must meet nutritional and employment needs. Food production declined slightly during the 1960s due in many cases to policy, but in developing countries it occurred in spite of policy. In 34 countries, food production failed to keep pace with population growth. Population growth accounts for 70% of the demand for food increases. Between 1952 and 1972, in 54 out of 85 developing countries food production increased less than demand. Balancing supply with demand was unaffected by the rate of population growth. 1965-66 brought bad weather and declines in production; 1967-70 is associated with the "green revolution" and increased production. In 1971-72, bad weather again prevailed and food production declined in absolute terms as well as in relation to population growth. Imported food has created dependency relationships. Nutrition is a measure of total availability of dietary energy; developing countries during the 1960s had a 3% deficit while developed countries were 20% above requirements. In 1970, 62 developing countries had overall dietary energy deficits. Insufficient food supply affects poorer families and particularly pregnant and lactating women and children. 10 million children under 5 years of age suffer from severe malnutrition, 80 million from moderate malnutrition, and 120 million from milder forms of malnutrition, or about 50% of all the children in the developing world. 14% of the population excluding Asian economies have insufficient food intake to meet energy needs. Reducing the rate of population growth is essential.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 77-123. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)The Secretary-General's commentary on the state of population growth, resources, and the environment examines the most important relationship. Conflicts in resource use and distribution and essential resources are identified: potential water and land resources for agriculture, availability of potential arable land, new technology, carrying capacity, capital needs, the imbalance between population and arable land, energy needs, agricultural modernization, nonfuel mineral resources, and energy resources. The relationship between rapid population growth and the environment may be one where man is indeed capable of reducing the environmental consequences to tolerable level through reallocation of resources. There a 3 sets of environmental problems: 1) those related to poverty and inadequate social and economic development; 2) those arising from the development process itself; and 3) those which could have a major impact on climate or environmental conditions and are not well understood. The environmental problems of developed countries pertain to high levels of energy use and the problems of affluence. In poor countries, environmental problems are caused by rapid population growth and urbanization, and poverty. Environmental destruction from mining and transportation are discussed along with the need for conversion to alternative forms of energy and reduction of polluting energy use. Developing countries' problems focus on water supply and waste disposal, the benefits of environmental improvement, and the global changes possible in climate, carbon dioxide emissions, and particulate matter in the atmosphere. "Hot spots" from fossil fuel combustion and nuclear fission are occurring; accurate data, improved analytical models, and international cooperation in monitoring and analysis is essential. Settlement patterns and the costs plus the internal organization of large urban areas are some of the problems examined. Rural development, rural-urban migration, and population redistribution are other issues of concern. Urban development and urban growth strategies reflect the potential need to curb urban migration and a new settlement system. Technology's impact on population, research gaps, and policy implications are revealed. Definitions of societal objectives are necessary before deciding what technology is needed.
Revue Tiers-Monde. 1992 Apr-Jun; 33(130):455-69.The concept of sustainability as currently conceived is multidimensional, and assumes an acceptance of responsibility toward future generations. This work reflects on the aspect of sustainable development related to the need to preserve elements of the physical environment necessary for human well-being. Ecological problems weighing on developing countries include rapid rates of population growth and urbanization, problems in administration of nuclear energy, toxic residues and wastes from agriculture and industry, deforestation, and air and water pollution, among others. Ecological problems in the developing countries are similar to those in developed countries but tend to be caused by poverty rather than by affluence. Developing countries are often hostile to the question of environmental conservation, accusing the rich countries of wishing to prevent them from industrializing. But pollution control measures taken at an early stage are cheaper and easier in the long run than control of toxic wastes. The goal of sustainable development is more growth, but growth of a qualitatively different type. Less polluting techniques and materials are needed. It has been demonstrated that environmental regulations do not necessarily result in a loss of competitiveness. An equitable division of the costs of environmental protection is needed so that if necessary the poorer countries can be compensated for direct and indirect costs sustained by their environmental protection measures. The not yet industrialized countries should be able to learn from the mistakes of the industrialized countries and avoid the worst errors. Pollution at the local, regional, and world levels should be distinguished as part of the process of exerting control over resources. Just as the endowment in factors of production guides the allocation of resources as a function of comparative advantage, differences in the costs of pollution should be a principle orienting international industrial specialization. It is probably less costly to combat pollution in developing countries, and polluting activities of the industrialized countries should be displaced to them. Nature products should be preferred over synthetics having a high tendency to pollute. Developing countries need to undertake activities to protect their nonrenewable resources. More equitable pricing policies would encourage economical use of these resources. Coordinated action will be required from countries possessing such resources. There is as yet no world institution capable of reconciling the interests of individual countries with the need to protect the world's environment. A small step in the direction of creating such an institution was taken with creation of the Pilot Mechanisms Relative to the World Environment by 25 industrialized and developing countries. It is expected to become operational in mid-1991.
