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  1. 1
    326616

    World fertility patterns 2007. [Wallchart].

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2008 Jan. [2] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/269)

    The last decades of the twentieth century witnessed a major transformation in world fertility: total fertility fell from an average of 4.5 children per woman in 1970-1975 to 2.6 children per woman in 2000-2005. This change was driven mostly by developing countries whose fertility dropped by nearly half (from 5.4 to 2.9 children per woman) with the decline being less marked among the least developed countries where fertility remains high (their average fertility declined from 6.6 children per woman in 1970-1975 to 5.0 in 2000-2005). This chart presents some of the data available to assess the change in fertility taking place in the countries of the world. For each of the 195 countries or areas with at least 100,000 inhabitants in 2007, it displays available unadjusted data on total fertility, age-specific fertility and the mean age at childbearing for two points in time: the first as close as possible to 1970 and the second as close as possible to 2005. Data on total fertility for the world as a whole, the development groups and major areas are estimates referring to 1970-1975 and 2000-2005 derived from the 2006 Revision of World Population Prospects. The chart thus presents regional estimates of fertility change and part of the basic data underlying those estimates. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    309731
    Peer Reviewed

    Responsive parenting: interventions and outcomes.

    Eshel N; Daelmans B; de Mello MC; Martines J

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 Dec; 84(12):992-999.

    In addition to food, sanitation and access to health facilities children require adequate care at home for survival and optimal development. Responsiveness, a mother's/caregiver's prompt, contingent and appropriate interaction with the child, is a vital parenting tool with wide-ranging benefits for the child, from better cognitive and psychosocial development to protection from disease and mortality. We examined two facets of responsive parenting -- its role in child health and development and the effectiveness of interventions to enhance it -- by conducting a systematic review of literature from both developed and developing countries. Our results revealed that interventions are effective in enhancing maternal responsiveness, resulting in better child health and development, especially for the neediest populations. Since these interventions were feasible even in poor settings, they have great potential in helping us achieve the Millennium Development Goals. We suggest that responsiveness interventions be integrated into child survival strategies. (author's)
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  3. 3
    296444

    The right to development: a North-South divide? - World Conference on Human Rights.

    UN Chronicle. 1993 Mar; 30(1):[5] p..

    The growing economic divide between North and South may well be reflected in the upcoming World Conference on Human Rights, as many developing and industrialized countries define their human rights concerns in sharply different terms. One basic difference over how much emphasis to place on the "right to development" may set the tone for a pointed debate at the Vienna conference. Many developing countries contend that political and civil rights cannot be separated from or be given priority over economic, social and cultural rights. Increasingly, they have asserted that development is an essential human right and objected to what many see as the industrial countries' narrow view of human rights as solely involving political and civil liberties. Indeed, in their view, economic development and an adequate living standard are preconditions of expanded political and civil rights. Further, the "collective rights" of people, some argue, may take precedence over certain rights of individuals. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    296072

    Financing the ICPD Programme of Action. Data for 2003 and estimates for 2004/2005.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005. [8] p.

    Population dynamics and reproductive health are central to development and must be an integral part of development planning and poverty reduction strategies. Promoting the goals of the United Nations Conferences, including those of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), is vital for laying the foundation to reduce poverty in many of the poorest countries. At the ICPD in 1994, the international community agreed that US $17 billion would be needed in 2000 and $18.5 billion in 2005 to finance programmes in the area of population dynamics, reproductive health, including family planning, maternal health and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, as well as programmes that address the collection, analysis and dissemination of population data. Two thirds of the required amount would be mobilized by developing countries themselves and one third, $6.1 billion in 2005, was to come from the international community. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    295835

    The world reaffirms Cairo: official outcomes of the ICPD at Ten Review.

    Fuersich CM

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005. [120] p.

