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Global Public Health. 2014 Jun 3; 9(6):607–619.On the twentieth anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), activists, governments and diplomats engaged in the fight for sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) are anxious to ensure that these issues are fully reflected in the development agenda to succeed the Millennium Development Goals after 2015. In inter-governmental negotiations since 1994 and particularly in the period 2012-2014, governments have shown that they have significantly expanded their understanding of a number of so-called ‘controversial’ issues in the ICPD agenda, whether safe abortion, adolescent sexual and reproductive health services, comprehensive sexuality education or sexual rights. As in the past and in spite of an increasingly complex and difficult multilateral environment, countering the highly organized conservative opposition to SRHR has required a well-planned and determined mobilization by progressive forces from North and South.
[Washington, D.C.], World Bank, .  p. (\)Designing and implementing knowledge exchange initiatives can be a big undertaking. This guide takes the guesswork out of the process by breaking it down into simple steps and providing tools to help you play a more effective role as knowledge connector and learning facilitator. It will help you: identify and assess capacity development needs; design and develop an appropriate knowledge exchange initiative that responds to those needs; implement the knowledge exchange initiative; measure and report the results.
London, United Kingdom, Earthscan, .  p.The world's urban population now exceeds the world's rural population. What does this mean for the state of our cities, given the strain this global demographic shift is placing upon current urban infrastructure? Following on from previous State of the World's Cities reports, this edition uses the framework of 'The Urban Divide' to analyse the complex social, political, economic and cultural dynamics of urban environments. The book focuses on the concept of the 'right to the city' and ways in which many urban dwellers are excluded from the advantages of city life, using the framework to explore links among poverty, inequality, slum formation and economic growth. The volume will be essential reading for all professionals and policymakers in the field, and a valuable resource for researchers and students in all aspects of urban development.
Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2008 Sep; 13(9):1188-95.The Debt2Health Conversion Scheme of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is used to reassess a range of recent initiatives that propose debt relief in exchange for spending in the health sector. The experience with debt swaps in the mid 1990s was far from positive, and recent improved insight in the economics of debt relief suggests extreme caution. We argue that the recent spade of debt swap proposals, even if targeting countries and debt titles that fall outside current major international debt relief mechanisms, share most of the design faults of previous initiatives. Proposals such as Debt2Health do not constitute efficient vehicles to increase net transfers to poor countries, to reduce the economic disadvantages of indebtedness, or to strengthen public health systems of partner countries. For debt relief to constitute a valuable mechanism to provide aid, it should be designed as a large-scale and comprehensive operation, with spending earmarked to broad country-established priorities, and reinforce rather than undermine national implementation systems.
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2007 Jun. 36 p.Since their adoption by all United Nations Member States in 2000, the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals have become a universal framework for development and a means for developing countries and their development partners to work together in pursuit of a shared future for all. The Millennium Declaration set 2015 as the target date for achieving most of the Goals. As we approach the midway point of this 15-year period, data are now becoming available that provide an indication of progress during the first third of this 15-year period. This report presents the most comprehensive global assessment of progress to date, based on a set of data prepared by a large number of international organizations within and outside the United Nations system. The results are, predictably, uneven. The years since 2000, when world leaders endorsed the Millennium Declaration, have seen some visible and widespread gains. Encouragingly, the report suggests that some progress is being made even inthose regions where the challenges are greatest. These accomplishments testify to the unprecedented degree of commitment by developing countries and their development partners to the Millennium Declaration and to some success in building the global partnership embodied in the Declaration. The results achieved in the more successful cases demonstrate that success is possible in most countries, but that the MDGs will be attained only if concerted additional action is taken immediately and sustained until 2015. All stakeholders need to fulfil, in their entirety, the commitments they made in the Millennium Declaration and subsequent pronouncements. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2007. 51 p. (World Bank Working Paper No. 120)The UN Millennium Development Goals call for not only greater financial commitment in international assistance programs but also innovative strategies to tackle the serious economic, health, education, and other basic human rights problems in the developing world. This paper is organized as follows: Chapter 2 is an overview of key theoretical models of development communication. Chapter 3 describes the characteristic patterns of recent empirical studies in development communication in terms of theoretical models and types of communication strategies. Chapter 4 presents some outstanding evidence of the impacts of communication on development initiatives. Chapter 5 discusses weak spots in the evidence. The concluding chapter will make suggestions for further research by drawing attention to the theoretical, methodological and empirical gaps in the existing academic research in development communication.
