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Idrc Reports. 1982 Jul; 11(2):15-6.In developing countries breastfeeding offers the kind of nourishment that can make a life and death difference, yet an increasing number of mothers in the 3rd world are abandoning breastfeeding for "modern" feeding with bottles and formula. Human milk is a unique food. It is rich in proteins, carbohydrates, fats, acids, hormones, minerals, and vitamins. Scientists recognize that the interactions between ingredients in human milk are as important as the nutrients themselves. The milk's immunological properties against allergies, bacterial, and viral attack also protect infants during the 1st weeks of life. Both nutritionally and immunologically milk substitutes are inferior products. Bottle feeding can produce healthy infants under the right conditions, but in the 3rd world many factors combine to turn nursing bottles and breast milk substitutes into dangerous products. For artificial feeding to be safe, the bottles must be sterilized and the water used to dilute the formulas must be clean. These conditions often cannot be met by poor families in developing countries. Due to the high cost of formulas, mothers often overdilute them. The mother's decision to breastfeed provides important psychological and emotional benefits as well as a transition for the baby on the nutritional level. Breast milk can adequately meet all the nutritional requirements of a baby to the age of 4-6 months, without any liquid or solid supplementation. Women with significant nutritional deficiencies have been shown to produce milk of almost the same quality as well nourished mothers. The World Health Organization (WHO) report also states that while breastfeeding is still prevalent in many countries, the length of time babies are completely breastfed is decreasing and varies greatly. The reasons for stopping breastfeeding are many and interdependent; reliance on substitutes is preferred. In 1981, the WHO Annual Assembly voted 118 to 1 (the U.S. being the only exception) in favor of a marketing code for breast milk substitutes that, once incorporated into national laws, would limit publicity campaigns and restrict sales tactics. The formula industry companies, Nestle's, Wyatt, Mead Johnson, and Ross Abbott, continue to make inroads into 3rd world markets wherever they can. Sales offices have been created in over 50 countries, and manufacturing plants are located in several developing countries. Countries should enact legislation to protect pregnant and lactating mothers from any influences that could disrupt breastfeeding.
[Unpublished] 1982. Presented at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, San Diego, California, April 29-May l, 1982. 35 p.The purpose of this paper was to consider the estimates and projections produced by the UN Population Division about infant mortality (IM) worldwide between 1950-2025. 46 countries were selected and estimates of IM were based on registered data on births and infant death. The data in developed countries posed few problems and thus IM estimates are considered to be accurate. In developing countries where vital registration is complete and where no independent sources of information are available to check completeness, registered data were used. Where adequate registration statistics were lacking, other sources of data had to be used to estimate IM. For other countries data relevant to IM were nonexistent. Direct and indirect methods have been used to estimate these rates. The direct method is characterized by measures of births and infant deaths during a given period of time; the primary indirect method transforms the proportions of children dead by age of mother into probabilities of dying before a given age. Projections of IM in the UN Infant Mortality Project (UNIMR) were based on the overall methods of mortality projections prepared at the UN Population Division. To prepare mortality projections, an estimate of life expectancy at birth is established for a given date and then assumptions are made concerning future trends. IM rates have declined dramatically; for the less developed regions it declined from 164 to 100/1000. The most rapid mortality decline was seen in East Asia. The Soviet Union had the most rapid decline among the developed nations. Projections presuppose that the 1980 ranking of countries will be maintained in the future; the likelihood, however, is that the regions will be markedly different by 2000. 5 examples are presented relevant to the substantive and methodological issues encountered in the UNIMR Project. These included: Sweden, Turkey, Tunisia, Bahrain, and Swaziland, Togo, and Kenya. Results clearly indicate that impressive declines have occurred since 1950 and these are likely to continue into the future. However, IM will remain high in certain less developed countries unless greater effort is expended in these areas to bring the rate down to 50/1000 by 2000. From a methodological perspective, the results of this project emphasize base data. Good data clearly result in more accurate estimates. Future research should examine these results and more attention should be paid to past declines in overall mortality. Also, analyses for some past trends in IM are necessary.