    The 1994 Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD PoA) recommended a regular review of its implementation. This publication presents the official outcomes of the ICPD at Ten review. The declarations, resolutions, statements and action plans included here are taken from the official meeting reports of the United Nations Regional Commissions and the Commission on Population and Development, held between 2002-2004. Each region undertook a review process most relevant to its situation, so the review outcomes may vary across regions. The Introduction to this volume is comprised of the Opening Statement by Louise Fréchette, Deputy Secretary-General, United Nations at the General Assembly Commemoration of the Tenth Anniversary of the ICPD, held on 14 October 2004. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    291377

    G8 2005: a missed opportunity for global health [editorial]

    Lancet. 2005 Jul 16; 366(9481):177.

    This year people in bars and at football matches were asking about the Group of 8 (G8) nations summit in Gleneagles, Scotland. Such unprecedented popular interest was prompted by Bob Geldof’s Live 8 concerts and the Make Poverty History campaign. These initiatives were organised to raise awareness about African poverty and to pressure politicians into tackling the preventable global burden of disease afflicting billions of people living in low-income settings. When asked if his lobbying had paid off, Geldof said, “A great justice has been done”. He should have said “No”. While the concerts were successful as entertainment and the Make Poverty History campaign certainly raised awareness, they failed as political levers for change. What did the G8 achieve? One objective of the summit was to design policies to help Africa meet the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. The first MDG calls for the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger. The G8 achieved almost nothing new here, despite the impressive rhetoric of the final Gleneagles communiqué. The G8 pledged to forgive debt for many of Africa’s poorest countries and to increase total aid to developing nations by US$50 billion by 2010. But that investment is too little too late. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    290004
    Peer Reviewed

    The case for a new Global Fund for maternal, neonatal, and child survival.

    Costello A; Osrin D

    Lancet. 2005 Aug 13; 366(9485):603-605.

    In September, 2005, a summit of world leaders in New York, USA, will review progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Three of the eight goals are explicitly health-related: to reduce child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, to reduce maternal mortality by three-quarters, and to control HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria. A lack of progress by April, 2001, led Kofi Annan, the United Nations Secretary General, to establish a Global Fund to increase health investment, especially in Africa and Asia. The fund’s focus was control of HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria, which are diseases that kill more than 6 million people every year. To date, the Global Fund for AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria has committed US$3 billion in 128 countries to support aggressive interventions against the three diseases. Nearly 11 million children and more than 0.5 million mothers die every year, yet progress towards mortality reduction targets has been poor despite the availability of cost-effective and scalable interventions. Investment in maternal and child health programmes has lagged far behind those for AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. The investment gap between what is needed and what is spent is large. Mothers and children, not for the first time, have lost out. Here, we put the case for a new Global Fund to reduce maternal, neonatal, and child mortality. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    290000

    The Global Fund plans an image makeover [editorial]

    Lancet. 2005 Aug 13; 366:522.

    The Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is in the middle of a public relations offensive. Since June this year, the Fund has been championing a campaign of public awareness to help build confidence in its activities by showing people around the world that “their country’s aid money saves lives”. It already seems to be working. Last week, the UK Department for International Development announced that it was doubling its yearly contribution to the Fund to £100 million for 2005 and 2006. And several donor governments, including the UK, answered the Fund’s plea to hastily fulfill all 2005 commitments by the end of July this year to trigger a full payment of US$435 million from the USA, which, by law, cannot pledge more than 33% of the total held in the Fund’s trustee account on July 31 each year. Despite the recent financial boost, the Fund is still anticipating a funding shortfall of US$700 million. Why is the Fund struggling to gain the credibility that will ensure financial security? (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    278189

    Global battle cry: health is a right, not a commodity.

    Fernandez I

    Canadian HIV / AIDS Policy and Law Review. 2002 Dec; 7(2-3):80-84.

    Health is a fundamental right, not a commodity to be sold at a profit, argues Irene Fernandez in the second Jonathan Mann Memorial Lecture delivered on 8 July 2002 to the XIV International AIDS Conference in Barcelona. Ms Fernandez had to obtain a special permit from the Malaysian government to attend the Conference because she is on trial for having publicly released information about abuse, torture, illness, corruption, and death in Malaysian detention camps for migrants. This article, based on Ms Fernandez presentation, describes how the policies of the rich world have failed the poor world. According to Ms Fernandez, the policies of globalization and privatization of health care have hindered the ability of developing countries to respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic-The article decries the hypocrisy of the industrialized nations in increasing subsidies to farmers while demanding that the developing world open its doors to Western goods. It points out that the rich nations have failed to live up their foreign aid commitments. The article concludes that these commitments - and the other promises made in the last few years, such as those in the United Nations' Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS - can only become a reality if they are translated into action. (author's)
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  10. 10
    278680

    Partners for development?

