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St. John's, Antigua, CFPA, 1987. 39 p.In the 1920s 1/3 of the children in the Caribbean area died before age 5, and life expectancy was 35 years; today life expectancy is 70 years. In the early 1960s only 50,000 women used birth control; in the mid-1980s 500,000 do, but this is still only 1/2 of all reproductive age women. During 1987 the governments of St. Lucia, Dominica and Grenada adopted formal population policies; and the Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation (CFPA) called for the introduction of sex education in all Caribbean schools for the specific purpose of reducing the high teenage pregnancy rate of 120/1000. CFPA received funds from the US Agency for International Development and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to assist in its annual multimedia IEC campaigns directed particularly at teenagers and young adults. CFPA worked with other nongovernmental organizations to conduct seminars on population and development and family life education in schools. In 1986-87 CFPA held a short story contest to heighten teenage awareness of family planning. The CFPA and its member countries observed the 3rd Annual Family Planning Day on November 21, 1987; and Stichting Lobi, the Family Planning Association of Suriname celebrated its 20th anniversary on February 29, 1988. CFPA affiliate countries made strides in 1987 in areas of sex education, including AIDS education, teenage pregnancy prevention, and outreach programs. The CFPA Annual Report concludes with financial statements, a list of member associations, and the names of CFPA officers.
WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS QUARTERLY. RAPPORT TRIMESTRIEL DE STATISTIQUES SANITAIRES MONDIALES. 1987; 40(3):267-78.The primary cause of death in women in the world is cancer. In most developing countries cancer of the cervix is the most prevalent cancer. Breast cancer has this distinction in Latin America and the developed countries of North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. It is also the most prevalent cancer worldwide. The most common cancer in Japan and the Soviet Union is stomach cancer. Effective early detection programs can reduce both breast and cervical cancer mortality and also the degree and duration of treatment required. In Iceland, cervical cancer mortality declined 60% between the periods of 1959-1970 and 1975-1978. Programs consist of mammography, physician breast and self examination, and Pap smear. The sophisticated early detection equipment and techniques are expensive and largely located in urban areas, however, and not accessible to urban poor women and rural women, especially in developing countries. Tobacco smoking attributes to 80-90% of all lung cancer deaths worldwide and 30% of all cancer deaths. Passive smoking increases the risk of lung cancer to 25-35% in nonsmokers who breathe in tobacco smoke. Since smoking rates of women are skyrocketing, health specialists fear that lung cancer will replace cervical and breast cancers as the most common cancer in women worldwide in 20-30 years. Tobacco use also contributes to the high incidence of oral cancer in Southern and South Eastern Asia. For example, in India, incidence of oral cancer in women is 3-7 times higher than in developed countries with the smoking and chewing of tobacco in betel quid contributing. Techniques already exist to prevent 1/3 of all cancers. If cases can be discovered early enough and adequate treatment applied, another 1/3 of the cases can be cured. In those cases where the cancer cannot be cured, drugs can relieve 80-90% of the pain.
Final report: First Caribbean Health-Communication Roundtable, St. Philip, Barbados, 16-18 November 1987.
[Unpublished] 1987. , 30,  p.To create a mechanism from which to mobilize communications media as a force for health in the Caribbean, the 1st Caribbean Health Communication Roundtable was held in 1987. Organized and initiated by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and cosponsored by UNESCO and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the summary of the objectives discussed at the roundtable are presented in this report. Objectives include sensitizing the media to the health concerns of AIDS, disaster preparedness, nutrition and chronic diseases, and the examination of different types of health communication methodologies. Roundtable participants drafted a series of recommendations for submission to all relevant national, regional, and international agencies. 6 major recommendations covered various aspects of health communication. Workshops at the national and sub-regional level to train media and communications specialists were a suggested means of improving information techniques for health educators. Improvements in coordination and cooperation between Ministries of Health and Ministries of Information, requested by CARICOM, was recommended to strengthen health communication. The addition of an information specialist to the staff of the PAHO office was recommended, as well as the promotion of alternative communication methods and practices. Establishing a regional center for the identification, collection, cataloging, and dissemination of communication ideas, experiences and other resources was another major recommendation. In addition, evaluation of regional communication projects was suggested. Pre- and post-Roundtable questionnaires are reproduced in the Appendices, as are the program schedule, rationale, and list of participants.