Estimating the costs of achieving the WHO-UNICEF Global Immunization Vision and Strategy, 2006 -- 2015.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2008 Jan; 86(1):27-39.The objective was to estimate the cost of scaling up childhood immunization services required to reach the WHO-UNICEF Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) goal of reducing mortality due to vaccine-preventable diseases by two-thirds by 2015. A model was developed to estimate the total cost of reaching GIVS goals by 2015 in 117 low- and lower-middle-income countries. Current spending was estimated by analysing data from country planning documents, and scale-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up, ingredients-based approach. Financial costs were estimated by country and year for reaching 90% coverage with all existing vaccines; introducing a discrete set of new vaccines (rotavirus, conjugate pneumococcal, conjugate meningococcal A and Japanese encephalitis); and conducting immunization campaigns to protect at-risk populations against polio, tetanus, measles, yellow fever and meningococcal meningitis. The 72 poorest countries of the world spent US$ 2.5 (range: US$ 1.8-4.2) billion on immunization in 2005, an increase from US$ 1.1 (range: US$ 0.9-1.6) billion in 2000. By 2015 annual immunization costs will on average increase to about US$ 4.0 (range US$ 2.9-6.7) billion. Total immunization costs for 2006-2015 are estimated at US$ 35 (range US$ 13-40) billion; of this, US$ 16.2 billion are incremental costs, comprised of US$ 5.6 billion for system scale-up and US$ 8.7 billion for vaccines; US$ 19.3 billion is required to maintain immunization programmes at 2005 levels. In all 117 low- and lower-middle-income countries, total costs for 2006-2015 are estimated at US$ 76 (range: US$ 23-110) billion, with US$ 49 billion for maintaining current systems and $27 billion for scaling-up. In the 72 poorest countries, US$ 11-15 billion (30%-40%) of the overall resource needs are unmet if the GIVS goals are to be reached. The methods developed in this paper are approximate estimates with limitations, but provide a roadmap of financing gaps that need to be filled to scale up immunization by 2015. (author's)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2008 Jan; 86(1):13-19.Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to "halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation". Because of its impacts on a range of diseases, it is a health-related MDG target. This study presents cost estimates of attaining MDG target 10. We estimate the population to be covered to attain the MDG target using data on household use of improved water and sanitation for 1990 and 2004, and taking into account population growth. We assume this estimate is achieved in equal annual increments from the base year, 2005, until 2014. Costs per capita for investment and recurrent costs are applied. Country data is aggregated to 11 WHO developing country subregions and globally. Estimated spending required in developing countries on new coverage to meet the MDG target is US$ 42 billion for water and US$ 142 billion for sanitation, a combined annual equivalent of US$ 18 billion. The cost of maintaining existing services totals an additional US$ 322 billion for water supply and US $216 billion for sanitation, a combined annual equivalent of US$ 54 billion. Spending for new coverage is largely rural (64%), while for maintaining existing coverage it is largely urban (73%). Additional programme costs, incurred administratively outside the point of delivery of interventions, of between 10% and 30% are required for effective implementation. In assessing financing requirements, estimates of cost should include the operation, maintenance and replacement of existing coverage as well as new services and programme costs. Country-level costing studies are needed to guide sector financing. (author's)
New York, New York, UNFPA, . 44 p.This document is based on the Fund's commitment to invest in adolescents and youth and help them gain access to opportunities. For countries experiencing or about to experience the demographic transition and for countries showing a significant youth bulge, social investments in young people can help to achieve a healthy, socio-economically productive and poverty-free society. This document's primary focus is on translating the Fund's commitment to action. It is based on UNFPA's extensive experience of working for more than thirty years in the area of adolescents and youth. It does not provide all the answers, but it charts a roadmap for positioning UNFPA for action. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2007.  p. (WHO Discussion Papers on Adolescence; Issues in Adolescent Health and Development)The World Health Organization (WHO) has been contributing to meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by according priority attention to issues pertaining to the management of adolescent pregnancy. Three of the aims of the MDGs - empowerment of women, promotion of maternal health, and reduction of child mortality - embody WHO's key priorities and its policy framework for poverty reduction. The UN Special Session on Children has focused on some of the key issues affecting adolescents' rights, including early marriage, access to sexual and reproductive health services, and care for pregnant adolescents. This review of the literature was conducted to identify (1) the major factors affecting the pregnancy outcome among adolescents, related to their physical immaturity and inappropriate or inadequate healthcare-seeking behaviour, and (2) the socioeconomic and political barriers that influence their access to health-care services and information. The review also presents programmatic evidence of feasible measures that can be taken at the household, community and national levels to improve pregnancy outcomes among adolescents. (excerpt)