In: Ross JA, ed. International encyclopedia of population. Vol. 1. New York, Free Press, 1982. 373-4.The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), founded at an international conference in Bombay in 1952 by the family planning associations of 8 countries, is an independent world body that united national family planning associates in 100 countries. It has provided the voluntary leadership of the family planning movement for the past 30 years. It offers financial and technical assistance to family planning associates in developing countries, promotes the transfer of knowledge and experience among associations, and articulates the interests of the family planning movement at the global level. IPPF fosters the establishment of new associations and assists many small local groups to develop into national organizations. For the past few years the IPPF has operated with an annual international budget of about $50 million, most of which is distributed in grants to national family planning associations in developing countries. Associations in developed nations participate as members but depend on local support for funding. At this time IPPF is the 2nd largest nongovernmental organization in the world in terms of the global spread of its activities and the volume and scope of its operations. It is the leading nongovernmental organization involved in population and family planning efforts. IPPF is a professional organization and an international authority on the provision of family planning education and service.
In: Ross JA, ed. International encyclopedia of population. Vol. 1. New York, Free Press, 1982. 374-82.In the field of population, international assistance has a brief but spectacular history. Population activities covered by international assistance have been broadly classified by the UN organizations concerned into the following major subject areas: basic population data; population dynamics; population policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation; family planning; biomedical research; and communication and education. All of these areas involve a wide spectrum of data collection, training, research, communication, and operational activities. The UN began in the early 1950s to assist developing countries with census taking, training in demography, and studies on the relationships between population trends and social and economic factors. It also supported some action-oriented research activities. In 1958 Sweden became the 1st government to provide assistance to a developing country for family planning. The barriers that had handicapped the UN system in responding directly to the needs of developing nations for assistance in the population field, and particularly family planning, began to be lifted after the mid-1960s. Total international assistance for population activities amounted to only about $2 million in 1960 and $18 million in 1965. It increased to $125 million in 1970 and to an estimated net amount, excluding double counting, of around $450 million in 1979. The marked increase in population assistance is an indication of a growing commitment on the part of governments and international organizations to deal with the urgent population problems of the developing countries. More than 80 governments have at 1 time or another contributed to international population assistance, but the major shares come from fewer than 12 countries. The U.S., the largest contributor, spent around $182 million on population assistance in 1979, or 3.9% of its total development assistance. Sweden and Norway are the 2 largest donor governments after the U.S. By 1890, 121 developing countries, or nearly all, had received population assistance. Most of this number had received assistance from the UN Fund for Population Activities. About 47 developing countries also received assistance from bilateral donors. Almost all donors make their contributions to population assistance in grants, but a few governments also make loans available. From the limited data available, it appears that more and more developing countries are carrying increasing shares of the costs of their population programs. Most donors of population assistance continue to give high priority to support for family planning activities designed to achieve fertility reduction, health, social welfare, or other socioeconomic development objectives.
[Unpublished] 1982. Paper prepared for Conference on Vasectomy, Colombo, Sri Lanka, Oct. 4-7, 1982. 21 p.Discusses the factors responsible for the decline of male acceptance of vasectomy over the past decade. The Association for Voluntary Sterilization (AVS) is a nonprofit organization working in the United States which helps funding of similar programs in other developed and developing countries. Reasons for the decline of vasectomy acceptance include the lack of attention paid to male sterilization in countries with family planning programs, the introduction of new technology for female sterilization, the introduction of new effective methods of contraception, and the exaggerated sexual role of the male and the need to protect his virility. The author reviews successful vasectomy programs and finds that, to be successful, a program should have strong leadership, a focussed design, clinic hours that would not interfere with patients' working schedules, and should pay attention to the needs of men, e.g., emphasizing that vasectomy does not cause impotency. The program should also have a community-based orientation, since all the services are not hospital-based and can be brought to the client's home, thereby emphasizing the minor nature of the surgery. AVS believes that vasectomy as a means of family planning can be effective. It is safe, inexpensive, simple, and deliverable. A special fund was allocated in 1983 to stimulate the development of several pilot and demonstration projects in a variety of countries.