    Bannon A; Roodman D

    Perspectives in Health. 2004; 9(2):14-21.

    Number 8 of the Millennium Development Goals calls on the world’s countries to “develop a global partnership for development.” Like the other seven, this is a worthy goal. But Goal 8 is special: It addresses not only what needs to be done to improve quality of life in the developing world, but also how rich countries can help. Boiled down, Goal 8 calls on rich countries to give more aid, cancel more debt, and reduce the trade barriers that shut out crops, clothing, and other exports from poor countries. It is a welcome innovation in the discourse on development, because it recognizes the important ways that rich countries influence the economic and physical environment in which poorer countries operate. Rich countries largely set the rules that govern flows of trade, investment, and migration, and they are the major sources of development aid. At the same time, their environmental policies affect the world, including poor countries, disproportionately. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    275242

    Fertility down, but population decline still not in sight.

    Haub C

    Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2002 May-Jun. [3] p.

    A March meeting of demographers at the United Nations captured headlines proclaiming "Population Decline in Sight," "Shrinking World," and "Population Boom a Bust." Although more attention to population trends is welcome news, the media's focus on a single aspect of the UN's deliberations produced stories at odds with what many participants took away from the meeting. What happened at the Expert Group Meeting on Completing the Fertility Transition, the third in a series on future fertility trends, was that population experts endorsed a proposal by the UN Population Division to accommodate fertility levels below the two-child- per-couple replacement level in the division's 2002 revision of its world population estimates and projections. Endorsement came after examination of the fertility prospects for a large group of less developed countries, those with a total fertility rate less than 5 children per woman, but more than 2.1, or the "intermediate-fertility" countries. This group includes Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, and Vietnam. This step means the UN will consider fine-tuning its assumptions. It is also considering projecting to 2075. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    184562

    Challenges remain but will be different.

    Sinding S; Seims S

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 137-150.

    This volume chronicles the remarkable success -- indeed, the reproductive revolution -- that has taken place over the last thirty years, in which the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has played such a major role. Our purpose in this chapter is to contrast the situation at the century's end with the one that existed at the time of UNFPA's creation thirty years ago, and to project from the current situation to the new challenges that lie ahead. In many respects, the successful completion of the fertility transition that is now so far advanced will bring an entirely new set of challenges, and these will require a fundamental rethinking about the future mandate, structure, staffing and programme of UNFPA in the twenty-first century. Our purpose here is to identify those challenges and speculate about their implications. (author's)
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  13. 13
    184556

    Thirty years of global population changes.

    Caldwell JC

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 2-23.

    In demographic terms, the last thirty years have been quite distinct from the period that preceded it, or, indeed, from any other period in history. The global fertility level had been almost stable for at least twenty years prior to 1965-1969, with a total fertility rate just under 5 children per woman, and this stability did not hide countervailing forces in different parts of the world. The developed countries, whether they had participated or not in the post-World War II “baby boom,” showed no strong trends in fertility, with a total fertility rate remaining around 2.7. The same lack of change characterized the developing countries, but there the total fertility rate was well over 6, as it may well have been for millennia. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    187693
    Peer Reviewed

    International developments in adolescent health care: a story of advocacy and achievement.

    Bennett DL; Tonkin RS

    Journal of Adolescent Health. 2003 Oct; 33(4):240-251.

    The contemporary health problems of young people occur within the context of the physical, social, cultural, economic, and political realities within which they live. There are commonalities and differences in this context among developed and developing countries, thus differing effects on the individual’s personal as well as national development. Internationally, the origins and evolution of health care for adolescents can be viewed as an unfolding saga taking place particularly over the past 30 years. It is a story of advocacy and subsequent achievement in all corners of the world. This paper reviews the important developments in the international arena, recognizes major pioneers and milestones, and explores some of the current and future issues facing the field. The authors draw heavily on their experiences with the major nongovernmental adolescent health organizations. The special roles of the World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization, and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) are highlighted, and special consideration is given to the challenge of inclusion through youth participation. (author's)
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  15. 15
    184946

    Problems of indigenous peoples living in cities should be addressed, Permanent Forum told.