PEOPLE. 1992; 19(1):32-4.The IPPF President asks his fellow Africans to look inward to find sources and solutions to the continent's problems. They can no longer blame colonialism and the international community for its problems, but should realize the governments of African countries which had little regard for their own people have misused government resources and not invested in people. Further the 1 party state is no longer effective at solving Africa's problems and people in many countries are beginning to prefer a multiparty democracy. In addition, 11% of the world's population inhabit Africa but Africa takes part in only 2% of the international trade. Africa's population growth rate is >3%/year and in 1992 it had almost 500 million people, yet the gross national product of the continent equals that of Belgium, a country of 10 million people. Development will need to come from Africans so governments must 1st develop its human resources base such as implementing policies that releases the entrepreneurial spirit, providing universal education, and training high levels professionals including planners, engineers, and entrepreneurs. In fact, military expenditures should be curtailed to make room for the much need development efforts. Further African governments must give priority to developing effective population and family planning programs. African population and family planning experts should convince government officials of the need to appropriate funds to these programs. Governments must also confront the problem of AIDS, but not at the expense of investment and general health programs. The 1990s are the last opportunity for Africa to mobilize its people, especially women and children, to pull itself out of poverty and despair.
[Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the Conference on Global Environment and Human Response toward Sustainable Development, Tokyo, Japan, September 11, 1989. 11 p.With the installation of Barner B. Conable as President of the World Bank, the Bank began to incorporate the environmental effects of development projects into its loan decisions. It has also augmented loans for environmental, population, and forestry projects. In 1988, >100 projects with important environmental elements (35% of all Bank and IDA projects) were approved, the majority of which were in agriculture. The Bank has expected the percentage of such projects to increase annually. Further, to assist the countries and the Bank in considering environmental concerns in the beginning stage of designing development projects, the Bank has developed Environmental Assessment Guidelines. The Bank has taken on a formidable task, however, since its primary purpose is to reduce poverty which often conflicts with protecting the environment. Its leadership believes that the 2 goals are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and, if they are to be achieved, the problems must be clearly defined and all the countries of the world must work towards solutions to benefit the global community. Additionally, the Bank has begun to encourage developing countries to switch to cleaner fuels, processes, and systems to curtail global warming. It also monitors research on carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon emissions, all of which contribute to the greenhouse effect, and on climatic change. The Bank has recognized, however, that improvement in the environment cannot occur fast enough, at the rate the earth's population is increasing. Therefore it continues to fund family planning and health projects.
