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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 15 p. (WHO/HIV/2006.05)In August 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a coordinated global effort to address a major and often overlooked barrier to preventing and treating HIV: the severe shortage of health workers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Called 'Treat, Train, Retain' (TTR), the plan is an important component of WHO's overall efforts to strengthen human resources for health and to promote comprehensive national strategies for human resource development across different disease programmes. It is also part of WHO's effort to promote universal access to HIV/AIDS services. TTR will strengthen and expand the health workforce by addressing both the causes and the effects of HIV and AIDS for health workers (Box). Meeting this global commitment will depend on strong and effective health-care systems that are capable of delivering services on a scale much larger than today's. (excerpt)
HYGIE. 1991; 10(2):3-4.A strategic plan for objectives and operations of the International Union for Health Education (IUHE) in the 1990s is presented. The IUHE's principal aims are to strengthen the position of education as a major means of protecting and promoting health, to support members of the IUHE, and to advise other agencies. Core functions will include advocacy/information services/networking, conferences/seminars, liaison/consultancy/technical services, training, and research. The objectives of the IUHE are to promote and strengthen the scientific and technical development of health education, to enhance the skills and knowledge of people engaged in health education, to create a greater awareness of the global leadership role of the IUHE in protecting and promoting health, and to secure a stronger organizational and resource base. These objectives will be achieved by developing an disseminating annual policy papers on key global issues, developing new procedural guidelines for the IUHE's world and regional conferences, clarifying the roles of the headquarters and regional offices, and developing recruitment incentives to boost membership. The corporate identify of the IUHE will be revised, formal U.N. accreditation will be sought, and mutually beneficial relationships will be fostered with selected U.N. and non-governmental organizations. Additionally, the scientific and technical strengths of the IUHE will be boosted, a resources referral service developed, a fund raising office created, worker achievements recognized, and a bursary fund established.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1985. 101 p. (WHO/CDD/85.13)The Diarrheal Diseases Control (CDD) Program, initiated in 1978, is a priority program of WHO for attainment of the goal of Health for All by the Year 2000. Its primary objectives are to reduce diarrheal disease mortality and morbidity, particularly in infants and young children. This report describes the activities undertaken by the Program in the 1983-1984 biennium. During this period, the Program collaborated with more than 100 countries in the implementation of national diarrheal disease control and research activities. The biennium has witnessed a growing interest of other international, bilateral, and nongovernmental agencies in diarrheal disease control; their financial support and commitment have contributed in a large measure to furthering the development of CDD programs and related research in many countries. During the biennium, the services component continued to expand both the quantity and scope of its activities at global, regional, and national levels. This is readily seen from the increase in global acess to Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) packets from less than 5% in 1981 to 21% in 1983. Other significant developments were a substantial increase in the number of countries planning and implementing programs and the initiation of a new management course in supervisory skills. Successful implementation of national primary health care systems was recognized as necessary for the achievement of the Program's objectives. Efforts of both developing and industrialized countries must continue in a joint endeavor to reduce the problem of diarrheal diseases, especially cholera, the most severe diarrheal disease. The following areas are discussed: the health services component; the research component; information services; program review bodies; program resources and obligations; and program publications and documents for 1983-1984.
Copenhagen, Denmark, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, 1986 Apr. 19 p. (NURS/EURO 86.2; DOC.6367J)This is a simplified guide prepared for teachers, administrators, practitioners, and researchers in nursing midwifery, medico-social work services in the European region of WHO. It discusses recent international developments, mandates and resolutions concerning nursing, midwifery, and medico-social work passed at the global level. Some common problems facing nurses in all settings include: 1) constraints in the ability to define their own practices, 2) nursing midwifery personal placed in settings which do not use the expertise acquired in education, 3) too few institutions include mandatory continuing education for nursing and midwifery, and 4) resources available in medico-social work have not been acknowledged at an international level. However, the WHO constitution mandates the following, policy relative to nursing: 1) strengthening the health services, 2) improving teaching standards, and 3) conducting research in the health field. WHO assembly resolutions specific to nursing, midwifery, and medico-social work in the past have led to 1) education of nursing personnel, 2) resolutions on maternal and child health care services, 3) use of social workers, and 4) a stronger role for midwives/nurses in launching comprehensive primary health care (PHC). Executive board resolutions relate mostly to publication of expert committee reports emphasizing training in public health, health care for the elderly, and monitoring progress in implementing strategies. The European Regional Committee in 1974 made the role of the nurse in the health field in the 1980's the topic of its 26th technical discussions. In spite of the intercountry and country implementation of recommended by the member states, there is a need for dynamic progress in health-oriented training for nurses.