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2002 May 21. 5 p. (HR/4600)

    The Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues should discuss the situation of indigenous peoples living in urban areas, an indigenous representative told the Forum today, as it continued its review of United Nations activities relating to indigenous peoples. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    184810

    FAO / WHO launch expert report on diet, nutrition and prevention of chronic diseases [editorial]

    Public Health Nutrition. 2003 Jun; 6(4):323-325.

    This report and the subsequent commitment to a global strategy are extremely important for those of us working in Public Health Nutrition. They provide an important opportunity to promote the benefits of an evidence-based approach to solving major public health problems and raise the profile of nutrition. I have asked Este Vorster and Tim Lang to start off a discussion about the expert report. I look forward to other comments from readers. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    180867

    Fornos says curbing growth is challenge for 'our generation'.

    Burdett H

    POPLINE. 2003 May-Jun; 25:1, 2.

    If we are serious about a more equitable balance between population, environment and resources, Fornos said, " the industrialized world must commit itself to the provision of the necessary population assistance to the developing world." He stressed that solving the problem of rapid population growth is "a burden sharing exercise, with all of us - governments, multilateral agencies, the private sector, non-governmental organizations - working together for the common goal of improving the human condition." Fornos pointed out that throughout the world forests are declining, topsoil is eroding, deserts are expanding, temperatures are rising, and there remains the constant threat of unprecedented food and water shortages. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    182398

    2003 world population data sheet of the Population Reference Bureau. Demographic data and estimates for the countries and regions of the world.

    Population Reference Bureau [PRB]

    Washington, D.C., PRB, 2003. 13 p.

    With every passing year, prospects for population growth in the more developed and less developed countries grow more dissimilar. On this year’s Data Sheet, the total fertility rate (TFR) for the more developed countries is a mere 1.5, compared with 3.1 in the less developed countries—3.5 if outlier China’s large statistical effect is removed. But the passage of time, as well as the difference in fertility rates, is ensuring that the two types of countries can expect to continue to have different population sizes in the future. The decline in Europe’s fertility rates is not a recent phenomenon; those rates have been low for quite some time. As a result, there have been long-term changes to age distributions in Europe, and this “youth dearth” is now taking on a more significant role in the near certainty of population decline. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    182241
    Peer Reviewed

    The relationship of long term global temperature change and human fertility.

    Fisch H; Andrews HF; Fisch KS; Golden R; Liberson G

    Medical Hypotheses. 2003 Jul; 61(1):21-22.

    According to the United Nations, global fertility has declined in the last century as reflected by a decline in birth rates. The earth’s surface air temperature has increased considerably and is referred to as global warming. Since changes in temperature are well known to influence fertility we sought to determine if a statistical relationship exists between long-term changes in global air temperatures and birth rates. The most complete and reliable birth rate data in the 20th century was available in 19 industrialized countries. Using bivariate and multiple regression analysis, we compared yearly birth rates from these countries to global air temperatures from 1900 to 1994. A common pattern of change in birth rates was noted for the 19 industrialized countries studied. In general, birth rates declined markedly throughout the century except during the baby boom period of approximately 1940 to 1964. An inverse relationship was found between changes in global temperatures and birth rates in all 19 countries. Controlling for the linear yearly decline in birth rates over time, this relationship remained statistically significant for all the 19 countries in aggregate and in seven countries individually (p <0:05). Conclusions. The results of our analyses are consistent with the underlying premise that temperature change affects fertility and suggests that human fertility may have been influenced by change in environmental temperatures. (author's)
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  20. 20
    182047

    Human development report 2003. Millennium Development Goals: a compact among nations to end human poverty.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003. xv, 367 p.