FRONT LINES. 1987 Sep; 27(8):8-9, 11.The USAID's mission in Nepal is to assist development until the people can sustain their own needs: although the US contributes only 5% of donor aid, USAID coordinates donor efforts. The mission's theme is to emphasize agricultural productivity, conserve natural resources, promote the private sector and expand access to health, education and family planning. Nepal, a mountainous country between India and Tibet, has 16 million people growing at 2.5% annually, and a life expectancy of only 51 years. Only 20% of the land is arable, the Kathmandu valley and the Terai strip bordering India. Some of the objectives include getting new seed varieties into cultivation, using manure and compost, and building access roads into the rural areas. Rice and wheat yields have tripled in the '80s relative to the yields achieved in 1970. Other ongoing projects include reforestation, irrigation and watershed management. Integrated health and family planning clinics have been established so that more than 50% of the population is no more than a half day's walk from a health post. The Nepal Fertility Study of 1976 found that only 2.3% of married women were using modern contraceptives. Now the Contraceptive Retail Sales Private Company Ltd., a social marketing company started with USAID help, reports that the contraceptive use rate is now 15%. Some of the other health targets are control of malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, leprosy, acute respiratory infections, and malnutrition. A related goal is raising the literacy rate for women from the current 12% level. General education goals are primary education teacher training and adult literacy. A few descriptive details about living on the Nepal mission are appended.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985. x, 288 p. (World Bank Publication)This handbook is designed to provide guidance in the identification, detection, measurement, and control of adverse environmental effects. Intended for a wide array of users, it is a general survey of the environmental, health, and human ecological impacts of development projects in sectors such as agriculture, industry, energy, and urban development (including water supply, sanitation, and transportation). The information presented will enable individuals and institutions involved in economic development to recognize potential problems at the outset and appropriately address those problem at the earliest stages of project planning. The 1st chapter describes the World Bank's policy of "sustainable development," which attempts to ensure that the environmental and human resources necessary to sustain economic growth in developing nations are not adversely affected. It discusses the Bank's project cycle and opportunities for environmental input in that cycle and considers the role of cost-benefit assessments and the difficulties of quantifying the benefits of environmental protection measures. Chapter 2 examines 4 environmental problems caused primarily by industrial and energy-related development projects: air pollution, water pollution, solid waste disposal, and noise pollution. The next chapter focuses on direct and indirect health risks to both the inhabitants and the migrant workers in the project area and provides a comprehensive planning guide for dealing with such impacts. Chapter 4 reviews some possible adverse effects of tropical agricultural development and ways to mitigate them and covers issues related to farming, forestry, and the production of livestock and fish. Chapter 5 provides a framework for analyzing the environmental impacts associated with a wide variety of industrial development projects in developing countries. A subsequent chapter, devoted to energy, discusses the environmental damage and possible mitigating measures associated with the exploration, mining, and development of traditional fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, and coal. It then examines the effects of electric power projects and addresses ways to control the impacts of fossil-fuel generating plants, large-scale hydroelectric projects, and renewable sources of energy. The final chapter deals with the planning tools available for managing urban and general development. The handbook contains 2 appendixes -- a checklist of environmental considerations for project analysis and a section on information and data resources for development projects -- and a bibliography.
Population Research Leads. 1985; (19):1-15.The Population Division's evaluation of the role of population factors in the planning process through the application of economic-demographic models shows that procedures for considering the short and long-term implications of population growth can be significantly improved. The Division's research projects demonstrate that models can help planners to achieve an efficient allocation of scarce resources, set clear-cut national objectives and provide a national sense of political and social purpose. There are many advantages in applying economic-demographic models to development planning in order to integrate population factors within the development process, yet care must be taken in adopting and/or applying a certain model at the national level. Aside from the question of adopting a model, the question of the applicability and application of models is emphasized. The choice of model structure is discussed in terms of 4 major issues: 1) the choice of a central core; 2) the trade-off between simplicity and complexity and the appropriate degree of endogeneity; 3) the choice of a demand or supply orientation; and 4) the criteria for