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New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002. x, 103 p.Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 2000 is the fourteenth edition of a report previously published by UNFPA under the title of Global Population Assistance Report. The United Nations Population Fund has regularly collected data and reported on flows of international financial assistance to population activities. The Fund’s annual Reports focused on the flow of funds from donors through bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental channels for population assistance to developing countries1 and countries with economies in transition. Also included were grants and loans from development banks for population activities in developing countries. (excerpt)
Human Resources for Health. 2003 Jul 22; 1: p..Background: Human resources are an essential element of a health system’s inputs, and yet there is a huge disparity among countries in how human resource policies and strategies are developed and implemented. The analysis of the impacts of services on population health and well-being attracts more interest than analysis of the situation of the workforce in this area. This article presents an international comparison of the health workforce in terms of skill mix, sociodemographics and other labour force characteristics, in order to establish an evidence base for monitoring and evaluation of human resources for health. Methods: Profiles of the health workforce are drawn for 18 countries with developed market and transitional economies, using data from labour force and income surveys compiled by the Luxembourg Income Study between 1989 and 1997. Further descriptive analyses of the health workforce are conducted for selected countries for which more detailed occupational information was available. Results: Considerable cross-national variations were observed in terms of the share of the health workforce in the total labour market, with little discernible pattern by geographical region or type of economy. Increases in the share were found among most countries for which time-trend data were available. Large gender imbalances were often seen in terms of occupational distribution and earnings. In some cases, health professionals, especially physicians, were overrepresented among the foreign-born compared to the total labour force. Conclusions: While differences across countries in the profile of the health workforce can be linked to the history and role of the health sector, at the same time some common patterns emerge, notably a growing trend of health occupations in the labour market. The evidence also suggests that gender inequity in the workforce remains an important shortcoming of many health systems. Certain unexpected patterns of occupational distribution and educational attainment were found that may be attributable to differences in health care delivery and education systems; however, definitional inconsistencies in the classification of health occupations across surveys were also apparent. (author's)
[Latin America. Regional Seminar on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys. Proceedings. November 8-13, 1981] America Latina. Seminario Regional sobre las Encuestas de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticonceptivos. Actas. Noviembre 8-13 de 1981.
Columbia, Maryland, Westinghouse Health Systems, 1981. 65 p. (Las Encuestas de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticonceptivos II)This report of the proceedings of the Regional Seminar on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys (CPSs) in Latin America, held in Lima, Peru, in November 1981, includes the schedule of events; list of participants; opening discourses and presentations by the sponsors, Westinghouse Health Systems and the US Agency for International Development; country reports for Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico; and brief summaries of the work sessions on data evaluation, cooperation between the technical survey staff and the program administrators who will use the findings, survey planning, questionnaire design, fieldwork, the phases of CPS work, data processing, sampling, use of CPS data, graphic presentation of findings, and determination of unsatisfied demand for family planning services. Representatives of 17 countries and 8 international organizations attended the conference, whose main objectives were to introduce the CPS program to participants unfamiliar with it, contribute to improvement of future surveys by sharing experiences and introducing new techniques of investigation, discuss the application of CPS findings, and encourage dialogue between the technical personnel involved in conducting the surveys and the administrators of programs utilizing the results. The introduction to the CPS program by Westinghouse Health Systems covered the goals and objectives of the program, its organization and implementation, dissemination of results, basic characteristics of the survey, the status of CPS surveys in Latin America and a list of countries participating in the program, and a brief overview of contraceptive use by married women aged 15-44 by method in countries for which results were available. The country reports detailed experiences in survey design, fieldwork methodology, organization and administration of the surveys, and other aspects, as well as highlighting some of the principal findings.
