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Population Research and Policy Review. 2004 Feb; 23(1):25-54.Using population assistance data, this study divides donor trends for population assistance into five distinct epochs: until the mid-1960s, the population hysteria of the 1960s and 1970s, Bucharest Conference and beyond, the 1984 Mexico City conference, and the 1990s. A number of decisive events, as well as changing views of the population problem, characterise each period and have affected the sums of population assistance from donor nations. Taking a long-term view of global population assistance, the research shows that four factors account for most of the historical funding trends from primary donors: the association between population assistance and foreign aid, the role of alarmists and doomsayers in the public debate over population issues, individuals in a position of power within donor governments, and decennial international population conferences. (author's)
St. John's, Antigua, CFPA, 1987. 39 p.In the 1920s 1/3 of the children in the Caribbean area died before age 5, and life expectancy was 35 years; today life expectancy is 70 years. In the early 1960s only 50,000 women used birth control; in the mid-1980s 500,000 do, but this is still only 1/2 of all reproductive age women. During 1987 the governments of St. Lucia, Dominica and Grenada adopted formal population policies; and the Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation (CFPA) called for the introduction of sex education in all Caribbean schools for the specific purpose of reducing the high teenage pregnancy rate of 120/1000. CFPA received funds from the US Agency for International Development and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to assist in its annual multimedia IEC campaigns directed particularly at teenagers and young adults. CFPA worked with other nongovernmental organizations to conduct seminars on population and development and family life education in schools. In 1986-87 CFPA held a short story contest to heighten teenage awareness of family planning. The CFPA and its member countries observed the 3rd Annual Family Planning Day on November 21, 1987; and Stichting Lobi, the Family Planning Association of Suriname celebrated its 20th anniversary on February 29, 1988. CFPA affiliate countries made strides in 1987 in areas of sex education, including AIDS education, teenage pregnancy prevention, and outreach programs. The CFPA Annual Report concludes with financial statements, a list of member associations, and the names of CFPA officers.
Status of family planning activities and involvement of international agencies in the Caribbean region [chart].
[Unpublished] 1970. 1 p.Add to my documents.
[Unpublished] 1981 Aug 28. 222 p. (AID/LAC/P-085)The background, goals, projected activities and beneficiaries, financial requirements, and implementation plans for a Family Planning Outreach Project in Haiti are detailed. The project is intended to assist the Government of Haiti to establish a cost-effective national family planning program. Population growth continues to accelerate in Haiti, despite high infant and child mortality, significant emigration, and declining fertility. The government does not have an articulated population policy. Although family planning and maternal and child health services have been in existence since 1971, there is no effective access to these services. This project is viewed as a means of achieving a substantial and sustained reduction in family size and improving health status. It is also a means of strengthening the Haitian family so it can participate more directly in the national development process. The purpose of the project will be accomplished through the following activities: 1) improvement of the organization and management of the national family planning program; 2) improvement of the quality and quantity of maternal and child health and family planning services; 3) expansion of the participation of private and voluntary organizations, other governmental, and local community groups in service provision; 4) increase in the availability of contraceptives at reasonable prices through rural and urban commercial channels; and 5) formulation of appropriate population and family planning policies. By the end of the project, all government health facilities and 75% of private facilities will actively counsel and provide family planning services; integrated models of community health and family planning services will have been developed to serve 60% of the population; basic drugs and contraceptives will be available at reasonable subsidized prices throughout the country; and 25% of women ages 15-45 at risk of pregnancy will be continuing users of effective contraceptive methods. The project will be implemented by the existing infrastructure of private and public organizations, primarily by the Department of Public Health and Population and its Division of Family Hygiene. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing US$9.615 million (54%) toward the estimated US$17.980 million cost of the 5-year project. An additional US$6.555 million (36%) will be provided by the Government of Haiti.
[Latin America. Regional Seminar on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys. Proceedings. November 8-13, 1981] America Latina. Seminario Regional sobre las Encuestas de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticonceptivos. Actas. Noviembre 8-13 de 1981.
