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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2014.  p.The action plan sets out a vision of a world in which there are no preventable deaths of newborns or stillbirths, where every pregnancy is wanted, every birth celebrated, and women, babies and children survive, thrive and reach their full potential. Nearly 3 million lives could be saved each year if the actions in the plan are implemented and its goals and targets achieved. Based on evidence of what works, and developed within the framework for Every Woman Every Child, the plan enhances and supports coordinated, comprehensive planning and implementation of newborn-specific actions within the context of national reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health strategies and action plans, and in collaboration with stakeholders from the private sector, civil society, professional associations and others. The goal is to achieve equitable and high-quality coverage of care for all women and newborns through links with other global and national plans, measurement and accountability. Strategic objectives and targets to achieve the goal of ending preventable maternal deaths have also been prepared. The objectives are complementary to those of the Every Newborn action plan and intended for coordinated implementation.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2011.  p.This tool, developed in collaboration between WHO, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) is designed to support countries to strengthen national health strategies by applying human rights and gender equality commitments and obligations. The tool poses critical questions to identify gaps and opportunities in the review or reform of health sector strategies.
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2007 Jun. 36 p.Since their adoption by all United Nations Member States in 2000, the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals have become a universal framework for development and a means for developing countries and their development partners to work together in pursuit of a shared future for all. The Millennium Declaration set 2015 as the target date for achieving most of the Goals. As we approach the midway point of this 15-year period, data are now becoming available that provide an indication of progress during the first third of this 15-year period. This report presents the most comprehensive global assessment of progress to date, based on a set of data prepared by a large number of international organizations within and outside the United Nations system. The results are, predictably, uneven. The years since 2000, when world leaders endorsed the Millennium Declaration, have seen some visible and widespread gains. Encouragingly, the report suggests that some progress is being made even inthose regions where the challenges are greatest. These accomplishments testify to the unprecedented degree of commitment by developing countries and their development partners to the Millennium Declaration and to some success in building the global partnership embodied in the Declaration. The results achieved in the more successful cases demonstrate that success is possible in most countries, but that the MDGs will be attained only if concerted additional action is taken immediately and sustained until 2015. All stakeholders need to fulfil, in their entirety, the commitments they made in the Millennium Declaration and subsequent pronouncements. (excerpt)
[Washington, D.C.], World Bank, 2006 Sep.  p.This Action Plan seeks to advance women's economic empowerment in the World Bank Group's client countries in order to promote shared growth and accelerate the implementation of Millennium Development Goal 3 (MDG3 - promoting gender equality and women's empowerment). The Plan would commit the World Bank Group to intensify and scale up gender mainstreaming in the economic sectors over four years, in partnership with client countries, donors, and other development agencies. The Bank Group and its partners would increase resources devoted to gender issues in operations and technical assistance, in Results-Based Initiatives (RBIs), and in policy-relevant research and statistics. An assessment at the end of the four-year period would determine whether to extend the Action Plan's timeframe. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2008.  p.The World Bank is committed to support Sub-Saharan Africa in responding to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This Agenda for Action (AFA) is a road map for the next five years to guide Bank management and staff in fulfilling that commitment. It underscores the lessons learned and outlines a line of action. HIV/AIDS remains - and will remain for the foreseeable future - an enormous economic, social, and human challenge to Sub-Saharan Africa. This region is the global epicenter of the disease. About 22.5 million Africans are HIV positive, and AIDS is the leading cause of premature death on the continent. HIV/AIDS affects young people and women disproportionately. Some 61 percent of those who are HIV positive are women, and young women are three times as likely to be HIV positive than are young men. As a result of the epidemic, an estimated 11.4 million children under age 18 have lost at least one parent. Its impact on households, human capital, the private sector, and the public sector undermines the alleviation of poverty, the Bank's overarching mandate. In sum, HIV/AIDS threatens the development goals in the region unlike anywhere else in the world. (excerpt)
In: Disease control priorities in developing countries. 2nd ed., edited by Dean T. Jamison, Joel G. Breman, Anthony R. Measham, George Alleyne, Mariam Claeson et al. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2006. 531-549.This chapter provides an overview of neonatal deaths, presenting the epidemiology as a basis for program priorities and summarizing the evidence for interventions within a health systems framework, providing cost and impact estimates for packages that are feasible for universal scale-up. The focus of the chapter is restricted to interventions during the neonatal period. The priority interventions identified here are largely well known, yet global coverage is extremely low. The chapter concludes with a discussion of implementation in country programs with examples of scaling up, highlighting gaps in knowledge. (excerpt)
