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Canadian HIV / AIDS Policy and Law Review. 2002 Dec; 7(2-3):80-84.Health is a fundamental right, not a commodity to be sold at a profit, argues Irene Fernandez in the second Jonathan Mann Memorial Lecture delivered on 8 July 2002 to the XIV International AIDS Conference in Barcelona. Ms Fernandez had to obtain a special permit from the Malaysian government to attend the Conference because she is on trial for having publicly released information about abuse, torture, illness, corruption, and death in Malaysian detention camps for migrants. This article, based on Ms Fernandez presentation, describes how the policies of the rich world have failed the poor world. According to Ms Fernandez, the policies of globalization and privatization of health care have hindered the ability of developing countries to respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic-The article decries the hypocrisy of the industrialized nations in increasing subsidies to farmers while demanding that the developing world open its doors to Western goods. It points out that the rich nations have failed to live up their foreign aid commitments. The article concludes that these commitments - and the other promises made in the last few years, such as those in the United Nations' Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS - can only become a reality if they are translated into action. (author's)
Programming for male involvement in reproductive health. Report of the meeting of WHO Regional Advisors in Reproductive Health, WHO / PAHO, Washington DC, USA, 5-7 September 2001.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2002.  p. (WHO/FCH/RHR/02.3)Research has shed some light on the gaps in our knowledge of reproductive health issues as they relate to men, but we have little information about programmatic issues and how such research could improve programme operation and service delivery. WHO Country Offices are often consulted by programme managers and policy-makers for advice on strategies for including men in the delivery of reproductive health services. It was proposed that the meeting of WHO Regional Advisers and Directors of Reproductive Health for 2001 focus on the design, success stories, lessons learned and research recommendations for programmes that aim to include men in reproductive health. Regional experiences, case studies, systematic reviews, research highlights and model projects representing a variety of regions were presented at the meeting by a select group of experts working in the field, Regional Offices, collaborating agencies, programme managers, and researcher institutions. Among these were several experts and individuals who had participated in RHR-funded studies at the global or the regional level. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2002 May-Jun.  p.A March meeting of demographers at the United Nations captured headlines proclaiming "Population Decline in Sight," "Shrinking World," and "Population Boom a Bust." Although more attention to population trends is welcome news, the media's focus on a single aspect of the UN's deliberations produced stories at odds with what many participants took away from the meeting. What happened at the Expert Group Meeting on Completing the Fertility Transition, the third in a series on future fertility trends, was that population experts endorsed a proposal by the UN Population Division to accommodate fertility levels below the two-child- per-couple replacement level in the division's 2002 revision of its world population estimates and projections. Endorsement came after examination of the fertility prospects for a large group of less developed countries, those with a total fertility rate less than 5 children per woman, but more than 2.1, or the "intermediate-fertility" countries. This group includes Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, and Vietnam. This step means the UN will consider fine-tuning its assumptions. It is also considering projecting to 2075. (excerpt)
Estimation of the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections. Report of a WHO consultation, Treviso, Italy, 27 February - 1 March 2002.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of HIV / AIDS, 2002. 26 p. (WHO/HIV/2002.14; WHO/CDS/CSR/NCS/2002.7)WHO in collaboration with the Office of International and Social Health at the Department of Health, Veneto Region, Italy organized a consultation on the estimation of STI prevalence and incidence on 27 February– 1 March 2002 in Treviso, Italy with the following objectives : to determine the strengths, weaknesses and appropriateness of the current WHO approach to estimating the prevalence and incidence of STIs; to identify the STIs or syndromes that are most appropriate for surveillance and the most appropriate methods for deriving estimates of their incidence and prevalence; to identify structural surveillance needs within countries; to determine the utility and feasibility of using specific STI data as indicators of HIV risk behaviour within the concept of second-generation HIV surveillance; and to make recommendations for how the data collected can best be used to prevent STIs and to improve the care of individuals with STIs or their outcomes. (excerpt)