Columbia, Maryland, Westinghouse Health Systems, 1981. 65 p. (Las Encuestas de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticonceptivos II)This report of the proceedings of the Regional Seminar on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys (CPSs) in Latin America, held in Lima, Peru, in November 1981, includes the schedule of events; list of participants; opening discourses and presentations by the sponsors, Westinghouse Health Systems and the US Agency for International Development; country reports for Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico; and brief summaries of the work sessions on data evaluation, cooperation between the technical survey staff and the program administrators who will use the findings, survey planning, questionnaire design, fieldwork, the phases of CPS work, data processing, sampling, use of CPS data, graphic presentation of findings, and determination of unsatisfied demand for family planning services. Representatives of 17 countries and 8 international organizations attended the conference, whose main objectives were to introduce the CPS program to participants unfamiliar with it, contribute to improvement of future surveys by sharing experiences and introducing new techniques of investigation, discuss the application of CPS findings, and encourage dialogue between the technical personnel involved in conducting the surveys and the administrators of programs utilizing the results. The introduction to the CPS program by Westinghouse Health Systems covered the goals and objectives of the program, its organization and implementation, dissemination of results, basic characteristics of the survey, the status of CPS surveys in Latin America and a list of countries participating in the program, and a brief overview of contraceptive use by married women aged 15-44 by method in countries for which results were available. The country reports detailed experiences in survey design, fieldwork methodology, organization and administration of the surveys, and other aspects, as well as highlighting some of the principal findings.
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL WEEKLY. 1994 Aug 20; 29(34):2,201-4.The aim of US-promoted population policies is maintaining and securing the economic and political dominance of capitalist states. Governments of developed countries blame overpopulation in developing countries for destroying the planet and those of developing countries blame overconsumption, waste, and industrial pollution in the capitalist countries to be responsible. Developed countries and the UN profess that population control is in the interests of development and for the sake of women's rights. Many women's groups protest planned and already existing population policies and bear witness to the suffering women from developing countries experience, raising the question of choice of these policies. Sexism served as the smokescreen behind which US strategies of population control were implemented. The concept of sustainable development is also used to advance population policies in developing countries. Developed countries use this concept to maintain the status quo, agricultural countries as such, cash crop economies, dependency on food, foreign aid, and loans and to continue their exploitation in developing countries. USAID, UNFPA, and the World Bank are the major moneylenders for population control. The US targets Africa for population control because it produces 90-100% of four minerals vital to US industry. The new phase of capitalist development has shifted the state's role from its function as a nation state to facilitator of global capital. Population control policy, national security laws, and anti-trade union laws are used to create a docile and immobile pool of labor. The World Bank, the IMF, and the WTO, through their structural adjustment policies, provide the infrastructure to implement population policies and targets. Population policies focusing on targets take control away from women. People in developing countries will not accept these population policies until they have control of their lives. They need assurance of child survival and to be in a position to plan their future. The population control lobby now uses deception to thwart resistance.
In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 229-36.A senior associate with the World Resources Institute believes that it is more worthwhile to strengthen the UN Environment Program than to create a new international environmental organization. Another possibility would be to convert the UN Trusteeship Council's purpose from administering UN territories to dealing with environmental issues. The Council has an equal number of developing countries and developed countries and no country has veto power. She also favors ad hoc groups dealing with very specific issues, e.g., International Panel on Climate Change. We need an international debt management authority which purchases outstanding debt at real market prices to finance policies and programs that alleviate poverty and protect the environmental issues should lie with 1 organization. She dismisses suggestions that the Group of Seven industrialized nations serve as a group to propose international initiatives because developing countries would not accept the G-7 process plus the G-7 countries do not even agree on environmental issues. Citizens push US politicians to address environmental issues rather than the politicians leading on environmental issues. Some members of the US Congress have taken the initiative, however, including Senators Gore and Mikulski from Tennessee and Maryland, respectively. The President must have a vision for a transition to sustainable development, which he does not. In the 1973-74 oil crisis, industry took it upon itself to become more energy efficient and still had real growth in the gross national product, illustrating that the costs required to become more sustainable are not as great as many people claim. Sustainable agriculture would reduce the demand for fossil fuels, on which fertilizers and pesticides are based. It would require making institutional changes. USAID should change dramatically the system it uses to distribute foreign aid money and to dedicate considerably more money to the environment and development.