Support to mainstreaming AIDS in development. UNAIDS Secretariat strategy note and action framework, 2004-2005.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, . 10 p.Twenty years into the pandemic, there is now ample evidence for the complex linkages between AIDS and development: development gaps increase people's susceptibility to HIV transmission and their vulnerability to the impact of AIDS; inversely, the epidemic itself hampers or even reverses development progress so as to pose a major obstacle to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The growing understanding of this two-way relationship between AIDS and development has led to the insight that, in addition to developing programmes that specifically address AIDS, there is a need to strengthen the way in which existing development programmes address both the causes and effects of the epidemic in each country-specific setting. The process through which to achieve this is called 'Mainstreaming AIDS'. In recognition of this, the 2001 United Nations General Assembly Special Session Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS requires countries to integrate their AIDS response into the national development process, including poverty reduction strategies, budgeting instruments and sectoral programmes. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Human Development Network, 2007 Apr.  p. (HNP Discussion Paper)The objective of this paper is to discuss some obstacles and opportunities presented by population processes in order to prioritize areas for investment and analytical work as background information for the 2007 HNP Sector Strategy. Within HNP, two areas fall within population: (1) reproductive, maternal, and sexual health issues, and the health services that address them; and (2) levels and trends in births, deaths, and migration that determine population growth and age structure. Many of the aspects of delivery of sexual and reproductive health services are addressed in the overall sector strategy. This paper, therefore, focuses on the determinants and consequences of demographic change, and on policies and interventions that pertain to fertility and family planning. Fertility has declined in most of the low- and middle-income countries, with TFRs converging toward replacement level, except in 35 countries, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a broad-based decline in fertility has not occurred. As the priorities of donors and development agencies have shifted toward other issues, and global funds and initiatives have largely bypassed funding of family planning, less attention is being focused on the consequences of high fertility. Reproductive health is conspicuously absent from the MDGs, and assistance to countries to meet the demand for family planning and related services is insufficient. The need for Bank engagement in population issues pertains to economic growth and poverty reduction, as well as inequities in terms of the impact of high fertility on the poor and other vulnerable groups. Evidence indicates that large family size reduces household spending per child, possibly with adverse effects on girls, and the health of mothers and children are affected by parity and birth intervals. Equity considerations remain central to the Bank's work as poor people are less likely to have access to family planning and other reproductive health services. Other vulnerable groups that are less likely to be served by reproductive health services include adolescents and rural populations. Additionally, improved education for girls, equal opportunities for women in society, and a reduction of the proportion of households living below the poverty line are necessary elements of a strategy to achieve sustainable reductions in fertility. The Bank has a comparative advantage to address these issues at the highest levels of country policy setting, and its involvement in many sectors can produce synergies that will allow faster progress than a more narrow focus on family planning services. (author's)
Health service delivery in early recovery fragile states: lessons from Afghanistan, Cambodia, Mozambique and Timor Leste.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 2006 May.  p. (USAID Contract No. GHA-I-00-04-00002-00)This case study explores some key themes in the emerging literature on service delivery in fragile states in light of the health sector experience in four early recovery countries - Afghanistan, Cambodia, Mozambique, and Timor Leste. The analysis considers the various impacts of foreign assistance on state stewardship of the health sector and the programming implications. The investigation starts with state effectiveness and legitimacy. Findings point to the importance of and structural impediments to donor harmonization in reestablishing health services in a post-conflict context. United Nations (UN) coordination in all four countries was constrained by state avoidance strategies, a spike in aid flows that were out of sync with emerging government capacity, and-in Cambodia and Mozambique-an emphasis on highly visible but largely unsustainable infrastructure projects that were limited by the absence of a planning framework. Harmonization and alignment of aid systems and accountability requirements-current pillars of fragile states programming-were enabled through joint frameworks, common approaches, and trust funds that offered direct budget support that strengthened government systems, accountability, and a common policy framework in Afghanistan and Timor Leste. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Apr; 85(4):245-324.There is an old saying that "amateurs talk strategy and professionals talk logistics". A professional approach to achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) requires us to move beyond the discussion of possible strategies that could be used. It requires active planning of the practical actions that need to be taken, including raising the necessary funds to ensure these actions can be financed. This cannot be done without information on the costs of implementing the logistical plans. Without detailed plans, countries cannot be sure if they will meet the MDGs. Without accurate costing, countries and donors do not know the extent of the additional funds that will be required. This is a particularly important issue now that we are nearly halfway between the signing of the Millennium Declaration and the target date for achievement, 2015. All recent assessments suggest that few countries are on track and that intensified efforts to raise and use funds well are needed. How much additional funding is required, and where should it be spent? (excerpt)
London, England, Overseas Development Institute, 2005 Apr.  p. (Working Paper No. 244)The Research and Policy in Development (RAPID) programme at the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) has been working since 1999 to promote development policy-making processes that are evidence-based and focused on the needs of the poor. One of the key dimensions of the RAPID programme at ODI is 'knowledge and learning systems in development agencies'. This study synthesises existing research on knowledge and learning in the development sector, and draws out eight key questions for examining related strategies and systems in development agencies. Together, these questions make up a comprehensive Knowledge Strategies Framework, which bears close resemblance to the framework used by the ODI to assess complex processes of change within the development and humanitarian sector. The dimensions of this new Knowledge Strategies Framework are mapped out as Organisational knowledge, Organisational links, Organisational contexts, and External factors. The study then presents the analysis of data collected on current knowledge and learning practices in 13 selected case study organisations1. This data was gathered via desk based reviews, interviews, consultations with agency staff and focus groups. The Knowledge Strategies Framework is used to analyse and synthesise these findings, to formulate the recommendations of the study, and to suggest key next steps. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], . 14 p.The deepening of democratic institutions, gains in macroeconomic stability and rapid expansion of prosperity contribute to an overall encouraging context for sustainable development in Brazil. Yet, despite these numerous advances, real poverty has only moderately declined, and inequality persists. In Brazil, economic and social status tends to vary by geography, race and gender, a legacy of the country's history. Imposed and de facto colonial and post-colonial divisions among indigenous peoples and descendents of Portuguese settlers, African slaves and European, Middle Eastern and Asian immigrants created persistent structures of exclusion and inequality. In the 1950s, during the military government, a strategy of import substitution prioritized rapid industrial expansion, and helped to bring about significant, sustained economic growth. Benefits, however, accrued disproportionately to the upper classes at the expense of workers and unions. The industrialization contributed to the expansion of the favelas (urban slums), one of Brazil's greatest contemporary challenges, by promoting urban migration while infrastructure and social support did not expand at the same pace. (excerpt)
Achieving the Millennium Development Goals in sub-Saharan Africa: a macroeconomic monitoring framework.
World Economy. 2006; 29(11):1519-1547.3,000 Africans die every day of a mosquito bite. Can you think about that, malaria? That's not acceptable in the 21st century and we can stop it. And water-borne illnesses - dirty water takes another 3,000 lives - children, mothers, sisters . . . If we're to take this issue seriously, and we must, because in 50 years, you know, when they [G-8 Heads of State] look back at this moment . . . they'll talk about what we did or didn't do about this continent bursting into flames. It is the most extraordinary thing to watch people dying three in a bed, two on top and one underneath, as I have seen in Lilongwe, Malawi. I mean, it is an astonishing thing. And it's avoidable. It's an avoidable catastrophe. You saw what happened with the tsunami. You see the outpouring, you see the dramatic pictures. Well, there's a tsunami happening every month in Africa, but it's an avoidable catastrophe. It is not a natural calamity. (author's)
Development and testing of the South African National Nutrition Guidelines for People Living with HIV / AIDS.