Health aspects of population dynamics: report by the Director-General to the 21st World Health Assembly.
[Unpublished] 1968 Apr 24. 8 p. (A21/P and B/9)Add to my documents.
[Unpublished] 1984 Jun. 10,  p.105 developing country projects dealing primarily or exclusively with adolescent fertility were analyzed in an attempt to determine the nature and level of adolescent fertility programming in the developing world. There were 37 projects in Asia, 21 in Sub-Saharan Africa, 8 in North Africa and the Middle East, 22 in the Caribbean, and 17 in Latin America. About 27% of the programs were exclusively urban, 16% exclusively rural, and the remainder operated in both rural and urban settings. Various types of organizations sponsored projects, but the majority were sponsored by International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliates and other private organizations. There were marked regional differences in sponsorship. Only 11 of the 105 programs were conducted by government agencies, but 14 programs received some support from national governments and local governments also sometimes contributed support. Family life education for both in and out of school youth was the predominant project activity in 66 of the 105 projects. 20 projects focused on training of professionals in family life education such as educators, counselors, and health personnel. Curricula primarily concentrated on sex education, responsible parenthood, the importance of delayed 1st birth and child spacing, and general population concerns. 25 projects conduct youth training sessions and teach teams to serve as peer counselors and cators, motivating their peers toward acceptance of family planning and the small family and providing accurate information on sexuality. About 21 projects have a specific counseling component, with most counseling services teaching family planning, distributing condoms, or referring clients to clinics. Only 16 projects had as a stated objective provision for adolescents of diagnostic or clinical health services related to contraceptive use, family planning, or venereal disease. 18 projects offered training in vocational or income-generating skills integrated with family planning, sex education, and family life education. Over 20 projects described educational materials preparation and production as an activity. Innovative approaches observed in the 105 projects included adoption of the multiservice center concept, integration of family planning education with self-help initiatives to improve young women's socioeconomic status, participation of adolescents in program decision making, and innovative promotional activities. Factors contributing to program success identified by project staff include conducting a needs assessment survey, securing parental and community support, solid funding, a flexible program design, skilled personnel, availability of adequate materials, good cooperation with other community agencies, active participation of young people in planning and running the program, good publicity, and use of innovative teaching methods. Projects are increasingly tending toward less formal kinds of communication in family life education.
Report on the evaluation of various family life education projects with particular emphasis on youth in the English-speaking Caribbean: general conclusions and recommendations.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Nov. xii, 39,  p.Most family life education (FLE) projects included in this evaluation have the longterm objectives of reducing the incidence of teenage prognancy, and promotion of self-reliance and positive, responsible behavior among youth. The immediate objectives and project strategies are also very similar across projects, e.g., in-school and out-of-school FLE, comprehensive youth services, including family planning (FP) and training. The evaluation shows that project design has improved over the years (clearer and measurable formulation of objectives, more comprehensive workplans and better explanation of budgetary items) and projects have moved from addressing a wide variety of broad issues to a more focused consideration of adolescent fertility. However, the Evaluation Mission in concerned that due to the similarities in project design, country-and-time-specific factors have not always been adequately taken into consideration. Other concerns include the lack of systematic needs assessment and use of baseline data to guide implementation. All the projects evaluated have contributed to the training in FLE/FP of a large number of family life educators, teachers and nurses and have thus significantly strengthened professional national capability. Nevertheless, training needs still exist in motivational/attitudinal variables, sex roles, teaching/learning technics. The projects have made a significant contribution to the introduction of FLE into schools and teacher training institutions. The focus at present should be the institutionalization of FLE within the in-school sector, including the development of a policy approving FLE in schools. The development of community-based health centers was often the central activity of the out-of-school FLE component of the projects. These centers have contributed to shaping the countries' attitudes by creating an awareness of teenage pregnancy, by developing an acceptable strategy, by providing a focal point for discussing sensitive issues, and by becoming a mechanism for community mobilization. The projects have also contributed to making FP services available and specialized services for adolescents are being established. The emphasis has been more on education and awareness creation than on contraceptive distribution to adolescents. At present the need is to strengthen the service delivery components. The limited availability of data suggests that adolescent pregnancy remains an urgent problem in the region. Sustained and more focused FLE/FP program efforts directed to adolescents continue to be needed in the region. The most important general lesson learnt from the programs is that programs in adolescent fertility can be started and implemented in countries even prior to declaration of policy by governments. However, at a certain stage of implementation the programs cannot be carried further without explicit government policies and control.