VOX SANGUINIS. 1994; 67(4):377-81.As part of an effort to monitor the safety of global blood transfusion services, the World Health Organization circulates a questionnaire for use in a database on blood safety. In 1992, 67% of countries responding to the survey (100% of developed, 66% of developing, and 46% of less developed countries) were screening all blood donations for HIV antibodies and 87% of these countries (100% of developed, 92% of developing, and 63% of less developed countries) carried out supplementary testing to confirm positive results. All developed countries, 72% of developing, and 35% of less developed countries screen blood for hepatitis B surface antigen and 94%, 71%, and 48%, respectively, screen for syphilis. The primary reasons for inadequate blood testing are the cost of test kits and reagents and the unreliability of supplies. The proportion of safe donors is highest in systems where all donors are voluntary and nonremunerated--conditions that exist in 85% of developed countries but only 15% of developing and 7% of less developed countries. Blood safety would also be improved by more appropriate use of transfusions and the provision of alternatives such as saline and colloids. Other problems include insufficient blood supply (e.g., none of the less developed and only 9% of developing countries collect 30 units or more per 1000 population per year) and inadequate quality assurance in all aspects of preparatory testing.
In: Proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on Innovative Techniques for Population Censuses and Large-Scale Demographic Surveys, The Hague, 22-26 April 1996, [compiled by] Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI], United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. The Hague, Netherlands, NIDI, 1996. 261-8.Measures must be taken to properly plan the year 2000 round of population and housing censuses. Enough time remains to propose questions which will improve the possibility of obtaining information on some population characteristics. However, collecting accurate data is only the first step in the process of census or survey taking. In order for a census to be useful, census data must be processed immediately and quickly disseminated and analyzed. Most of the programs that national and international agencies are implementing throughout the world will largely benefit the upcoming 2000 round of censuses, but only if questions are properly formulated and data quickly processed, disseminated, and analyzed. The following topics, mostly proposed by the UN, should be included in census questionnaires for most developing and some developed countries: disability, education, countries with educational registration systems, countries without educational registration systems, family structure and housing characteristics, fertility, labor force, internal and international migration, morbidity, mortality, and the special case of mortality and fertility.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1991; (31-32):89-103.International cooperation in population activities (69 of 73 countries reporting) is still needed according to the 6th UN Population Inquiry among Governments, 1988. There is a decline in need for consultants and priority requests for computer equipment and training. Difficulties have arisen due to funding decreases and slow implementation. The responding sample population involved 108 (79 developing and 29 developed) of 170 member and observer states. Questions pertained to attainment of policy goals, future needs and priorities, and government policies and programs. The questionnaire and response rate were similar to the 5th Survey conducted in 1983. Comparability to developing countries is uncertain since the response was only 60% of 132 developing countries. The population of the developing countries responding was 3.5 billion or 60% of the world's 5.1 billion. The results of the data aggregation are presented in terms of sources of past technical support, relative contribution of technical cooperation, need for technical cooperation on population issues, and statements of governments. The conclusions reached were that all had received support for population programs from international sources. 36 countries reported having 4-6 sources of support, of which 66% were in the UN system. In the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) 80% of the countries assigned technical cooperation as the most important contribution to population progress. Slightly fewer countries from the Economic Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) reported similar impacts. However, >50% also experienced difficulties with technical cooperation. ECA countries had difficulties with reduced funding and slowness in implementation, and minor complaints about poor donor agency coordination, differences in priorities between the government and donors, and too narrow a technical focus. Compared with the last inquiry, family planning was now a priority. Computer equipment and training programs were ranked the highest in technical support. There was some regional variation. Only 8 expressed a negative response to technical cooperation.
New York, New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, 1985. xi, 102, 24 p. (IPPF/WHR Caribbean Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys)An analysis of Caribbean contraceptive prevalence surveys is the focus of this report by the IPPF, Western Hemisphere Region, through its Caribbean Population and Development project. This booklet reports on 1 aspect of the project--the analysis of contraceptive surveys conducted in St. Kitts-Nevis and Montserrat to determine levels of contraceptive use and assess the effectiveness of information, education, and delivery services. Chapter 1 outlines the background, economic, social, and family structures, and organization of family planning services in St. Kitts-Nevis. The methodology of the survey is explained. Chapter 2 provides a demographic analysis of fertility, parity, and unplanned pregnancy rates. The level of awareness of contraceptives and contraceptive outlets is presented in Chapter 3. Patterns of contraceptive use, with user and non-user profiles, preferred sources for contraceptive outlets, user satisfaction with methods and outlets, male involvement in family planning, and the timing of contraceptive use are the topics covered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 provides an overview of contraceptive use, family planning programs, and sense of self-worth in St. Kitts-Nevis. Social sources of resistance to contraceptive use and the contraceptive intentions of non-acceptors are characterized in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 offers a summary and conclusions of the study findings, and the 1984 contraceptive prevalence survey used in St. Kitts-Nevis is supplied in the appendix.