In: Disease control priorities in developing countries. 2nd ed., edited by Dean T. Jamison, Joel G. Breman, Anthony R. Measham, George Alleyne, Mariam Claeson et al. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2006. 499-529.The Millennium Declaration includes two goals directly relevant to maternal and perinatal conditions: reducing child mortality and improving maternal health. The fact that two out of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are exclusively targeted at mothers and children is testament to the significant proportion of the global burden of disease they suffer and to the huge inequities within and between countries in the magnitude of their burden. Achieving these goals is inextricably linked at the biological, intervention, and service delivery levels. Maternal and child health services have long been seen as inseparable partners, although over the past 20 years the relative emphasis within each, particularly at a policy level, has varied. The launch of the Safe Motherhood Initiative in the late 1980s, for example, brought heightened attention to maternal mortality, whereas the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) broadened the focus to reproductive health and, more recently, to reproductive rights. Those shifts can be linked with international programmatic responses and terminology-with the preventive emphasis of, for instance, prenatal care being lowered as a priority relative to the treatment focus of emergency obstetric care. For the child, integrated management of childhood illnesses has brought renewed emphasis to maintaining a balance between preventive and curative care. The particular needs of the newborn, however, have only started to receive significant attention in the past three or four years. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Development Economics Prospects Group, 2007 Nov. 20 p. (Policy Research Working Paper No. 4383)This paper summarizes the policy lessons from applications of the Maquette for MDG Simulations (MAMS) model to two low income countries: Ghana and Honduras. Results show that costs of MDGs achievement could reach 10-13 percent of GDP by 2015, although, given the observed low productivity in the provision of social services, significant savings may be realized by improving efficiency. Sources of financing also matter: foreign aid inflows can reduce international competitiveness through real exchange appreciation, while domestic financing can crowd out the private sector and slow poverty reduction. Spending a large share of a fixed budget on growth-enhancing infrastructure may mean sacrificing some human development, even if higher growth is usually associated with lower costs of social services. The pursuit of MDGs increases demand for skills: while this encourages higher educational attainments, in the short term this could lead to increased income inequality and a lower poverty elasticity of growth. (author's)
[Oslo], Norway, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2005. 57 p.Sudanese women like everyone else aspire towards achieving the commitments made at the Millennium Summit in 2000. What are the odds, for a country and a people in a complex conflict and post-conflict situation? The ethos of the Millennium Declaration and its emphasis on women's rights, participation of all citizens, gender equality and peace, profoundly captures the reality for women and their families in Sudan. Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Sudan demands creative and extra-ordinary measures centered on women's leadership, reducing gender inequalities in all governance, service provision, and resource management while fostering strategic partnerships. Sudan is a country of multiple realities for its communities. Sudanese women and people are continuing to smile with one eye, while crying with another eye. They are living between the joys and commitment to sustain the peace ushered by the CPA and crying in search of peace in the Darfurs! The publication derives from the commitment, consistency and resilience of Sudanese women in their quest for peace, safe and secure living environment; freedom from poverty, discrimination and marginalisation. It is informed by the strategic and creative partnership created between the Government of Norway, UNIFEM and NUPI in creating space for women's voices in the international processes in support of the post-conflict reconstruction of Sudan. The Oslo Gender Symposium and Donors' Conference are cases in point. It is a simple and clear message that links peace, security and development and women's human rights, from the perspective of women's leadership in the struggle for inclusion and empowerment. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Infrastructure Network, Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Board, 2005 Oct.  p. (Water Supply and Sanitation Working Notes No. 6)This report reviews the current World Bank portfolio in sanitation and hygiene. The Bank's sanitation activities, ranging from latrine promotion to the construction of wastewater treatment plants, address a number of development objectives including improved health, greater human dignity, and a more sustainable environment. This report looks particularly closely at the degree to which the Bank's activities support the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of halving the fraction of the world's population without access to basic sanitation by 2015, and the constraints to increasing support to that aim. By current estimates over 2.6 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation and hygiene; this lack is a basic component of poverty, contributing as it does to 2 million child deaths a year, reduced school attendance, and a fundamental deprivation of human dignity. Meeting the MDG target will require a major increase in global investment to a level of at least US$ 2 billion per year. (excerpt)
Health Policy and Development. 2004 Apr; 2(1):30-32.On the eve of the 3rd millennium, stock was taken of PHC and health sector reforms. The results of a shocking failure of previously advocated goals were evident. Therefore a new set of goals and mechanisms were adopted under Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs are 8: on hunger, education, gender disparity, child mortality, maternal mortality, HIV/AIDS, safe drinking water and partnership. They have implications for multi-laterals as well as for national Governments. Multi-laterals are expected to implement unified and harmonized programmes. Governments are also expected to improve governance, respect the law and mobilise resources for social investment. Recent reviews do not show that much progress has been made. But perhaps it is still too early. What seems to be missing though is a powerful lobby for the implementation of MDGs. (author's)
Gender equality and women's empowerment: a critical analysis of the third Millennium Development Goal.