selecting a particular model for use. A representative selection of economic demographic models is presented. Included are the TEMPO (designed to illustrate the benefits of reduced fertility) and Long-Range Planning Models (LAPM--designed to illustrate the implications of policy assumptions for economic development, particularly in regard to health and education), both developed by the US government. Also described are the BACHUE and the UN Fund for Populations Activities (UNFPA)/ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) models. It is argued that these latter models offer the greatest promise as tools for planning in the ESCAP Region, at the present time. As the BACHUE model is primarily concerned with employment and the distribution of income and the UNFPA/FAO model with agriculture, incorporating both into the planning process could be desirable.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 267-92. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)The 1st section of this paper devoted to population, resources, and development broadly delineates for countries the physiological limits of land to support human populations according to pressure on resources. Subsequent sections examine the impact which an abatement of population growth could have by the year 2000 on resources in general and on the performance of the agricultural sector of developing countries in particular, link poverty to malnutrition, and deal with 1 specific aspect of the relation between distribution and undernutrition. The purpose of the final section is to highlight certain issues of the "food-feed competition" which requires more attention in the future. The frailty of the balance between population and resources is a basic concern of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN. FAO's purpose is to promote agricultural and rural development and to contribute to the improvement of people's nutritional level. The significant characteristics of the FAO work on "potential population supporting capacity of lands" are the improved soil and climatic data from which it starts and the explicit specification of the assumptions made about technology, inputs, and nutritional intake requirements. Both the carrying capacity project and the results of "Agriculture: Toward 2000" have emphasized the importance of the role that technology will play in world agriculture in the future. Yet, technology is not free and its cost should be compared to alternative solutions. Moving people -- migration -- is an option that suggests itself in relation to the carrying capacity project. Changes in certain institutions, including land reform, size of the farm, market systems, pricing regimes are more suggestions that may arise with respect "Agriculture: Toward 2000" and to the food-feed competition. The ultimate question continues to be whether high agricultural technology is feasible on a world agricultural scale without dire environmental and other effects.
Report on the FAO/UNFPA Seminar on Methodology, Research and Country Case Studies on Population, Employment and Productivity, Rome, 27-31 January 1975.
Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1975. 60 p. (FAO/UN/TF 154)The Seminar reviewed the substantial work that has been done at the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in the last year on constructing models relating to the important issues of the economic demographic interaction. The general methodology for such approaches was examined along with ways in which these initial efforts can be further improved. This section's 1st part summarizes the Seminar and its recommendations, covering the method, the scope, and the content of modelling with emphasis on the economic demographic interactions. The recommendations serve 2 functions: some are general on building economic models that incorporate explicitly a demographic interaction that was extensively discussed in the Seminar and focuses on improvement and modifications that can be made for its further applications. The 2nd part presents summary abstracts of the background papers prepared for the seminar, comments by the formal discussants of the papers, and brief summaries of the general discussion that followed. The report's 3rd part includes the panel discussion note and summaries. The discussions dealt with 2 issues: the general model and scope of planning for economic development and the specific issues of the interaction between the economic and demographic variables. The final section is an appendix with the agenda of the Seminar and the list of participants and observers. Considerations regarding the nature of the development process reinforce the view that modelling of economic demographic interaction should be an integral part of economic model building. The methodology of the FAO developed models is systems stimulation, a procedure that subject only to broad limits of computing capacity, is capable of tracing the time path of an economic system of arbitrary complexity over a long time horizon. Limitations of data in situations where the models presented might be of use place a severe constraint on the detail with which the initial conditions and the structural and behavioral relationships of the models could be specified. Examination of the models at the seminar revealed an impressive ingenuity in dealing with these and other limitations inherent in the technique. The examination explicated several issues that bear on the capacity of the models to realistically represent strategic features of the underlying socioeconomic reality and to serve as a tool of policy analysis in the hands of national planners.