    The central part of this Report is devoted to assessing where the greatest problems are, analysing what needs to be done to reverse these setbacks and offering concrete proposals on how to accelerate progress everywhere towards achieving all the Goals. In doing so, it provides a persuasive argument for why, even in the poorest countries, there is still hope that the Goals can be met. But though the Goals provide a new framework for development that demands results and increases accountability, they are not a programmatic instrument. The political will and good policy ideas underpinning any attempt to meet the Goals can work only if they are translated into nationally owned, nationally driven development strategies guided by sound science, good economics and transparent, accountable governance. That is why this Report also sets out a Millennium Development Compact. Building on the commitment that world leaders made at the 2002 Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development to forge a “new partnership between developed and developing countries”—a partnership aimed squarely at implementing the Millennium Declaration—the Compact provides a broad framework for how national development strategies and international support from donors, international agencies and others can be both better aligned and commensurate with the scale of the challenge of the Goals. And the Compact puts responsibilities squarely on both sides: requiring bold reforms from poor countries and obliging donor countries to step forward and support those efforts. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    181497

    Fertility, contraception and population policies.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2003. iv, 37 p. (ESA/P/WP.182)

    Governments’ views and policies with regard to the use of contraceptives have changed considerably during the second half of the 20th century. At the same time, many developing countries have experienced a transition from high to low fertility with a speed and magnitude that far exceeds the earlier fertility transition in European countries. Government policies on access to contraceptives have played an important role in the shift in reproductive behaviour. Low fertility now prevails in some developing countries, as well as in most developed countries. The use of contraception is currently widespread throughout the world. The highest prevalence rates at present are found in more developed countries and in China. This chapter begins with a global overview of the current situation with regard to Governments’ views and policies on contraception. It then briefly summarizes the five phases in the evolution of population policies, from the founding of the United Nations to the beginning of the 21st century. It examines the various policy recommendations concerning contraception adopted at the three United Nations international population conferences, and it discusses the role of regional population conferences in shaping the policies of developed and developing countries. As part of its work programme, the Population Division of the United Nations Secretariat is responsible for the global monitoring of the implementation of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). To this end, the Population Division maintains a Population Policy Data Bank, which includes information from many sources. Among these sources are official Government responses to the United Nations Population Inquiries; Government and inter-governmental publications, documents and other sources; and non-governmental publications and related materials. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    075177

    Policy guidelines on UNFPA support for population and environment.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Policy and Planning Committee

    [Unpublished] 1989 Oct 26. 11 p. (UNFPA/CM/89/107; UNFPA/CD/89/103; UNFPA/RR/89/103)

    In October 1989, UNFPA distributed its Policy Guidelines on UNFPA Support for Population and Environment to its representatives, country directors, and headquarters staff. UNFPA cooperates with other UN agencies on population and environment issues, e.g., UNEP, UNDP, UNICEF, World Food Programme, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. UNFPA assistance in the area of population and environment should be limited to research and analysis, e.g., country case studies; information, education, and communication (IEC) projects that create awareness and that sensitize people to the interrelatedness of population and the environment; policy formulation and planning; and training. UNFPA should seek to provide assistance through interagency cooperation and joint programming projects. UNFPA prefers providing assistance to action-oriented research which examines ways population variables interact with environmental variables in developed and developing countries and improves population/environment linkages at the local level. It favors country case studies because they allow us to study linkages in various settings of hugh differences in natural resources and economic prosperity, political constraints, and different stages of environmental degradation. UNFPA recognizes the need for data collection and analyses at the regional and global levels. To increase awareness and sensitization, UNFPA plans to fund seminars or workshops for parliamentarians, policymakers, planners, representatives of nongovernmental organizations, research and technical institutes, and other relevant people at the global, regional, national, or subnational level. These seminars or workshops should aim for development of proposals for practical action-oriented interventions.
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  23. 23
    090443

    Evolution of population policy since 1984: a global perspective.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division

    In: Population policies and programmes. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Policies and Programmes, Cairo, Egypt, 12-16 April 1992. New York, New York, United Nations, 1993. 27-41. (ST/ESA/SER.R/128)