Washington, D.C., Office of Technology Assessment, 1982 Apr. 120 p. (OTA Report OTA-R-165)Global models, as tools of policy formulation, have been used to evaluate or promote alternative actions and programs that might bring about different or more favorable world futures. This report surveys the assumptions, findings, and recommendations of 5 major global modeling studies. It also considers the use of global models within the US government, such as the World Integrated Model (WIM) that is being used by the US Joint Chiefs of Staff. The report presents strategies that have been suggested for improving the quality and relevance of the Government's modeling capability. Of particular interest in this connection is the newly created White House "national indicators system." Appendixes provided detailed comparative analyses of the models' projections of population, agriculture, and energy trends. Global modeling studies have varied widely in their purposes, techniques, findings, and prescriptions. Specific quantitative results have differed, but the studies have generally identified the same problems and seem to have arrived at roughly similar qualitative conclusions about the present state of the world and its plausible futures. As a tool of analysis, global modeling is neutral, yet it can be designed or used inappropriately. Global modeling is used by a variety of organizations. Global models offer several methodological advantages over traditional techniques of long range analysis and policy development: longer time horizon; comprehensiveness; rigor and accessibility; logic; and flexiblity. Global models are subject to several limitations that can constrain their accuracy, reliability, and usefulness: methodological, theoretical; and data constraints. Frequently cited institutional barriers include: poor communication between modelers and potential model users; narrow specialization of interests and responsibilities; lack of understanding, confidence, or support for modeling among top level policymakers; and lack of interest in longterm global issues on the part of the US Federal agencies, US Congress, and the general public. Proposed initiatives for improving the government's modeling capabilities usually reflect 4 fundamental priorites: correct existing deficiencies; coordinate existing capabilities and activities; support technical improvements in the government's capability and the state of the art; and link foresight with policymaking. The 5 global modeling studies addressed in this report demonstrate at least 3 fundamentally different "predictive styles"--World 3 model and Global 2000 examine what might happen if current trends continued, while the Latin American and UN world models examine the goals that might be realized through broad changes in those trends, and the WIM examines the policies and action that might bring those changes about. The models also vary significantly in their more specific purposes, assumptions, and methodologies, but they do display a limited consensus about the nature of the world system and the identity of the problems facing it, as well as some of the steps that must be taken to address them. Discussion examines the areas of general agreement or disagreement that emerge from these 5 studies.
London, England, IPPF, July 1982. 4 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)Discusses the movement to establish groups of Parliamentarians on Population and Development throughout the world. The movement grew out of the need to create understanding among legislators and policymakers of the interrelationship between development, population, and family planning. Parliamentarian groups can help to ensure that population and family planning are included in development plans and that resources are committed to population and family planning programs. The main initiative for the establishment of Parliamentarian groups and for their regional and international cooperation came from the United Nations Fund for Population activities (UNFPA). The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has been involved from the beginning and works closely with UNFPA. The meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Development during 1981 resulted in important regional developments, with IMF affiliates playing a major role. The Washington Conference on Population and Development included Parliamentarians from the Caribbean and Latin America. Priorities for formulating population and development policies were identified. The African Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development marked the first time that a major conference on so sensitive an issue was held in Africa. The Beijung conference was attended by 19 Asian countries and resulted in a declaration calling on Parliaments, governments, UN agencies, and nongovernmental organizations to increase their commitment to all aspects of population and family planning. National developments in India and the Philippines are also discussed. Many of the countries with Parliamentary groups on Population and Development have governments that are involved in providing international population assistance. Greater commitment to population as a crucial factor in development through the establishment of links with governments and parliamentarians is an action area within the IPPF 1982-84 plan.
Report to ECOSOC on the work of the UNFPA, statement made to the Economic and Social Council at its Second Regular Session of 1982, United Nations, Geneva, 8 July 1982.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 12 p. (Speech Series No. 76)This statement reviews the state of world population for the year 1982, the UNFPA programs, and discusses preliminary activities for the International Conference on Population. Most of the countries which have experienced the largest decline in birth rate are in the Asian region. The smallest decline in birth rates is noticeable in the African continent. About 80% of the total population of the developing world lives in countries which consider their levels of fertility too high. The UNFPA has adversely been affected by the decline in the value of many currencies. Part of the reassessment of the UNFPA programs was the establishment of a system of priority countries, determined by 4 demographic and 1 economic indicators. The program priorities are family planning, population education, communication and motivation, data collection, population dynamics, and formulation, implementation and evaluation of population policy. Activities and plans for the International Conference on Population are discussed in regard to the problems, achievements and prospects in the following areas: fertility, mortality and health, population distribution and interrelationships among population.