Report on the evaluation of various family life education projects with particular emphasis on youth in the English-speaking Caribbean: country reports.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Nov. xiv, 89 p.UNFPA has provided funding for various family life education (FLE) projects with particular emphasis on youth in the English-speaking Caribbean since the mid-1970s; this report is an independent evaluation of the projects in Antigua, Barbados, Dominica, Jamaica, St. Lucia, and St. Christopher and Nevis. Although birth rates are relatively low in the English-speaking Caribbean, the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and the number of births to women under the age of 20 is an important problem in the region. The Mission concluded overall that the projects have contributed to pioneering and groundbreaking efforts demonstrating that it is possible to initiate and make considerable progress in the implementation of FLE/FP programs for adolescents even when adolescent pregnancy and births are still highly sensitive and controversial issues and when there are no official policies in favor of such programs. The Mission concluded also that project design had improved over the years and projects have moved from addressing a wide variety of broad issues to a more focused consideration of adolescent fertility. All the projects included in the evaluation have contributed to the training in FLE/FP of a large number of family life educators, teachers, and nurses and, as a result, have significantly strengthened professional national capability. The projects have shown that despite the lack of official policy approving FLE in schools and generally overcrowded curricula, FLE can be introduced into schools. In the area of FP service delivery, the projects included in the evaluation have contributed to making FP services generally available through integration with the government maternal and child health services. The main management issues across the projects were similar and included staffing, coordination, supervision, monitoring and evaluation. There is a need to adjust project design so that gender separation is minimized and that the FLE content deals better with issues such as self-awareness, sex roles, and self-esteem. The wider impact of the projects included in this evaluation, to be reflected, for example, in reduced incidence of teenage pregnancy, reduced maternal and infant/child morbidity and mortality, and more generally in the life patterns of women, cannot yet be measured.
New York, N.Y, United Nations. Department of Technical Co-operation for Development, 1983. v, 42 p. (no. ST/ESA/SER.E/28)This report examines the origins of the UN program in population training and the main methods adopted over the past 20 years to implement it. Its 6 chapters cover the following: origins of the UN population training program (the urgency for population training, initial objectives of the UN training program, the state of the art in the 1950s, the role of the UN, and initial dimensions of the UN training programs); establishment of the UN demographic training centers (International Institute for Population Studies, IIPS, in Bombay, India; Latin American Demographic Centre, CELADE, in Santiago, Chile; Cairo Demographic Centre, CDC, Cairo, Egypt; Institut de formation et de recherche demographiques, IFORD, Yaounde, United Republic of Cameroon; Regional Institute for Population Studies, RIPS, Accra, Ghana; UN-Romania Demographic Centre, CEDOR, Bucharest, Romania; and the Joint UN/USSR Interregional Demographic Training and Research Program in Population and Development Planning, Moscow, USSR); individual characteristics and program differentials of the UN demographic training centers (language of instruction, admission requirements, length of training programs, curricula, specialized training programs in interrelationships between population and development, and specialized training programs in interrelationships between population and development, and output of the training centres); the UN international fellowship program in population (placement of successful fellowship candidates, distribution of fellows by region of origin, subjects of study of successful candidates, comparison with the training offered through the UN demographic training centres); country projects for creating population training facilities; and the future of the UN population training program. Apart from the programs in Bucharest and Moscow, the basic terms of reference of all the regional and interregional demographic training centers are to provide courses of training in demography, to carry out demographic research, and to provide technical assistance in the field of demography and the population disciplines generally in response to government requests. Beyond these basic objectives, each centre has its own individual characteristics. In the years since their foundation, the UN sponsored regional and interregional training centers and programs have contributed significantly to an increase in the number of trained demograhers worldwide. From the academic year 1972-73 to 1979-80, a total of 1323 students were registered at these centres. The international fellowship program is notable in that the methods for the selection, placement, and evaluation of fellowship holders are designed to ensure that the skills acquired become available to the fellows' country of origin.