Washington, D.C., Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, 1983 May. 62 p. (Contract: AID/DSPE-C-0076)1 of a series of Population and Development Policy Final Country Reports, this report on Jordan provides an account of the rationale, procedures, and outcomes for PDP activities. After reviewing country background (population characteristics and trends, development trends and characteristics, population policies, family planning service and information, research capabilities, and opportunities and needs for population policies, family planning service and information, research capabilities, and opportunities and needs for population assistance) and the PDP Program of Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, research findings and dissemination activities are reported and follow-up activities are recommended. Jordan's population size is small--an estimated 3 million in 1980, but various other characteristics made it a priority for PDP assistance. In 1979 the annual rate of growth was estimated to be anywhere between 3.5-4.8%. Fertility surveys indicate that over half of married women in Jordan surviving through their childbearing years have at least 7 children. Battelle PDP's Core Project in Jordan was designed to encourage the formulation of population policy. The project, titled Major Issues in Jordanian Development, was coordinated by the Queen Alia Welfare Fund. The project ran from July 1981 to April 1983 and encompassed 2 major types of activities: 6 2-person teams of researchers and government program managers collected and analyzed existing information on population and development issues, and 4 of the 6 research review papers prepared under the project directly addressed development issues of interest to the government i.e., education and training of women, social defense, income distribution, and demand for health services; and dissemination of the findings of the research review and analysis projects to national decision makers and opinion leaders in Jordan. The 6 research reviews were undertaken by pairs of authors, most of which included 1 government representative and 1 private or university researcher. Close monitoring and extensive technical assistance was provided to this project through several field visits and frequent correspondence. Brief descriptions are included of the 6 major issue papers. The paper on demographic trends in national planning reviews the literature on determinants of fertility and the effects of population growth and provides a historical analysis of the role of population variables in Jordan's past development plans. In the paper devoted to the education and training of women, women's schooling was found to be the most robust determinant of married women's fertility in the 1972 and 1976 Jordanian Fertility Surveys. The paper dealing with poverty and its implications for development reviews the extant data on per capita and poverty line data. The team that analyzed the demand for medical services proposed a regional plan for community-based health services. The topics of the final 2 papers were consequences of rapid population growth on development and social defense.
[Unpublished] 1976. 100 p.Study drawing on comprehensive evidence developed from a diverse set of experiences to examine some of the important policy and institutional issues facing national governments and donor agencies in the implementation of rural development projects. It utilizes data from 22 projects in Africa and 14 in Latin America, collected by Development Alternatives Incorporated for USAID, applying a different method of analysis (employing a standardized statistical technique for a more rigorous approach) but with the same objective: identification of measures and components that would enable the better design and implementation of projects that relate to small farmer development. The main recommendation of the report is for active involvement on the part of small farmers.
New York, UNDP, June 1979. 243 p. (Rural Development Evaluation Study; No. 2)This paper is based on a study carried out by UNDP staff. It begins with an examination of a series of key facts about rural life and the rural context in developing countries. Rural development is seen to have emerged as a crucial issue because rural areas contain on average 75% of the national population of the developing countries and 80% of the "poverty group"--people earning 50 US dollars or less per year, or whose income is 1/3 the national average. Analyzing rural development as a process of socioeconomic change, the report assesses the implications for development strategies, for linkages between various economic and social sectors, for specific government policies and programs, and for action at the international level, including UNDP supported technical cooperation. It is concluded that 2 basic shifts are needed in rural development strategy: closer involvement of the local population in the full process of rural development planning and implementation, and stronger commitment by governments to redistribute to the rural poor resources and the means to permit capital accumulation. (author's modified)
Washington, D.C., U.S. International Development Cooperation Agency, 1981 Jan. 59 p.This strategy statement prepared by the USAID field mission includes a brief description of the political background of aid to Honduras and an analysis of the country's economic situation including an examination of the extent and causes of poverty among different population subgroups, an overview of the economy and assessment of its ability to absorb aid, a discussion of development planning as reflected in the 5-year plan and "Immediate Action Plan" drafted in late 1980; an assessment of progress to date in development efforts and of the Honduran govenment's commitment to development objectives; and a discussion of other donors. Favorable and unfavorable factors influencing achievement of development efforts are then identified, program strategy prior to and during the current planning period are discussed, and specific issues such as the role of the private sector, human rights, the role of women, and public sector management are examined. AID's sectoral objectives and courses of action in agriculture and rural development, population, health and nutrition, education, urban and regional development, and energy are outlined, with problems, current activities, and strategy for 1983-87 identified for each sector. Efforts to improve regional cooperation and AID program efficiency are described. Proposed assistance levels and staff levels are discussed. A series of tables containing data on public sector operations, central government budget expenditures, balance of payments, and key economic indicators are included as appendices.