Development: Seeds of Change. 1987; (4):11-8.3 basic categories of institutions in research and development (R&D) of biotechnology include universities, small biotechnology R&D venture capital financed firms, and transnational corporations in the US and other more developed countries (MDCs). Almost 24 transnationals, which predominantly manufacture pharmaceuticals and petrochemicals, lead the biotechnology industry by contracting research arrangements with universities or venture capital financed firms or by establishing their own R&D, manufacturing, and marketing activities in biotechnology. On the other hand, in less developed countries (LDCs), the private sector plays no role or a relatively small role in biotechnology. National level government programs are developing biotechnology capabilities in some LDCs, however. In MDCs, the move towards privatization of biotechnology, especially with the ability to patent technologies, restricts the free flow of research information, thereby inhibiting the diversity and pace of technological innovation, widening the technological gap between MDCs and LDCs, and thus maintaining LDCs' dependence on MDCs. The leading role of transnational corporations in biotechnology R&D causes skewed research priorities that the corporations determine based on their own global strategies. These research priorities are determined by potential profit, and not by the needs of the LDCs. Even though products of biotechnology have the capability to improve the lives of many in the world, they displace more traditional products of LDCs. For example, sugar will soon be displaced by immobilized enzyme technology produced high fructose, therefore affecting the economies and poor of sugar exporting nations. LDCs must act now so as not to fall behind in the biotechnology revolution, such as establishing their relevance at the grass roots level.
JORDEMODERN. 1987 Jun; 100(6):172-3.As long as breast-feeding in the developing and developed countries is threatened by bottle-feeding and too early introduction of supplementary diets, the discussion about how breast-feeding is best protected must be kept alive within the organizations and the mass media. Representatives of the Swedish private organizations' foreign assistance programs participated in a seminar on April 3, 1987 in Stockholm, arranged by the Nordic Work Group for International Breast-Feeding Questions in cooperation with International Child Health (ICH). Breast-feeding increased strongly in Sweden during the 1970s, but bottle-feeding is still the norm in large parts of Europe and continues to increase in the developing countries. 6 years have passed since the international code for marketing of breast milk substitutes (even called the child food code) was approved by WHO, in 1981. It contains rules that limit companies' marketing efforts and establish responsibilities and duties that apply to health personnel. The application of these rules is slow and differences between company policies and practice exist. In a larger perspective, we are dealing with the position and significance of woman and children within the family and society. During a WHO meeting in 1986, a resolution was adopted that reinforces the content of the code, e.g., it stops the distribution of free breast milk substitutes to the hospital, where free samples are often given to leaving mothers. The WHO countries also expressed negative feeling toward marketing child food during a period where breast-feeding may be affected negatively. How the resolution is going to be implemented in Sweden is not yet known. There are signs that even in Sweden the existence of the code is being forgotten. The seminar participants recommended that the Social Board issue a simplified and easily read reminder about the code for wider distribution in Sweden.
[Unpublished] 1987 Jun.  p.To increase knowledge and proper use of low-dose oral contraceptives and increase availability of affordable contraception for low-income populations in the Dominican Republic, Profamilia (an IPPF affiliate) launched a communications/promotional campaign for Microgynon aimed at men and women under age 35. While strengthening Profamilia's marketing and organizational capabilities so that the program could be maintained without donor subsidies, the Profamilia name was used to communicate the idea of quality at low price. The message that Microgynon is a safe, effective, easily used, temporary method of birth control was relayed through a television commercial aired in 1986; through press releases; on display posters, stickers, matchbooks, memo pads, and bag inserts distributed to pharmacies; by educational/promotional meetings with the medical community; and by orientation sessions with pharmacy employees. Schering Dominica's sales network placed Microgynon in 83% of pharmacies in the Dominican Republic. It was priced significantly below comparable products. Of 500 randomly selected residents, 68% remembered seeing the television commercial. In interviews with 252 Microgynon purchasers, 65% said that they had started using Microgynon after the television advertising campaign. The campaign was successful in reaching the target group of women.
The role of the International Planned Parenthood Federation in setting international medical standards.