Aging: a matter of international concern, statement made to the world Assembly on Aging, Vienna, Austria, 27 July 1982.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 9 p. (Speech Series No. 78)This statement discusses the rising proportion of the aged in the total population of both developed and developing countries, causing psychological, economic, social and spiritual needs. The aging of the population is the consequent phenomenon of the demographic transition, that is the reduction of fertility and prolongation of life expectancy. People aged 60 or over constitute 15% of the population of developed nations in 1975. It is expected that by the year 2000, they will constitute 18% of the population. This transition called for programs for the welfare, health and protection of the aged. One of the most important issues facing both developed and developing countries is to insure that, in the process of industrialization, urbanization and social change, the valuable aspects of village and extended family life are not lost. UNFPA's agenda for the aging include data collection, research, support communication, collaboration with concerned institutions, and policy consultations.
Population problems and international cooperation, statement made at a meeting of the Scientific Council of the Moscow State University, Moscow, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 29 September 1982.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 19 p. (Speech Series No. 80)This statement discusses certain population problems within a framework of international cooperation. Specifically, linkages between population and development, basic data collection, population and development research, policy formulation, family planning, communication and education, training, population migration, urbanization, aging of the population, and integration of population with development planning, are all issues examined. Solving the problems generated by population growth of developing countries are social and economic development, accumulation of resources and economic growth. All countries need data on population structure and its changes in order to plan effectively. There is a continuous need to learn more about the dynamics of population change, especially for demographers in developing countries. Data gathering, processing, analysis and research are crucial components in the formulation of policies. UNFPA devotes a great amount of its resources to family planning, education and training programs within countries. The inability to find employment opportunities has led to considerable internal and international migration, increasing and promoting urbanization and overcrowded cities. Aging of the population is becoming an important issue for developed countries and will necessitate further policy formulation. Population planning needs to become a more effective arm of overall development planning.
[Unpublished] . Presented at the Western Hemisphere Conference of Parliamentarians, 4 December 1982, Brasilia. 11 p.In this address to Western hemisphere parlimentarians, the Executive Director of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) urged conference participants from Latin American countries to serve as advocates for the children in their countries by 1) promoting national policies to reduce infant and child mortality through the implementation of oral rehydration therapy and nutrition surveillance programs; 2) encouraging their respective countries to implement and maintain the International Code on Marketing of Breastmilk Substitues; and 3) lending their support to UNICEF's newly proposed programs to help abandoned children. UNICEF's mission is to help the millions of children trapped by proverty. In line with this goal, UNICEF urges the Latin American countries to focus attention on 1) the 20 million Latin American children, aged 0-4 years, living in poverty and at high risk of death, malnutrition, and serious mental and physical disability; and 2) on the 30 million Latin American street children who have either no ties or only weak family ties. In reference to the 1st group of children, UNICEF urges countries which have not already done so to implement low cost oral rehydration therapy and nutritional surveillance programs and to adopt policies which will reverse the trend toward bottlefeeding. These activities cost little and involve little or no political risk, however, they can siginificantly reduce infant and child death rates. Reductions in the death rate will not, as some fear, increases the population growth problem; indeed, the opposite is true. Historically it has been demonstrated that in countries with an overall death rate of 14-15/1000 population, for each subsequent decline in the death rate there is a larger decline in the birth rate. For example, in Brazil between 1960-80 a 5 point decline in the death rate was accompanied by a 13 point decline in the birthrate. In reference to the 30 million street children, UNICEF is currently developing special programs aimed at providing care and training for these children. Institutionalizing street children is costly and does not provide the home-like environment these children require. Innovative programs, such as group homes, children's cooperative villages, and other community based approaches are less costly and provide the type of support these children need to become productive and adjusted members of society. UNICEF is undertaking a cost benefit analysis of these alternative strategies. UNICEF expects to present a proposal at the 1983 session of the Executive Board to develop a major regional program in Latin America to assist street children and to prevent child abandonment. The program will require siginificant financial support and government support if it is to achieve its goals.