Gender and Development. 2005 Mar; 13(1):13-24.Gender equality and women?s empowerment is the third of eight MDGs. It is an intrinsic rather than an instrumental goal, explicitly valued as an end in itself rather than as an instrument for achieving other goals. Important as education is, the translation of this goal into the target of eliminating gender disparities at all levels of education within a given time period is disappointingly narrow. However, the indicators to monitor progress in achieving the goal are somewhat more wide-ranging: closing the gender gap in education at all levels; increasing women?s share of wage employment in the non-agricultural sector; and increasing the proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments. In this article, I interpret this as meaning that each of the three ?resources? implied by these indicators - education, employment, and political participation - is considered essential to the achievement of gender equality and women?s empowerment. Each of these resources certainly has the potential to bring about positive changes in women?s lives, but, in each case, it is the social relationships that govern access to the resource in question that will determine the extent to which this potential is realised. Thus, in each case, there is both positive and negative evidence about the impact of women?s access to these resources on their lives. There are lessons to be learned from both. The article also considers some of the other ?resources? that have been overlooked by the MDGs, but could be considered equally important for the goal in question. (excerpt)
Making the links: women's rights and empowerment are key to achieving the Millennium Development Goals.
Gender and Development. 2005 Mar; 13(1):9-12.The Millennium Declaration, adopted by all UN Member States in 2000, outlines a vision of freedom from want and freedom from fear. Together with the eight Millennium Development Coals (MDCs), which make that vision concrete, the Millennium Declaration commits states to ?promote gender equality and the empowerment of women as effective ways to combat poverty, hunger, disease and to stimulate development that is truly sustainable?. The recognition that women?s equality and rights are central to achieving economic and social priorities is important. But it is not by chance that this has come about. It is the result of work by women?s human rights advocates over decades, creating a groundswell of activism for gender equality at global, regional, and national levels. The commitments to women made in the UN World Conferences of the past two decades - in Beijing, Cairo, Vienna, and Copenhagen, as well as the Special Session on HIV/AIDS in New York in June 2001 - are fundamental to the vision embedded in the Millennium Declaration and the MDCs. (excerpt)
Changing course: alternative approaches to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and fight HIV / AIDS.
Washington, D.C., ActionAid International USA, 2005 Sep. 60 p.In September 2005, more than 170 world leaders will assemble at the United Nations Millennium Declaration Summit in New York to assess global progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). With this report, ActionAid International USA is sending a message to the global community that the International Monetary Fund (IMF)-led consensus which has dominated economic development policy in the poor world for 25 years is not sufficient to meet the MDGs. Indeed, in many cases, the IMF-imposed macroeconomic policies used in poor countries are hindering both achievement of the Goals and an effective fight against HIV/AIDS. Based on a comprehensive analysis of existing research on the impacts of IMF-led policies, on the investment required to meet the MDGs and control HIV/AIDS, and on in-depth frontline research in five developing countries, this report argues that alternative paths forward must be urgently explored. The high level summit in New York presents an ideal opportunity to start this process. ActionAid has criticized the MDGs for not being ambitious enough in seeking only to halve global poverty by 2015. Nevertheless, the fact that the international community has rallied behind them offers a key opportunity to assess the degree to which contemporary macroeconomic policies will enable countries to attain these goals by the target date of 2015-or not. Part 1 of this report lays out the status quo, including the dominant IMF model of economic development and the UN estimates of the costs and spending levels required over the next decade to achieve the MDGs and to fight HIV/AIDS effectively. It then contrasts these projected figures with the amount of spending currently possible in countries that have agreed to implement IMF loan programs. Our conclusions show a yawning gap between MDG needs and spending realities under business as usual policies, raising disturbing questions for governments and the international anti-poverty movement. (excerpt)
Bethesda, Maryland, Abt Associates, Partners for Health Reform Plus, 2006 Jul.  p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00019-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ADH-035)This National Health Accounts study estimates current national reproductive health (RH) spending in Jordan in order to accurately predict what additional funding will be needed to meet Millennium Development Goals and the national priorities set in the Reproductive Health Action Plan (RHAP). The RH subanalysis was conducted using solely secondary data from the public and private sectors. Overall RH expenditures total 91.6 million JD (or US$129.4 million), which represents 15 percent of total health expenditures (THE) and 1.5 percent of the gross domestic product. RH expenditures per woman of reproductive age are 70 JD (or US$99.53) and out-of-pocket spending by women of reproductive age equals 28.08 JD (or US$39.10). Fifty-seven percent of RH financing comes from the private sector, 38 percent from the government, and 5 percent from donors. Donor spending on RH accounts for 16 percent of all donor health spending and household spending for RH is approximately 15 percent of all household health spending. Providers