In: Recent advances in fertility control: proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Recent Advances in Fertility Control, Tokyo, November 8, 1986. Edited by Seiichi Matsumoto. Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Excerpta Medica, 1987. 83-91. (Current Clinical Practice Series No. 45.)This chapter discusses 6 key areas that illustrate how the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) addresses its role and responsibilities. These areas include: 1) IPPF's size and scope of activities, 2) the Federation's role in setting and maintaining medical standards, 3) the work of the IPPF International Medical Advisory Panel, 4) IPPF's work with international organizations, 5) how the Federation tackles double standards in the quality of medical care around the world, and 6) sharing experience in family planning expertise worldwide. Brief summaries of information presented in these areas follow. 1) The IPPF is the world's leading voluntary family planning organization. It was founded in 1952 and has member associations in 123 countries; in the 1985, the IPPF reached approximately 5 million contraceptive acceptors around the world. 2) IPPF recognizes the critical importance of establishing and implementing internationally acceptable medical standards for family planning programs around the world. In places where there is opposition to family planning, critics can often be effectively silenced when programs can be seen to adhere to acceptable standards of practice. 3) The International Medical Advisory Panel is a small group of internationally renowned experts in family planning and contraceptive technology. The panel meets regularly, reviews the latest medical literature, and advises the Federation on the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of contraceptive methods. 4) IPPF collaborates with a number of international organizations and sets standards for program activity in the areas of adolescent reproductive health and maternal and child health care. Another key area of collaboration is in seeking to ensure that family planning is incorporated into primary health care programs throughout the world. 5) IPPF is working to eradicate double standards in medical issues worldwide. Critics alleging the existence of double standards sometimes pass judgment on health standards in developing countries without realizing the impossibility of replicating the health care practices of countries with pharmacies and medical personnel available to all member of the population, at prices they can afford. 6) IPPF's history of successfully delivering family planning services has encouraged and increased the need to find ways of replicating them. An important part of IPPF's mechanism for sharing experiences and family planning expertise is through its active publications program. IPPF also has innovative projects working with young people, in encouraging male involvement in family planning, and in extending planned parenthood and women's development projects. (author's)
In: UNFPA: 1986 report, [by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1987. 6-31.The implications of population growth and prospects for the future are examined in a 1987 UNFPA report on the state of world population. Demographic patterns in developed and developing countries are compared, as well as life expectancy and mortality rates. Although most countries have passed the stage of maximum growth, Africa's growth rate continues to increase. Changes in world population size are accompanied by population distribution and agricultural productivity changes. On an individual level, the fate of Baby 5 Billion is examined based on population trajectories for a developing country (Kenya, country A), and a developed country of approximately the same size (Korea, country B). The report outlines the hazards that Baby 5 Billion would face in a developing country and explains the better opportunities available in country B. Baby 5 Billion is followed through adolescence and adulthood. Whether the attainment of 5 billion in population is a threat or a triumph is questioned. Several arguments propounding the beneficial social, economic, and environmental effects of unchecked population growth are refuted. In addition, evidence of the serious consequences of deforestation and species extinction is presented. The report concludes with an explanation of the developmental, health and economic benefits of vigorous population control policies, especially in developing countries.
EPI NEWSLETTER. 1987 Oct; 9(5):3-5.This article sets forth data on vaccination coverage rates in children under 1 year of age in the individual countries of Latin America and the Caribbean in 1986. In the Region of the Americas as a whole, the 1986 coverage rate was 80% for oral poliovaccine, 54% for DPT, 55% for measles, and 63% for BCG. Vaccination coverage rates increased over 1985 levels for all but measles, which showed a 5% decline due to decreases in Brazil and Mexico. In the Caribbean subregion, the majority of country coverage rates for DPT and oral poliovirus vaccine are equal to or above 80%, while measles coverage rates are generally below 50%. In Central America, vaccine coverage rates with all antigens except BCG showed significant increases between 1985 and 1986. In Central America, coverage ranged from above 80% for oral poliovirus vaccine and DPT in Belize, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua, to below 40% in Guatemala. In general, countries in the region are improving vaccination performance as a result of establishment of vaccination days or campaigns and acceleration of the Expanded Program on Immunization. However, much work remains to be done if the goal of 100% immunization of children and women of childbearing age by 1990 is to be met.