Global crises -- global solutions: managing public health emergencies of international concern through the revised International Health Regulations.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, International Health Regulations Revision Project, 2002. iii, 19 p. (WHO/CDS/CSR/GAR/2002.4)One of the obvious consequences of globalization is the increased risk of international spread of infectious diseases. People and goods are crossing national borders in massive numbers unparalleled in human history. While some countries may still opt for extreme protectionism, importation of diseases is always difficult to prevent. The cross-border impact of infectious diseases is better addressed through multilateral efforts. In the past, the most concrete measures to stop importation of infectious diseases were thought to be quarantine and trade embargoes. The ultimate way to stop international spread of disease would be to stop all international trade, travel and tourism. Such drastic measures, though no longer viable in today’s globalizing world, nonetheless underline the close connection between disease control, trade and travel. The International Health Regulations (IHR) are a multilateral initiative by countries to develop an effective global surveillance tool for cross-border transmission of diseases. The IHR strive to harmonize the protection of public health with the need to avoid unnecessary disruption of trade and travel. They remain the only legally binding set of regulations, for WHO Member States, on global alert and response for infectious diseases. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002. x, 103 p.Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 2000 is the fourteenth edition of a report previously published by UNFPA under the title of Global Population Assistance Report. The United Nations Population Fund has regularly collected data and reported on flows of international financial assistance to population activities. The Fund’s annual Reports focused on the flow of funds from donors through bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental channels for population assistance to developing countries1 and countries with economies in transition. Also included were grants and loans from development banks for population activities in developing countries. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 137-150.This volume chronicles the remarkable success -- indeed, the reproductive revolution -- that has taken place over the last thirty years, in which the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has played such a major role. Our purpose in this chapter is to contrast the situation at the century's end with the one that existed at the time of UNFPA's creation thirty years ago, and to project from the current situation to the new challenges that lie ahead. In many respects, the successful completion of the fertility transition that is now so far advanced will bring an entirely new set of challenges, and these will require a fundamental rethinking about the future mandate, structure, staffing and programme of UNFPA in the twenty-first century. Our purpose here is to identify those challenges and speculate about their implications. (author's)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 2-23.In demographic terms, the last thirty years have been quite distinct from the period that preceded it, or, indeed, from any other period in history. The global fertility level had been almost stable for at least twenty years prior to 1965-1969, with a total fertility rate just under 5 children per woman, and this stability did not hide countervailing forces in different parts of the world. The developed countries, whether they had participated or not in the post-World War II “baby boom,” showed no strong trends in fertility, with a total fertility rate remaining around 2.7. The same lack of change characterized the developing countries, but there the total fertility rate was well over 6, as it may well have been for millennia. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2002 May 21. 5 p. (HR/4600)The Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues should discuss the situation of indigenous peoples living in urban areas, an indigenous representative told the Forum today, as it continued its review of United Nations activities relating to indigenous peoples. (excerpt)
To cure poverty, heal the poor. WHO study finds investments in health pay big development dividends.
Africa Recovery. 2002 Apr; 16(1):22-3.Research conducted by the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, established by the WHO and headed by Harvard University economist Jeffrey Sachs, found that the economic impact of ill health on individuals and societies is far greater than previous estimates. Providing basic health care to the world's poor, the commission asserted, is both technically feasible and cost effective. However, the price tag is high, with the annual spending on health care in the least developed countries and other low-income states increased from US$53.5 billion to US$93 billion by 2007, and to US$119 billion per year by 2015. These amounts are intended to finance essential services required to meet the minimum health goals adopted by world leaders at the September 2000 UN Millennium Assembly. These objectives can be achieved by forging a new global partnership between developed and developing countries for the delivery of health care. Moreover, donor countries and multilateral agencies would have to increase their overall support for health programs in all developing countries.
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau, MEASURE Communication, 2002 Feb.  p. (MEASURE Communication Policy Brief; USAID Contract No. HRN-A-00-98-000001-00)This document presents factors that contribute to the growing shortfall of contraceptive supplies in developing countries. These include: 1) more people of reproductive age; 2) growing interest in contraceptive use; 3) the spread of HIV/AIDS; 4) insufficient and poorly coordinated donor funding; and 5) inadequate logistics capacity in developing countries. An international network called the Interim Working Group on Reproductive Health Commodity Security is helping to raise awareness of the problem and find solutions. The group convened a meeting in Istanbul in May 2001, in which representatives of governments and nongovernmental organizations endorsed actions in four areas-- advocacy, national capacity building, financing, and donor coordination. Continued work on this issue focuses on developing country-specific strategies that bring together the national and international partners who play a role in bringing supplies to those who need them.