ANNALS OF MEDICINE. 1993 Feb; 25(1):57-60.A key element of international support for family planning programs in developing countries is research in the development, evaluation, and introduction of family planning methods and services. These countries have the capacity to do high quality contraceptive research (from early preclinical research to phase III clinical trials). 3 international organizations are leaders in collaborating with researchers in developing countries to develop and support a network of clinical research centers in family planning. USAID assists 2 of these organizations because of its interest in family planning research: The Population Council and Family Health International. The Population Council's chief goal is the development and introduction of new contraceptive modalities. The Council developed Norplant, the sole new contraceptive approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in recent years. The International Committee for Contraceptive Research (ICCR) implements most of the Council's development program. ICCR consists of a group of research clinics and laboratories in Chile, the Dominican Republic, Finland, France, India, and the US. It is responsible for the development of 3 Copper-T IUDs and a levonorgestrel-releasing IUD. Family Health International conducts evaluation of family planning programs, epidemiological research in reproductive health, and clinical trials. WHO's Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction is the other major player in family planning research in developing countries, specifically, assessment of contraceptive safety and efficacy, development of new contraceptives, and infertility. WHO and the Rockefeller Foundation have established a South to South collaboration in research to promote cooperation between developing countries. National and international agencies need to further develop and maintain these various international efforts.
[Unpublished] 1991.  p.Jose G. Rimon, II, Project Director for the Johns Hopkins University Population Communication Services (JHU/PCS) Center for Communication Programs, visited Finland to attend a NORPLANT planning meeting. Meeting discussion focused upon issues involved in expanding NORPLANT programs from pre-introductory trials to broader national programs. Financing and maintaining quality of care were issues of central importance for the meeting. Participants included representative from NORPLANT development organizations, the U.S. Agency for International Development, the World Bank, and other donor agencies. Mr. Rimon was specifically invited to make a presentation on the role of information, education, and communication (IEC) on NORPLANT with a focus upon future IEC activities. The presentation included discussion of the need to develop a strategic position for NORPLANT among potential customers and within the service provide community, the feasibility of global strategies positioning in the context of country-specific variations, the need to identify market niches, the need for managing the image of NORPLANT, and the need to study IEC implications in terms of supply-side IEC, content/style harmonization, materials volume, and language and quality control. Participants collectively agreed to develop an informal group to address these issues, concentrating upon universal issues potentially addressed on a global scale. A meeting on strategic positioning is scheduled for August 19-20, 1991.
[Unpublished] 1986 Aug. 71,  p. (AID Contract No. DPE-3024-C-00-4063-00)The evaluation of the Resources for Awareness of Population in Development (RAPID II) Project was initiated on June 18, 1985, 25 months into the project operation, to determine if the results of actions undertaken thus far have been adequate to justify the time and money spent on them and to find ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the program efforts. The objective of the 5-year RAPIDS II project is to assist those involved in development planning to better understand the relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development and thereby increase the less developed country (LDC) commitment to efforts designed to reduce rapid rates of population increase. This evaluation report discusses the development assistance context and then focuses on the following: RAPID II operations over the 1984-85 period; policy analyses and LDC subcontracting; the RAPID model and its presentation; visits by the evaluation team to the countries of the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Cameroon, and Liberia; what works in terms of population policy development; some major problems and potential resolutions; and RAPID II activities over the 1985-88 period. US Agency for International Development (USAID) officials in Washington as well as in the field described RAPID II as being of continuing utility in helping to create a climate favorable to more effective population policies. The review of RAPID II activities was generally positive. The project was identified as useful in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Due to the evidence of satisfactory performance in the field, the evaluation focused on differences between plan and midterm results with a view toward suggesting course corrections that can improve project performance. As population policy development is an inherently ambiguous field of activity, it has not been possible to draw clear lines between specific policy development activities and policy change in particular countries. Yet, there has been an improvement in the environment for population programs in LDCs. There were significant differences between planned and actual expenditures under the several subcategories of project expenditure. RAPID II total expenditures in the first 2 years of the project equalled budgeted expenditures when the contract was signed, but the distribution of expenditures by category was substantially different from what had been anticipated. It is recommended that emphasis in the project must shift predominantly to policy analyses (80% of remaining funds) and that that RAPID-style presentation resources (20%) be used carefully for only the highest priority requests. In regard to development of LDC subcontracts for policy analysis, efficiency has been low.