In: High risk mothers and newborns: detection, management and prevention, edited by Abdel R. Omran, Jean Martin and Bechir Hamza. Thun, Switzerland, Ott Verlag, 1987. 247-56.In 1974 the first international government level meeting on population was held in Bucharest. The Conference focused world-wide attention on the importance of population as a factor in socioeconomic development plans. It also achieved the production of a WORLD POPULATION PLAN OF ACTION, much to the surprise of many observers who had been concerned during the whole year about the positions on population being taken by many influential countries and some international experts. The atmosphere in Bucharest differed considerably from that surrounding the 1984 conference in Mexico City. The first meeting had been held largely at the urging of the more industrialized nations, many of them openly stating that the population growth rates of developing countries were frustrating their opportunities for flourishing economically. The Less Developed Countries (LDCs) therefore looked on the conference as an effort to divert attention from major development problems to that of population. The developmentalist camp maintained that development is the best contraceptive. The opposing camp maintained that population, as a variable in development, should be planned and managed. The Mexico International Conference on Population, 1984, was convened largely at the request of the LDCs. It was to review the progress made since 1974, to reschedule and upgrade the recommendations of the WORLD POPULATION PLAN OF ACTION. The LDC debt crisis posed a major development crisis. North-South tensions still existed, yet there was no polarization about development and population. It would appear that in most countries the political acceptance of family planning for health or human rights and welfare reasons can now be taken for granted. Whatever the rationale, the reality is that information and services are not reaching many individuals and couples in need. The issue now is how to provide services in a way that makes them accessible, affordable, and effective.
DEVELOPMENT: SEEDS OF CHANGE; VILLAGE THROUGH GLOBAL ORDER. 1987; (4):117-21.In this article the relations between government and non-government organizations (NGOs) are analyzed. In many countries, government and NGOs are 2 different worlds with little interaction between them. The differences between the 2 types of organizations could be summarized as the difference in the scale of operations, in the approach to development, different underlying philosophies, a different way of operating, different counterparts in developing countries, different projects and programs and a different way of dealing with the political context of development projects and programs. Collaboration between developed countries' governments and NGOs to stimulate development could be improved through: 1) a more systematic exchange of information between the 2 types of organizations; 2) the formulation of conditions for success in a particular country; 3) more sub-contracting of certain kinds of projects and project components to NGOs; 4) carrying out activities together; 5) improving the modalities and procedures of financial support to NGOs and in some cases its volume as well; and 6) moving from emergency to prevention. It is important to search for new fields of collaboration between government and non-government organizations. Examples are working with NGOs to formulate and implement food policies, relying on NGOs for feedback on certain policies, or in trying to achieve structural adjustment with a human face.
ASSIGNMENT CHILDREN. 1987; (3):3-84.Recent findings from xerophthalmia studies in Indonesia have served as a catalytic force within the international health and nutrition community. These analyses conclude that, in Indonesia, there is a direct and significant relationship between vitamin A deficiency and child mortality. Further research is under way to determine the degree to which these findings are replicable in other countries and contexts. At the same time, representatives from international, bilateral, national and private organizations are critically examining their programs in vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia control for future planning. At UNICEF, there has been a special concern for vitamin A issues because of the possible implications in child survival. This is noted in the 1986 State of the World's Children Report. UNICEF recruited a consultant in January 1986 to examine its existing vitamin A programs, review scientific findings and meet with specialists to prepare policy options for consideration in future UNICEF involvement in the area of vitamin A. A brief background is given on the absorption, utilization, and metabolism of vitamin A, and its role in vision, growth, reproduction, maintenance of epithelial cells, immune properties, and daily recommended allowances. Topics cover xerophthalmia studies, treatment and prevention, prevalence, morbidity and mortality, program implications and directions, and procurement of vitamin A. Target regions include Asia, the Americas and the Carribean.
[Vaccination, the right of each child, World Day of Health 1987] Vacunacion: derecho de cada nino, Dia Mundial de la Salud 1987.