Lexington, Massachusetts, Women's International Network News, 1982 Nov. 338 p.This report documents the existence and prevalence in Africa and in other regions of the world of the cultural practice of female circumcision and genital mutilation (FC/GM). This serious problem is examined so that it can be abolished. Until recently the problem was hidden from the public, and most health, government and international agency officials denied that the practices were widespread. In 1979 at a World Health Organization (WHO) seminar on traditional health practices, the problem received international attention. Recommendations made by the seminar participants urged nations to adopt policies to abolish FC/GM, to establish commissions to coordinate activities aimed at abolishing the practices, and to intensify efforts to educate the public and health professionals about the problem. In 1984 it was estimated that 79.97 million women in Africa had FC/GM operations performed at some time during their life. The proportion of women who have had FC/GM operations was almost 100% in Somalia, 90% in Ethiopia, 80% in Sudan, Mali, and Sierra Leone, and 60% in Kenya, Ivory Coast, and Gambia. Information is provided on 1) the extent of the practices, 2) the health problems associated with FC/GM, 3) the 1979 WHO seminar, 4) the history of FC/GM, and 5) the cultural beliefs supporting the practices. Case histories provide detailed information on the practices in 11 African countries, 4 countries on the Arab Pennisula, and 2 Asian countries, including Sudan, Somalia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Mali, Upper Volta, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Indonesia, and Malaysia. The existence of FC/GM practices in many other countries, including Western nations, is also documented. These practices are also discussed in reference to the depressed status of women in many African countries, and the role of women in these countries is examined in regard to legal matters, education, employment, agriculture, family planning, development, and urbanization. Political factors hindering the abolition of the practices and the hesitancy of international agencies such as WHO, US Agency for International Development, and the UN Children's Fund, to deal with the problem are discussed. There is some evidence that FC/GM operations are being conducted in hospitals in a number of African countries, and efforts must be made to prohibit the introduction of these practices into the modern health care system. Suggestions are provided for action and education programs aimed at abolishing FC/GM practices. An annotated bibliograpy, containing 78 references, is also provided.
In: Current problems in obstetrics and gynecology, Vol. 5, No. 6, edited by John M. Leventhal. Chicago, Illinois, Year Book Medical Publishers, 1982. 4-41.This article addresses the medical aspects of population growth, with specific focus on a demographic overview, population policies, family planning programs, and population issues in the US. The dimensions of the population problem and their implications for social and economic development are reviewed. The world's response to these issues is discussed, followed by an assessment of what has been accomplished, particularly as it relates to the record of national family planning programs in developing countries. The impact of population growth on such issues as education, available farm land, deforestation, and urban growth are discussed. Urban populations are growing at an unprecedented rate, posing urgent problems for action. From a public health perspective, data are reviewed which demonstrate that having children at short intervals (2 years) or at unfavorable maternal ages (18 or 35) and/or parity (4) has a negative impact on maternal, infant and childhood morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Increasing the age of marriage, delaying the 1st birth, changing and improving the status of women, increasing educational levels and improving living conditions in general also are important in reducing population growth. Probably the most important, but most controversial intervention, has been the development of national family planning programs aimed at increasing the public's access to modern contraceptive and sterilization methods. India was the 1st country to declare a formal population policy (in the 1950s) with the goal of reducing population growth. Currently, close to 35 countries have formal policies. The planned parenthood movement, with central support from the London office of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), has played a most important role in making family planning services available. 2 population issues in the US today are reviewed briefly in the final section: teenage pregnancy and the changing age structure.
Ottawa, Canada, IDRC, 1982. 384 p.The 1115 projects listed in this publication represent 10 years of research activity supported by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), from the 1st year of operation in 1971 to March 1981. In another sense they represent an account of the growing human resources competent to contribute to science and technology in developing countries--an illustration of how technology and skills are acquired in the process of securing a measure of well-being for the world's poor. The subject/area index lists projects according to their specific subjects or field of research and according to country of geographic region. Projects have been indexed using the IDRC Library Thesaurus, which is based on an internationally accepted controlled vocabulary of descriptors used to index and retrieve information about development. A brief project rationale and statement of research objectives is given for each project. The expected duration of the research is given in months, followed by a notation of "active" or "completed". A project is deemed to be completed when the initiating program division is satisfied that the work undertaken during the course of the project is finished. The project recipient organization and location is included, as well as a grant figure representing the IDRC contribution to the research. Program areas within IDRC include agriculture; food and nutrition sciences; cooperative programs; information sciences; social sciences; communications; projects of the Office of the Secretary; Special Governing Board Activities; and those of the Office of the President. Precedence for projects is given to requests from developing countries.