The potential of national household survey programmes for monitoring and evaluating primary health care in developing countries. L'apport potentiel des enquetes nationales sur les menages a la surveillance et a l'evaluation des soins de sante primaires dans les pays en developpement.
World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1985; 38(1):38-64.National programs of household sample surveys, such as those being encouraged through the National Household Survey Capability Program (NHSCP), are a principal source of information on primary health care in developing countries. Being representative of the total population, the major population subgroups and geographic subdivisions, they permit calculation of health status and utilization of health services. Household surveys have an important role to play in monitoring and evaluating primary health care since they sample directly the intended beneficiaries, and so can be used to judge the extent to which programs are meeting expected goals. Caution is necessary, however, since methodological problems have been experienced for many evaluation surveys. National surveys are especially appropriate for measuring many indicators of progress towards national goals within a broad socioeconomic perspective. Future directions in making the optimum use of household surveys for health program purposes are indicated. The NHSCP is a major undertaking of the UN system including WHO to collaborate with developing countries to establish a continuing flow of integrated statistics on a recurrent basis to support the national development process and information priorities. It brings together the principal users and producers of data to plan and conduct surveys which respond to national needs and priorities. The NHSCP encourages countries to employ a permanent national field organization for data collection. Areas of discussion are: the potential for monitoring and evaluation, the household survey as a source of health indicators, the demand for household surveys of health, followed by a summary of the health and health-related topics covered by 6 national health and nutrition surveys conducted in several developing countries. The special themes of infant and child mortality, morbidity and nutritional surveillance are also considered. The experience of many developed countries has been very positive with the use of nonmedically organized health surveys. Although the sample survey can be used in many settings to obtain population-based data, it must be carefully designed and implemented according to scientific procedures in order for the results to be validly extrapolated to the population or subgroups of primary concern.
Populi. 1984; 11(2):4-12.This article highlights some of the findings of the 5th Population Inquiry carried out by the UN Population Division in 1982-83. A total of 109 countries responded to questionnaires on government population perceptions, practices, and policies. Slightly over 25% of countries reported that they had established targets for population growth. Of the 81 developing countries included, 56 (69%) characterized present health and mortality conditions as unacceptable. In contrast, only 4 (14%) of the 28 developed countries did so. Infants were identified most frequently as the target of special policy concern. 40 countries, 39 of which were in the Third World, referred to the implementation of some aspect of primary health care. In terms of fertility control, 38% of governments reported that they have not expressed a formal view on the present level of fertility. Whereas 50% of developed countries viewed their fertility levels as too low and 50% considered them satisfactory, the corresponding figures among developing countries were 8% and 28%. Most governments pursue policies aimed at both influencing the fertility rate and improving maternal and child health. In developed countries, the emphasis is usually on economic measures that enhance the status of women. In developing countries, family planning was the most frequently reported measure. The government provides direct support to the provision of family planning services in about 65% of countries and indirect support in 16%. In terms of population distribution and internal migration, the major spatial concern was to alter the urban-rural distribution, generally through reducing migration to the largest metropolitan area and retaining population in rural areas. 55 governments (47 in developing and 8 in developed countries) reported the rate of growth of the largest metropolitan area to be too high. Less than 1/3 of responding governments viewed recent immigration levels as significant. 59 countries have designated a single agency to be responsible to the coordination or formulation of population policies. In general, the population issue of concern mentioned most frequently was the need for further analysis of the relationship between population and social and economic development.