BOLETIN DE LA OFICINA SANITARIA PANAMERICANA. 1987 Mar; 102(3):263-80.In the 10 years since the Panamerican Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization initiated the Extended Immunization Program in the Americas (PAI), coverage has increased from less than 1/3 to over 1/2 of children immunized in their first year against 6 major childhood diseases. Due mainly to the PAI, the incidence of measles, tetanus, and diptheria has been reduced by 1/2, that of whooping cough by 75%, and that of tuberculosis by about 5% annually. About 75% of children are immunized against polio, which has 1/10 as many victims today as 10 years ago. PAHO and several other organizations have targeted 1990 for eradication of polio from the South American continent. Since the PAI was established in 1977, more than 15,000 health workers have been trained, cold chains have been established to preserve vaccines, and more than 250 technicians have been trained to maintain and repair the needed equipment. The cost of the campaign to eradicate polio is estimated at US $ 24 million per year for the entire region--a low total compared to the costs of hospitalization and rehabilitation of the victims in the absence of such a program. The goal of immunizing all the world's children by 1990 proposed by the World Health Assembly in 1977 is achievable, but much remains to be done. The number of children immunized in the largest Third World countries ranges from 20-90% owing in part to national immunization days but also to assumption by local communities of the goal of universal immunization by 1990. All deaths produced by these 6 killer diseases are not registered, but the World Health Organization estimates that measles takes 2.1 million lives annually, neonatal tetanus 800,000, and whooping cough 600,000. Governmental and nongovernmental international organizations have made financial help available to countries needing it for their immunization programs. Most developing countries are expected to achieve the goal of universal immunization by 1990, but the 10 poorst countries of Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean may not be able to do so. At the worldwide level, 41% of the 118 million children who survive their first year have been vaccinated against measles and 46% against tuberculosis. 47% have received the full course of vaccine against diptheria, whooping cough, tetanus, and polio. The cost of these immunization is $5-15 per child and 80% is assumed by local countries. The World Health Organization recommends that all children, even the undernourished or slightly ill, be vaccinated, and that all health services vaccinate. Parents should be urged to return for the 2nd and 3rd doses of polio and DPT vaccines. Vaccination programs should pay more attention to impoverished urban populations. Several countries of the region have added innovations such as vaccination against other illnesses, house to house searches for unvaccinated children, or use of mass media to publicize national vaccination programs.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1987 Feb; 1-7.Honduras is a democratic, constitutional republic located between Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua in Central America. Although in the early history of the nation there were frequent revolutions, Honduras has been independent throughout much of its existence. Since the decade of the 1980s, there has been close cooperation with the US including bilateral economic and security assistance, and joint military exercises. The government constitution adopted in 1982 assures that there will be a powerful executive branch, a unicameral legislature, and a judiciary appointed by the National Congress. Following 18 years of military government, Honduras is now under civilian and constitutional rule. Its major serious concerns center around development in the economic and social spheres. Honduras is the least developed Central American country. In 1984, it became a Caribbean Basin Initiative beneficiary country and as a result, the research and development of nontraditional export products has grown greatly. The US has been its most important trade partner. Among others, the US and the World Bank have committed large amounts of financial resources to help Honduras. Honduras and El Salvador are attempting to come to some agreement about their mutual boundaries and Honduras is concerned about the Nicaraguan and general Central American situation. It supports the US position and policy toward Nicaragua. In response to the threats posed by some of its neighbors, Honduras has focused on developing a mobile deterrent force with strong counterterrorism capabilities. Honduras relies heavily on US material assistance and political support.
[New York, New York], United Nations, 1987.  p.This wall chart, prepared by the United Nations, presents data on current contraceptive use among currently married women of reproductive age. The chart reflects the most recent data available as of May 1987. Information about contraceptive use was obtained largely from representative national sample surveys conducted by various governmental, intergovernmental, and nongovernmental agencies. The table that forms the bulk of this chart shows the total fertility rate and data on current contraceptive use for less developed countries in Africa, Asia and Oceania, and Latin America as well as in more developed regions. Pie charts graphically depict the contraceptive mix in the world and in various regions. In the less developed world regions, the total fertility rate averaged 4.1 in 1980-85 and 45% of married women of reproductive age were using contraception. The contraceptive mix in less developed regions was as follows: female sterilization, 15%; male sterilization, 5% ; oral contraceptives, 6%; IUD, 10%, condoms, 3%; other supply methods, 1%; and non-supply methods, 5%. In the more developed regions, the total fertility rate averaged 2.0 in 1980-85 and 70% of women of reproductive age were using a method of fertility control. The contraceptive mix was: female sterilization, 7%; male sterilization, 4%; oral contraceptives, 13%; IUD, 6%; condom, 13%; other supply methods, 2%; and nonsupply methods, 25%.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. vi, 247 p. (Population Studies, No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)WORLD POPULATION POLICIES presents, in 3 volumes, current information on the population policies of the 170 members states of the UN and non-member states. This set of reports in based on the continuous monitoring of population policies by the Population Division of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs of the UN Secretariat. It replaces POPULATION POLICY BRIEFS: CURRENT SITUATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, POPULATION POLICY BRIEFS: CURRENT SITUATION IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES, and POPULATION POLICY COMPENDIUM. Except where noted, the demographic estimates and projections cited in this report are based on the 10th round of global demographic assessments undertaken by the Population Division. Country reports are grouped alphabetically; Volume I contains Afghanistan to France. Each country's entry includes demographic indicators detailing population size, a structure, and growth; mortality and morbidity; fertility, nuptiality, and family; international migration; and spatial distribution and urbanization. Current perceptions of these demographic indicators are included, along with the country's general policy framework, institutional framework, and policies and measures. A brief glossary of terms and list of countries replying to the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th inquiries are appended.