New York, New York, Population Council, Center for Poplicy Studies, 1985 Aug. 42 p. (Center for Policy Studies Working Papers No. 113)This analysis of family planning program funding suggests that current funding levels may be inadequate to meet projected contraceptive and demographic goals. Expenditures on organized family planning in less developed countries (excluding China) totaled about US$1 billion in 1982--about $2/year/married woman of reproductive age. Cross-sectional analysis indicates that foreign support as a proportion of total expenditures decreases with program duration. Donor support to family planning in less developed countries has generally declined from levels in the late 1970s. This is attributable both to positive factors such as program success and increased domestic government support as well as requirements for better management of funds and the worldwide economic recession. Foreign assistance seems to have a catalytic effect on contraceptive use only when the absorptive capacity of family planning programs--their ability to make productive use of resources--is favorable. The lower the stage of economic development, the less visible is the impact of contraceptive use or fertility per investment dollar. On the other hand, resources that do not immediately yield returns in contraceptive use may be laying the foundation for later gains, making increased funding of family planning programs an economically justifiable investment. The World Bank has estimated that an additional US$1 billion in public spending would be required to fulfill the unmet need for contraception. To increase the contraceptive prevalence rate in developing countries to 58% (to achieve a total fertility rate of 3.3 children) in the year 2000 would require a public expenditure on population programs of US$5.6 billion, or an increase in real terms of 5%/year. Improved donor-host relations and coordination are important requirements for enhancing absorptive capacity and program performance. A growing willingness on the part of donors to allow countries to specify and run population projects has been noted.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, . xi, 428 p. (Population Programmes and Projects, v. 1.)The fourth edition of the guide to international population assistance lists multilateral, regional, bilateral, nongovernmental, university, research, and training agencies and organizations that offer financial or technical assistance to population programs in developing countries. The guide is organized by type of agency. Each agency listing includes a description of the mandate of the agency, its population activities, fields of special interest, program areas in which assistance is offered, types of support provided, restrictions, channels and procedures, how to apply for assistances, how programs are evaluated, reports required, and the agency's address. Appendices include a bibliography of current newsletters and journals and index.
New York, New York, FPIA, 1984 Mar. , 113 p.Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) initiated strategic planning in 1983, including mission statement, objectives, means, and tactics commonly used to reach the objectives and considerations for strategy development. This document contains background information, FPIA's rationale for developing a 3-year strategic plan, the plan's method, a strategic plan summary, and country plans for countries in the Caribbean, Central America, South America, Asia, and Africa. FPIA's rationale for developing a 3-year strategic plan is as follows: to address AID/W's ongoing need for a clear rationale for continued funding in a time of limited resources; to increase FPIA's capability to make decisions systematically; to organize efforts to carry out decisions and to measure decisions through systematic feedback; to increase FPIA's capability to monitor progress in reaching objectives; to increase FPIA's control over its environment; to continue to address 1981 evaluation findings; and to decrease time involved in plan preparation by planning over a longer time period. FPIA's tactic statements describe the basic approaches to be used in carrying out a predetermined strategy by: extending existing family planning services of government and nongovernment institutions to new geographic areas or to new populations; initiating family planning service in institutions not currently involved in service provision; providing parallel or complementary services; transferring management technology; training staff; working with resistant populations, adolescents, utilizing local resources; and supplying family planning commodities to projects and nonproject institutions. Once objectives were set, the regions were ready to write a strategy for each country. To facilitate writing the strategies, each region received the following series of strategic considerations: state of development of the family planning program in each country; government plans, AID, and USAID mission strategies; type of program FPIA, AID/W, and USAID currently is funding; and rationale for continued private voluntary organization/FPIA support to the country. The strategic plan summary (1984-86) includes FPIA's goals, policy, and philosophy and FPIA's mission, goals, and objectives.
International Journal of Health Services. 1985; 15(2):275-99.Until the mid 1960s, Latin American health system reflected the skewed distribution of wealth in the region: most health resources were found in curative care medicine and were concentrated in the capital cities, where they primarily served the needs of the elite. For many countries, however, the 1964 Pan American Health Organization's (PAHO) efforts to introduce health planning, intended as a 1st step in rationalizing the health sector, marked a fundamental turning point in the structural development of their delivery systems. Guatemala, however, was and remains an exception. Its technocrats have proven unable to plan effectively; no single entity is responsible for health sector planning, and the 5-year plans have come to consist of disjointed mini-plans, each reflecting the aims, desires and goals of a particular vested interest group or institution. The Guatemalan oligarchy has proven unwilling to appropriate the resources necessary to effect change. The reforms that have been made have been the products of bilateral and multilateral agencies such as the InterAmerican Development Bank, USAID, UNICEF, Kreditanstaldt and PAHO, which have conceptualized, promoted, designed, built and underwritten them. Those changes have not altered the fundamental structure of the system, but instead have been tacked onto it, and exemplify what may be termed additive reform. The government of Guatemala's own commitment to these outside agency funded projects is reflected in the recurrent shortfall of current or operating funds, and in the rapid depreciation of facilities. Evidence suggests that without the continued sponsorship, support, and guidance of the bilateral and multilateral agencies, even these additive reforms will not last.