The World Fertility Survey: a basis for population and development planning, statement made at the World Fertility Survey Conference, London, England, 7 July 1980.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 5 p. (Speech Series No. 54)The World Fertility Survey (WFS) is the largest social science research survey undertaken to date. From its inception in 1972 the WFS has received the full support of the UN and the UNFPA. This program has not only enhanced considerably our knowledge of fertility levels and fertility regulation practices in developing as well as developed countries but has also provided the UN system with internationally comparable data on human fertility on a large scale for the 1st time. The methodology developed by the WFS has made it possible to collect data on the individual and the household as well as the community. Information has become available not only on fertility levels, trends and patterns but also on fertility preferences and nuptiality as well as knowledge and use of family planning methods. Initial findings document the rather dramatic fertility decline taking place in many developing countries under various socioeconomic and cultural conditions. They also show the magnitude of existing unmet needs for family planning in the developing world which must be continuously brought to the attention of the governments of all countries. A most encouraging effect of the program, however, has been the fact that 21 industrialized countries have carried out, entirely with their own resources, fertility surveys within the WFS framework and in accordance with its recommendations, making it truly an internationally collaborative effort.
Informal Meeting on the Development of a Methodology for the Surveillance of Breastfeeding, Geneva, 2-4 February, 1981.
[Unpublished] 1981. 58 p.A fundamental part of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) task of biannually reporting on the steps taken by the organization to promote breastfeeding and to improve infant and young child feeding will necessitate the regular collection of statistical information on the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding in the different Member States. The purpose of this document is to outline the following: the rationale for the collection of breastfeeding data; a summary of the scientific methods by which these data can be collected; a module which can be attached to ongoing surveys; and a protocol which can be used by national field workers in conducting surveys specifically on the subject of breastfeeding. Information on trends in breastfeeding is important because it can be used to provide a valuable insight into a variety of maternal and child health issues and serve as a useful health and social indicator. Changes in the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding reflect the attitudes of mothers toward infant care, their knowledge on infant feeding, their concept of family life, time, and work, and their relative exposure to different sources of information concerning the advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding. There are 2 major ways of collecting epidemiological information--a tool for assessment of breastfeeding practices--surveillance and surveys. Potential sources of information are vital statistics, hospital records, postnatal clinic records, market research, national health/nutrition surveys, and fertility surveys. The core breastfeeding module should contain the minimum number of questions required to assess the prevalence and duration of exclusive and partial breastfeeding along with key demographic questions designed to describe breastfeeding in terms of time, place, and person. Suggested items are listed. The development of a standardized protocol/study design which, with modification, can be adapted to national conditions and needs, will facilitate surveys and permit the comparability of data. The details of survey development are reviewed.
New York, UN, 1979 Mar 16. 167 p. (E/CN.9/XX/CRP.2/Add.1)A series of descriptive tables, prepared by the United Nation's Population Commission, on the population policies of member states as of July 1978 was provided. The tables provided information on government perceptions and policies in regard to their country's population growth, average life expectancy, fertility rate, population distribution, and emigration and immigration rates. The information was collected in accordance with the recommendation of the 1974 World Population Conference that the United Nations should periodically monitor the population policies of member states. Data was provided for individual nations but the data was also aggregated by development status and by geographical regions. In regard to population growth information was provided on 1) the degree to which governments perceived their country's rate of natural increase as having a positive or negative impact on development; 2) the degree to which governments believed it was appropriate to intervene to alter the rate of natural increase; 3) specific policies selected by the governments to alter the rate of natural increase; and 4) changes in governments' perceptions of the acceptability of their rate of natural increase between 1976 and 1978. Other tables provided information on 1) governments perceptions of the acceptability of their country's current average life expectancy, fertility rate, population distribution, and immigration and emigration rates; 2) governments' policies in regard to providing effective contraception and making contraceptives available; 3) the relationship between fertility and population growth policies; and 4) government policies with respect to immigration and emigration.