    The world population reached 5.4 billion in mid-1991, and it is growing by 1.7% per annum. The medium-variant United Nations population projection for the year 2025 is now 8.5 billion, 260 million more than the United Nations projection in 1982. This implies reducing the total fertility rate in the developing countries from 3.8 to 3.3 by the year 2000 and increasing contraceptive prevalence from 51 to 59%. This will involve extending family planning services to 2 billion people. For the first time, fertility is declining worldwide, as governments have adopted fertility reduction measures through primary health care education, employment, housing, and the enhanced status of women. Since the 1960s, contraceptive prevalence in developing countries has grown from less than 10% to slightly over 50%. However, 300 million men and women worldwide who desire to plan their families lack contraceptives. Life expectancy has been increasing: for the world, it is 65.5 years for 1990-1995. Infant mortality rates have been halved. Child mortality has plummeted, but in more than one-third of the developing countries it still exceeds 100 deaths/1000 live births. Globally, child immunization coverage increased from only 5% in 1974 to 80% in 1990. At the beginning of the 1980s, only about 100,000 persons worldwide were infected with HIV. During the 1980s, 5-10 million people became infected. WHO projects that the cumulative global total of HIV infections will be between 30 and 40 million by 2000. The European governments are concerned with growing international migration. Currently, 34.5% of governments have adopted policies to lower immigration. In the early 1970s, the number of refugees worldwide was about 3.5 million; by the late 1980s, they had increased to nearly 17 million. A Program of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the 1990s was adopted in September 1990 to strengthen the partnership with the international donor community.
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  24. 24
    084101

    Nations of the earth report. Volume III. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development: national reports summaries.

    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNCED, 1992. vi, 518 p.

    The UN Conference on Environment and Development's (UNCED) final volume of the Nations of the Earth Report contains 72 summary reports of 80-81 developing countries or regions. These unofficial summaries do not always reflect the full and accurate positions of the governments concerned. Instead, they give an indication of the contents of the full reports so the reader will know what to find in the full reports. UNCED analysts compiled the summaries into the following main categories: drafting process, problem areas, past and present capacity-building initiatives, recommendations and priorities on environment and development, financial arrangements and funding requirements, environmentally sound technologies, international cooperation, expectations from UNCED, and table of contents for the full report. The summaries are in English. The full reports should be available on CD-ROM by mid-1993. Summaries of regional reports cover the Arctic region, Southern African Development Coordination, USSR, and the European Community. The Pacific Island Development Coordination and Organization of Eastern Caribbean States regional reports are in volume II. The appendices include UNCED guidelines for national reports, an overview of all national reports (main findings, anticipated results of the conference, drafting process, relationship between development and environment, evaluation of the process, and classification of terms), and contents of volumes I and II.
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  25. 25
    081535

    Climate change: the IPCC response strategies.

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC]

    Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1991. lxii, 272 p.

    In 1988, the World Meteorological Organization and the UN Environment Program established the Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change (IPCC) to consider scientific data on various factors of the climate change issue, e.g., emissions of major greenhouse gases, and to draw up realistic response strategies to manage this issue. Its members have agreed that emissions from human activities are indeed increasing sizably the levels of carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere. The major conclusions are that effective responses need a global effort and both developed and developing countries must take responsibility to implement these responses. Industrialized countries must modify their economies to limit emissions because most emissions into the atmosphere come from these countries. They should cooperate with and also provide financial and technical assistance to developing countries to raise their living standards while preventing and managing environmental problems. Concurrently, developing countries must adopt measures to also limit emissions as their economies expand. Environmental protection must be the base for continuing economic development. There must be an education campaign to inform the public about the issue and the needed changes. Strategies and measures to confront rapid population growth must be included in a flexible and progressive approach to sustainable development. Specific short-term actions include improved energy efficiency, cleaner energy sources and technologies, phasing out CFCs, improved forest management and expansion of forests, improved livestock waste management, modified use and formulation of fertilizers, and changes in agricultural land use. Longer term efforts are accelerated and coordinated research programs, development of new technologies, behavioral and structural changes (e.g., transportation), and expansion of global ocean observing and monitoring systems.
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