of RH services are mainly the public sector (45 percent of RH THE), followed by the private sector (37 percent of RH THE). Medical (curative) care accounts for 83 percent of RH resources, pharmaceuticals for 15 percent. Maternal health spending consumes 48 percent of all RH expenditures, with deliveries and antenatal and postnatal expenditures contributing 24 percent each. Family planning expenditures are on pharmaceuticals (4 percent) and outpatient care (8 percent). Other RH expenditures are on inpatient care (23 percent), pharmaceuticals (11 percent), and outpatient care (5 percent). A very small amount goes to RH-related programs for prevention and public health (0.5 percent of RH total health expenditure). Subanalysis results have three key policy implications: the share of public financing in the total resource envelope for RH services is low, expenditure on family planning is low, and the quality of care administered in the public sector facilities is perceived to be lower than quality in private facilities. (author's)
Mainstreaming AIDS in development instruments and processes at the national level: a review of experiences.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 Sep. 114 p. (UNAIDS/05.27E)This is the final report of a joint review commissioned by UNAIDS and UNDP of the experiences with mainstreaming HIV and AIDS in national development instruments, and of technical support provided to national partners in this area. The review has been carried out by the HLSP Institute. It has primarily focused on Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), and, to a lesser extent, on National Development Plans (NDPs). The review is one of two components of a broader assessment of lessons learned about support to mainstreaming AIDS in national development. The second, carried out by JSI Europe, focuses on mainstreaming AIDS at the sectoral and subnational level (see separate report). The purpose of the overall assessment is to strengthen the evidence base for scaling up the provision of technical support to mainstreaming processes at country level. The findings and recommendations will inform regional consultations and national action on strengthening mainstreaming processes for scaling up multisectoral national responses to AIDS. A joint UNDP, UNAIDS and the World Bank tool "mainstreaming HIV and AIDS in sectors and programmes: an implementation guide for national responses" is now available to support national planning and implementation processes. (excerpt)
Self-reliance of developing countries is UNDP goal for 1990s - United Nations Development Programme.
UN Chronicle. 1989 Sep; 26(3): p..In the 1990s, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) will use its technical aid to continue to build self-reliance in developing nations. Although the Programme will still respond to priorities set by recipient countries, it plans to target action on developing human resources, health, education, and agricultural and rural development. Concluding a year-long overhaul of its goals and policies, the UNDP Governing Council at a high-level 1989 session (New York, 5-30 June) debated its approach to its work in the last decade of the 20th century. The 48-member Council stressed the theme "national capacity-building for self-reliance." It hoped to take on the role of a "facilitator" rather than initiator, urging recipients to take the lead in promoting their own development. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1989 Jun; 26(2): p..The proposed blueprint for UNDP in the 1990s will be hammered out in a series of informal meetings between March and May, when it is expected to be made public. The go-ahead was given by UNDP's Governing Council at a special three-day session in New York, in February. The high-level plenary will be part of the Council's 36th regular session, scheduled from 5 to 30 June. With some 5,000 projects worth about $7.5 billion in more than 150 developing countries and territories, UNDP is the United Nations main development aid operation. It is also the world's largest multilateral channel for technical and pre-investment assistance. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1988 Sep; 25(3): p..Delegates will assemble just prior to the opening of the 43rd General Assembly to consider the Secretary General's report on implementation of the plan of action, adopted on 1 June 1986 at a special session of the General Assembly. The Programme is based on two "central elements": African determination and commitment to launch national and regional programmes of economic development; and the commitment of the international community to support African development efforts. African countries under the Programme of Action promised to implement focused and practical activities, priorities and policies and to pursue vigorously appropriate policy reforms. They also undertook to fully mobilize their domestic resources to those ends. Priority areas include: agricultural development, drought and desertification, human resources development, and socioeconomic policy reforms. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1987 May; 24: p..The Commission on the Status of Women at a special five-day session decided on further ways to implement the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women to the year 2000, which were adopted in July 1985 at the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievement of the United Nations Decade for Women (1976-1985). The 32-member Commission, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council, had been asked by the General Assembly to monitor implementation of the Strategies, which stress the need for all countries to redouble efforts to enable women to wield more power in and to reap more benefits from society. Fifteen texts dealing with improving the situation of women throughout the world were approved without a vote by the Commission. These included eight draft resolutions and two draft decisions recommended for adoption by the Economic and Social Council. (excerpt)
Enhancing support of African development - includes a definition of the African Initiative - Special Initiative on Africa - Cover story.