SAJCN. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003 Feb; 16(1):12-16.Malnutrition is a common consequence of HIV infection, and weight loss is used as a diagnostic criterion for HIV/AIDS. The relationship between HIV/AIDS and malnutrition and wasting is well described, with nutritional status compromised by reduced food intake, malabsorption caused by gastrointestinal involvement, increased nutritional needs as a result of fever and infection, and increased nutrient losses. Malnutrition contributes to the frequency and severity of opportunistic infections seen in HIV/AIDS and nutritional status is a major factor in survival. Failure to maintain body cell mass leads to death at 54% of ideal body weight. The effectiveness of nutrition intervention has been documented and dietary nutrition counselling is considered critical in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, especially in view of the fact that drug treatment is inaccessible to many people living with the virus in Africa. (excerpt)
Anthropologist. 2004; 6(1):37-43.The focus of this paper should expectedly arouse diverse perceptions or expectations for equally diverse individuals due to its universal appeal in a world in constant search for new ingredients for sustainable growth and development. However, it must be emphasised that the paper is not intended to provide a network of definitions on what culture and development are or are not. The major intentions are: providing simplified definitions of 'culture' and 'development'; discussing some issues that could have accounted for the gradual disintegration of our cultural heritage; assessing the culture-development relationship; and seeking avenues for nurturing that relationship. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, 2002 Aug. 20 p. (Policy Note)UNDP Policy Notes are intended to inform and strengthen the delivery of policy and programme support to countries. This note provides policy guidance on the important challenge of integrating HIV/AIDS priorities into poverty reduction strategies, including Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). Poverty reduction strategies are becoming the main development planning instrument in many countries, determining national priorities and domestic as well as external resource allocation. In the case of HIPC countries, poverty reduction strategies shape the speed of debt relief, and the allocation of debt relief savings. Integrating HIV/AIDS into poverty reduction strategies therefore helps to create the necessary policy and planning environment for a comprehensive, multi-sectoral and adequately funded response to the epidemic. The Policy Note provides a synthesis of cutting-edge thinking on the interface between poverty reduction strategies and efforts to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. It proposes nine policy areas that UNDP and its partners must focus on as a matter of priority. At the core of the Policy Note is a checklist with specific guidance on how to integrate HIV/AIDS into poverty reduction strategies, relevant for all countries regardless of their current HIV prevalence rates. The Note concludes by bringing the discussion to the global level. It recommends that UNDP--in the context of the Millennium Development Goals Campaign--step up its advocacy for placing HIV/AIDS at the centre of the international development agenda, capitalizing and building on its work at country level. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, 2004 Jul.  p.The HIV/AIDS epidemic is one of the world's most serious development crises. An estimated 3 million people died of AIDS in 2003 and 5 million acquired HIV -- bringing the number of people living with the virus around the world to 38 million. Without decisive action, not only will we fail to achieve the goal of reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS, but worse: the number of people infected is likely to double in less than a decade. International funding to respond to the epidemic has increased, but it will take comprehensive and sustained intervention in both high and low prevalence countries to turn the tide. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, Bureau for Development Policy, HIV / AIDS Group, . 8 p.Twenty years on, the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to spread without respite. Almost 40 million people are living with HIV and AIDS, half of them women. The impact of HIV/AIDS is unique because it kills adults in the most productive period of their lives, depriving families, communities, and nations of their most productive people. Adding to an already heavy disease burden in poor countries, the epidemic is deepening poverty, reversing human development, worsening gender inequalities, eroding the capacity of governments to provide essential services, reducing labour productivity, and hampering pro-poor growth. The epidemic is quickly becoming the biggest obstacle to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, 2004 Jun. 34 p.Something remarkable is happening in many parts of the world. Faced with a common enemy, people from different countries are discovering a shared goal. These are ordinary men and women who until recently had thought of HIV/AIDS as something that happened to other people. Responding to the epidemic has today become a passionate cause for each one. These individuals and groups are linked by one common factor: They have all been part of UNDP's Leadership for Results programme-- a unique and innovative process that helps to create an enabling environment to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, by fostering hope, generating transformation and producing breakthrough results. (excerpt)
Journal of Asian and African Studies. 2004; 39(1-2):1-28.This chapter is a contribution to the ongoing debate about Africa and globalization and the interrelated issues of capitalism, marginalization, representation, and political leadership. Problematizing the discourse of Africa as "diseased" and "hapless," the World Bank's structural adjustment "cure-all" is presented as being much worse than the "disease" that preceded it. Proposing a critical ethics of globalization--which highlights the gap between globalization's miraculous, self-reflective images and the miserable conditions it creates--there is an attempt to uncover agents of change on the African continent. Social movements such as those fighting for water and electricity in Soweto, for land in Kenya, or against environmental destruction by oil companies in the Niger delta raise questions about the viability of globalization. Often led by women, these movements not only challenge the "male deal" that defines national governments and multinational corporations, but also call for a revaluation of subsistence economies and local democratic polities as alternatives to globalization. In short, this chapter offers important conceptual, as well as practical, challenges to globalization, indeed to the very nature of politics itself. (author's)
In: The HIV challenge to education: a collection of essays, edited by Carol Coombe. Paris, France, UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning, 2004. 17-36. (Education in the Context of HIV / AIDS)This paper considers the consequences the HIV/AIDS pandemic is having on education, within the context of the global poverty discourse. It considers the scale and scope of the pandemic and its anticipated impact on learners, educators and education systems particularly in heavily-infected sub-Saharan Africa countries. It looks for lessons derived from 20 years of coping with HIV/AIDS in the SADC region. It includes proposals for improving the education sector's response to the pandemic in order to protect education provision and quality, and to mitigate the distress of increasing numbers of orphans and other vulnerable children. (author's)