WORLD HEALTH. 1987 Oct; 26-9.In the next 13 years, health services must be created that will double present coverage. Preparations must be made for a population in which the proportion of elderly persons is increasing each year, and which is becoming increasingly urbanized, both geographically and culturally. The approval in 1986 by the Pan American Sanitary Conference--the highest policy organization of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) in the Western Hemisphere--of program priorities for the 1987-1990 quadrennium has provided the tools to confront these challenges in a systematic and pragmatic way. This political decision established the quadrennial frame of reference for the Organization's cooperation in transforming health systems, with its activities now underway in 3 related areas of priority: the development of the health infrastructure, with emphasis on primary health care; specific programs for priority health problems among the most vulnerable groups; and the information management needed to carry out these programs. By targeting these 3 areas, the member countries have given the Organization a mandate to move effectively against the potential catastrophe of 300 million people lacking health services by century's end. This is a regional approach, developed on the basis of the particular socioeconomic and health conditions of the Western Hemisphere. But it is also an approach fitting perfectly within the principles which the Member States of the WHO accepted when they approved in 1977 the universal call for Health for All by the Year 2000.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1987. 180 p.This report on the work of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in 1986 also contains a review of the state of world population in 1987. The review considers the demographic contrasts between the developed and developing worlds, the implications of rapid population growth, and rebuttals to the arguments in favor of population growth. (ANNOTATION)
Washington, D.C., Pan American Health Organization [PAHO], 1987. v, 105 p. (Official Document No. 215)During 1986, major factors in the delivery of PAHO technical cooperation have been both the ongoing economic crisis and the consequent deterioration of social conditions in many Latin American and Caribbean countries. PAHO has had to delineate its work to effectively support the countries' efforts to overcome the severe limitations imposed on them by these conditions, and so that greater gains can be made toward the goal of health for all by the year 2000. PAHO/WHO concentrated on mobilizing resources to address health priorities as determined by the member countries. This approach is critical to cooperation among the countries themselves. The XXII Pan American Sanitary Conference approved "Orientation and program priorities and PAHO during the quadrennium 1987-1990," a document setting the framework for PAHO's activities for a time that includes a new administrative period and the final period of WHO's 7th General Program of work.
International Family Planning Perspectives. 1987 Mar; 13(1):25-6.<2% of development aid for developing countries is designated for population assistance. The best information source regarding population funding is the UN Fund for Population Activities. 1981 estimates place the total figure at US $400 million annually, distributed by a combination of multilateral agencies (49%) bilateral aid from developed country donors to developing country governments (29%) and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs, 22%). 84% of the NGO funds also originated from developed country governments. Preliminary estimates for 1985 place the developed country government contribution at US $466 million. The US provided 62% of this Japan 10% and Norway 5%. 8 countries accounted for 95% of the aid. Tabulated data showing individual countries' contributions relative to their gross domestic products (GDPs) indicate a different order of contributors: Norway and Sweden far outdistance the rest (Norway's contribution relative to its GDP is 5 times greater than that of the US). The US contribution relative to its GDP has declined since 1972, with a slight upturn in 1985. According to the World Bank, funding would have to be double what it is now to meet demand; achieving a total fertility rate of 3.3 children/woman by the year 2,000 would mean an outlay of US $5.6 billion. For fertility to fall rapidly, spending would have to be US $7.6 billion.