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Honolulu, Hawaii, East-West Center, East-West Communication Institute, 1977 Apr. ix, 88 p. (A Synthesis of Population Communication Experience Paper 9)Reviewing technical and economic assistance in the field of population and family planning communication, this document traces the development of population-related assistance programs and describes the kinds of assistance available from the major donor agencies and technical assistance institutions for population and family planning communication. It discusses problems and issues of technical and economic assustance such as the impact of external funding on national goals and policies; the relationships between outside experts and national personnel; the cultural variations that support or hinder programs of technical assistance; and coordination among donors, action agencies, and national governments. This review establishes that a population communication program is only 1 factor in the changing of attitudes about family size and motivating people to practice contraception, thus bringing about a reduction in fertility. Economic, technical, and social development alone can bring about these changes. In most cases, it is general, technical, and economic assistance that really helps in the development process. Specific technical and economic assistance to population programs can help to bring about the practice of contraception and thus, reduced fertility. That part of population assistance used for communication programs can help change attitudes and increase motivation to bring about these ends. Another element that emerges from this review is that the development process and population control would take place more easily if equal resources had been available internally rather than through the complicating mechanism of external assistance. Yet, less developed countries, with the possible exception of China, have been unable to carry out either of these processes without outside assistance. The role of motivational programs remains clear. Without adequate information and education about the problems created by large families and a growing population, there is no evidence that the traditional family in LDCs will choose to have fewer children. The role of national governments in these countries is also clear. They need to develop successful population programs with clear communication programs and good delivery systems as part of their total development program. Developed nations must be prepared to assist in the manner and according to the timetable of the LDCs. Technical and economic assistance to LDCs must be geared to their population programs and their messages using the best techniques and most fluid funding processes available.
Population and the new international economic order, a statement made at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 12 January 1977.
New York, N,Y. UNFPA, . 13 p.A serious attack on the problem of rapid population growth is clearly a priority with most governments of the developing world. Since 1974, there has been little substantive discussion of population as part of the New International Economic Order debates. Most governments have accepted the view that in their own nations there is a negative correlation between population growth and development; and that a long-term strategy of reducing the birth rate is not only prudent but a necessary part of economic and social programs. There is a consensus on population among developing nations. There is international consensus, but few internationally accepted quantitative goals. It is difficult to imagine a New International Order such as the 3rd world countries seek without some recognition of the importance of population issues. Agreement may be achieved, because many of the staunchest supporters of the New International Economic Order are now also the most effective practitioners of a policy of limiting population growth. Many countries are contemplating stronger measures to slow population growth. Acceptance of sterilization has increased recently. The effect of increasing emphasis among developing countries on population programs can be seen in increasing demand for the UNFPA's services. One general principle guiding the allocation of the Fund's resources is to aid countries with particularly urgent population problems. The problem now facing 3rd world countries is how to convey these population problems to the people who will make the ultimate decisions on population. There is a new spirit abroad--"meeting basic needs." This is part of what the New International Economic Order is all about--an internal restructuring and redistribution within developing countries, a direct attack on poverty and its causes.
GUARDIAN (MANCHESTER, ENGLAND). 1977 Jul 6; 1,6.The injectable contraceptive Depo Provera, banned in the U.S. and other Western countries because of associated cancer risks, is currently being distributed by Western governments in the Third World countries. There are now more than 500,000 women in Asia and Africa who are currently using the contraceptive containing MPA (medroxyprogesterone acetate), which in U.S. Food and Drug Administration trials produced cancers in beagle bitches. The U.S. and Swedish governments, through WHO, IPPF (International Planned Parenthood Federation) and other bodies, are financing the distribution of the contraceptive in Asia. 2 issues are raised by this distribution activity: 1) the ethical issue of using drugs banned in the West on illiterate women in the Third World; and 2) the use of contraceptives on a huge scale, despite FDA warnings and bans in Western countries. Asian doctors have long pointed out that Western companies whose products have been banned in their own countries have been dumping substandard equipment and medicines into the Asian market. Depo Provera, injected every 3 months, is widely used in Southeast Asia, particularly in Thailand. The London-based IPPF is the world's largest distributor of the contraceptive. The Family Planning Association in Britain has applied for the lifting of restrictions in Britain, but the Committee on Safety of Medicines has approved its short-term use only for women whose husbands have had a vasectomy and for women being immunized against German measles. Dr. Malcolm Potts, medical advisor to IPPF, and other research clinics in Britain and in the U.S. questioned the association between beagle trials and women taking far lower doses. Thai women who had been treated with Depo over many years have not shown any increase in cancerous symptoms. However, the real issue behind the controversy is the distribution of Western medicines and drugs in Third World countries. As Dr. Zafrullah Choudhury, founder of the "barefoot doctor" scheme in Bangladesh said, "Western doctors feel they can do experiments on Asian women because they are poor and illiterate. They do not regard them as people. They...see family planning in terms of numbers....in terms of population control rather than people."