Report on developments and activities related to population information during the decade since the convening of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974.
New York, United Nations, 1984 Jun. vi, 52 p. (POPIN Bulletin No. 5 ISEA/POPIN/5)A summary of developments in the population information field during the decade 1974-84 is presented. Progress has been made in improving population services that are available to world users. "Population Index" and direct access to computerized on-line services and POPLINE printouts are available in the US and 13 other countries through a cooperating network of institutions. POPLINE services are also available free of charge to requestors from developing countries. Regional Bibliographic efforts are DOCPAL for Latin America. PIDSA for Africa, ADOPT and EBIS/PROFILE. Much of the funding and support for population information activities comes from 4 major sources: 1) UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA): 2) US Agency for International Development (USAID); 3) International Development Research Centre (IRDC): and 4) the Government of Australia. There are important philosophical distinctions in the support provided by these sources. Duplication of effort is to be avoided. Many agencies need to develop an institutional memory. They are creating computerized data bases on funded projects. The creation of these data bases is a major priority for regional population information services that serve developing countries. Costs of developing these information services are prohibitive; however, it is important to see them in their proper perspective. Many governments are reluctant to commit funds for these activites. Common standards should be adopted for population information. Knowledge and use of available services should be increased. The importance os back-up services is apparent. Hard-copy reproductions of items in data bases should be included. This report is primarily descriptive rather than evaluative. However, given the increase in population distribution and changes in government attitudes over the importance of population matters, the main tasks for the next decade should be to build on these foundations; to insure effective and efficient use of services; to share experience and knowledge through POPIN and other networks; and to demonstrate to governments the valuable role of information programs in developing national population programs.
CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR. 1984 Jan 13; 78(34):8, 23.The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has played a key role in El Salvador's family planning program and has identified population control as among its main objectives in the country. In addition to helping to start the Salvadorean Health Ministry's Family Planning Coordination Office, USAID has provided over $4 million to the Salvadorean Demographic Association (ADS). These organizations distribute contraceptives nationwide and perform surgical sterilizations on women. USAID estimates that 25% of women of childbearing age in El Salvador are now using some form of contraception. However, the program has been criticized by many local physicians and health workers. It is argued that the US has ignored the really pressing health needs of the Salvadorean people and is attempting to limit the number of poor people. The most controversial aspect of the population program concerns the surgical sterilizations performed on 21,000 women each year. Relief workers have charged that food has been offered to women in displaced persons camps if they agree to be sterilized, and that some procedures are performed against the will of patients. ADS teams make home visits to explain the advantages of sterilization, and each field nurse is expected to sign up an average of 1 woman/day for the procedure. USAID officials have indicated they will conduct an investigation into the alleged abuses of sterilization. The agency has also initiated a US$25 million program in El Salvador intended to reduce shortages of pharmaceutical supplies and replace some medical equipment.
Grass roots, herbs, promoters and preventions: a reevaluation of contemporary international health care planning. The Bolivian case.
Social Science and Medicine. 1983; 17(17):1281-9.In evaluating a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) project in Bolivia, the author argues that the program unwittingly contributed to the situation that created Bolivia's political problems. A 5-year pilot project which covered 39 villages and colonies in the Montero district in the state of Santa Cruz began in 1975 and was completed in 1980. In 1980 the project was "deobligated" when all but essential economic aid to Bolivia was halted following a political coup. The pilot project was based on 1) community participation through health care; 2) a referral system from health post of the promotor to the center with an auxiliary nurse midwife, to secondary and tertiary care in hospitals by physicians; 3) an emphasis on preventive medicine; and 4) the use of traditional medicine along with other therapy by the promotor. Although these concepts sound appropriate, they are in fact derived from contemporary thought in advanced industrial societies. The assumptions about social reality that are inherent in these plans actually misconstrue Bolivian society. The unintended consequences of the project actually diminish rural health care. A difference between the Western health planner's conception and the Bolivian conception--of community, of effective referral systems, of preventive and indigenous medicines--can have the effect of producing a health care program that has little resemblance to what was originally intended. The Bolivian elite actually manipulated the USAID health care programs through hegemony in the villages. The Jeffersonian concept of community is not applicable in Bolivia where resources are only exchanged through personal contacts. In villages of multiple class or ethnic groups or both or in villages with close ties or histories of ties with larger, more cosmopolitan groups, multiple different interests exist. These work against each other to prevent the very cooperation envisioned by the health care programs. The author suggests that developed countries should consider native ideologies, native social relations, and indigenous medicine more sensitively in design.