UN Chronicle. 1996 Summer; 33(2): p..The Special Initiative on Africa, launched globally on 15 March by the Secretary-General along with the executive heads of all UN agencies and organizations represented in the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC), aims to give practical expression to the policy commitments made in the past, such as the UN New Agenda for the Development of Africa in the 1990s. Unprecedented in scope, the Initiative reflects the priority accorded to Africa's development by the international community, the mandates emanating from the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and major UN conferences, as well as the undertakings made individually and collectively by African Governments to accelerate the development of their countries. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2002 Sep-Nov; 39(3): p..Any discussion of children and youth now must inevitably relate to the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, which provide the road map for human development. The recent United Nations Special Session on Children exposed failures of Governments in creating an enabling environment for youth within the Millennium Goals. Heads of State and Government reaffirmed the crucial importance of recognizing the rights of youth for any development agenda to work. As they conceded, children's greatest needs and aspirations point to a world that facilitates a rich human development based on "principles and democracy, equality, nondiscrimination, peace, social justice and the universality, indivisibility, interdependence and interrelatedness of all human rights, including the right to development. Children and adolescents are resourceful citizens capable of building a better future for all" [A World Fit for Children]. The Special Session sounded a wake-up call to address the continuing neglect of children and youth in an uncaring world. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2005 Jun-Aug; 42(2): p..We have the opportunity in the coming decade to cut world poverty by half. Billions more people could enjoy the fruits of the global economy, and tens of millions of lives could be saved. The practical solutions exist. The political framework is established. And for the first time, the cost is utterly affordable. Whatever one's motivation for combating extreme poverty--human rights, religious values, security, fiscal prudence, ideology--the solutions are the same. All that is needed is action. The United Nations Millennium Project is an independent advisory body commissioned by Secretary-General Kofi Annan to develop a global plan for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. If the world achieves these Goals, more than 500 million people will be lifted out of poverty and 250 million will no longer suffer from hunger, while 30 million children and 2 million mothers who might reasonably have been expected to die will be saved. (excerpt)
What the United Nations should be about our ageing world - opinion - UN Second World Assembly on Ageing - development, health, supportive environments.
UN Chronicle. 2002 Jun-Aug; 39(2): p..Rapid population ageing in the developing world presents a special challenge to the United Nations and the international community. Older people in resource-poor countries have the same rights as other sectors of the population, yet violation of their rights due to chronic poverty still has to be addressed. All UN Member States need to make a commitment to address population ageing and its consequences, in the same spirit that they have acted to promote the rights of the child and protection of the environment. As the world ages, poverty and isolation of those who live into older age frequently undermine the benefits of a long life. Population ageing is a critical issue in the twenty-first century. It is imperative that the implications of global population ageing for poverty reduction and for development be acknowledged and acted upon. (excerpt)
International thinking on population policies and programmes from Rome to Cairo: Has South Africa kept pace?
South African Journal of Demography. 1996; 6(1):49-56.This paper reviews global thinking on population policy expressed at the world conferences on population matters from 1954 to 1994. The review is complemented by an overview of trends in South Africa that constituted a de jure population policy during the apartheid era. There is also a brief discussion of the Population Green Paper tabled in 1995, aimed at the establishment of a national population policy for South Africa. This is evaluated against the Programme of Action decided on at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. There is an indication that finally, South Africa can be said to be genuinely moving in the direction of respect for human rights in its population policies in harmony with global convention. In a sense, it is catching up with global trends in the population field after years of isolation resulting from sanctions against the apartheid government. (author's)