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau, 1976 Apr. 271 p.An overview of major population developments between 1965-1975 occurring worldwide, regionally and within countries is presented. The world population situation is discussed with reference to declining birthrates, but increasing population size which fostered the historic spread of population action during the decade, particularly multilateral and bilateral support for population programs of developing countries. The 1974 World Population Conference in Bucarest highlighted the controversy surrounding the causes and solutions of population related problems. The relationship between population and development, specifically the choice between implementing socioeconomic development programs or population/family planning programs formed the basis of the controversy. The population related problems and actions discussed include: health care system, family planning and service delivery, food, urbanization, and international migration. The interrelationships between women's rights, women's status, and fertility and the significance of induced abortion are also discussed. The specific population situation of 143 countries within 8 world regions are reviewed. The discussion highlights population policies, family planning services, and the projects supported by external aid. The activities of the UN system of agencies assisting countries with population programs are described. USAID has been the foremost supporter of global action and supports the following types of activities: demographic data collection and analysis, population policy development, biomedical and operational research, development and strengthening of family planning services, communication, and manpower, and institutional development. The activities of 43 private organizations are also reviewed. The 1965 and 1975 estimates of basic demographic data, i.e., birthrate, death rate, rate of natural increase, time to double population, and per capita gross national product, for each region and country conclude the report.
[Unpublished] 1983. Presented to the Atlantik-Brucke and the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Auswartige Politik, Bonn, Germany, Federal Republic of, April 18, 1983. 13 p.The author discusses how and why the international community must act to restore the momentum of economic development in the developing countries. The global recession has brought development to a stop and developing countries have suffered. A strategy is needed based on faith in the development process itself. Prior development efforts have proven that: 1) the developing countries' own efforts are the decisive factor in achieving success, 2) international development assistance is essential to the attainment of that success, and 3) the development process has been working. 14 of today's industrialized countries achieved during the period 1860-1960 an average annual per capita income growth rate of barely 2% and at the time of their entry into modern economic growth (1830-70) they were economically ahead of the rest of the world. Between 1955-80 many developing countries grew faster than the industrial ones with income rising faster than population in virtually all of them. In addition, industry, agriculture, educational systems, and health and nutrition programs flourished. However there were great fluctuations and not all nations grew as quickly as others; today development has slowed in all nations. Global recession has caused stagnation in international assistance, but funding cannot be halted until the economic situation improves. The key to poverty reduction lies in raising the productivity of the poor themselves; governments have to take measures to ensure that employment opportunities and earning power of the poor are not limited by sickness, insufficient food, and lack of education. The World Bank's practice has been to help increase the productivity of the poor, concentrating on rural and urban development, primary education, population, health and nutrition, small-scale industries and water supply. International private capital is essential to the development process as is the commercial banking system and protectionism must be resisted. The industrial world has everything to gain from economic growth in the developing world.
The private sector, the public sector, and donor assistance in economic development: an interpretive essay.
[Washington, D.C.], U.S. Agency for International Development, 1983 Mar. 52 p. (A.I.D. Program Evaluation Discussion Paper No. 16)A retrospective view of the ways in which the public policy of host countries coupled with the actions of donors have led to the growth of a vital private enterprise economy in less developed countries (LDC) is provided for the Agency for International Development (AID). Efforts are concentrated on examining the recent development history of 4 countries: Malawi, Cameroon, Thailand, and Costa Rica. These examinations contain a great deal of information on the process of economic development, the role of private enterprise production activities, the importance of free and competitive markets, and the possibilities of donor intervention to affect the speed and direction of economic development. The studies have revealed that free and competitive markets are efficient institutions for allocating resources, yet governments frequently intervene. In all of the countries studied, economic policy and economic ideology seem unconnected to the existing political system. Donors wishing to encourage private sector growth find themselves in an anomalous situation. Interventions need to be chosen to address contraints but little is known about the constraints inhibiting the growth of proprietal, entrepreneurial, and managerial firms. As a donor, one's role should be to facilitate the expression of the creative energies within the private sector by working with host governments on ways both can provide needed help and reduce unneeded hindrances to market activities.