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  1. 1

    Lewis questions results of G8 Summit; calls for independent, international women's agency; challenges scientists to engage in campaign of advocacy. Statement by Stephen Lewis, UN Envoy on HIV / AIDS in Africa, at the opening of the 3rd International AIDS Society Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 24 July 2005.

    Lewis S

    AIDS Bulletin. 2005 Sep; 14(3):10-13.

    This is a meeting of scientists and experts in the world of AIDS. I am neither a scientist nor an expert. I'm an observer. I have spent the last four years, traveling through Africa, primarily southern Africa, watching people die. I think I understand, better than most, why your collective scientific and academic work can be said to be the most important ongoing work on the planet. But precisely because the work you do speaks to the rescue of the human condition, you carry an immense public and international authority. I beg you never to underestimate that authority. And I beg you to use it beyond the realms of science. What we desperately need in the response to AIDS today are voices of advocacy: tough, unrelenting, informed. The issues are so intense, the situation is so precarious for millions of people, the virus cuts such a swath of pain and desolation, that your voices, as well as your science, must be summoned and heard. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Programming for male involvement in reproductive health. Report of the meeting of WHO Regional Advisors in Reproductive Health, WHO / PAHO, Washington DC, USA, 5-7 September 2001.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction; World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Reproductive Health and Research

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2002. [179] p. (WHO/FCH/RHR/02.3)

    Research has shed some light on the gaps in our knowledge of reproductive health issues as they relate to men, but we have little information about programmatic issues and how such research could improve programme operation and service delivery. WHO Country Offices are often consulted by programme managers and policy-makers for advice on strategies for including men in the delivery of reproductive health services. It was proposed that the meeting of WHO Regional Advisers and Directors of Reproductive Health for 2001 focus on the design, success stories, lessons learned and research recommendations for programmes that aim to include men in reproductive health. Regional experiences, case studies, systematic reviews, research highlights and model projects representing a variety of regions were presented at the meeting by a select group of experts working in the field, Regional Offices, collaborating agencies, programme managers, and researcher institutions. Among these were several experts and individuals who had participated in RHR-funded studies at the global or the regional level. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Financial resource flows for population activities in 2000.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002. x, 103 p.

    Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 2000 is the fourteenth edition of a report previously published by UNFPA under the title of Global Population Assistance Report. The United Nations Population Fund has regularly collected data and reported on flows of international financial assistance to population activities. The Fund’s annual Reports focused on the flow of funds from donors through bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental channels for population assistance to developing countries1 and countries with economies in transition. Also included were grants and loans from development banks for population activities in developing countries. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    FIGO and women's health 2000 - 2003.

    Sheth SS

    International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2003 Sep; 82(3):357-367.

    The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics – FIGO – has been striving hard to carefully attend to women’s well-being, and respect and implement their rights, the status and their health, which is well beyond the basic obstetric and gynecological requirement. FIGO is deeply involved in acting as a catalyst for the all-round activities of national obstetric and gynecologic societies to mobilise their members to participate in and contribute to, all of their endeavours. FIGO’s committees strengthen these objectives and FIGO’s alliance with WHO provides a springboard. The task is gigantic, but FIGO, through national obstetric and gynecological societies and with the strength of obstetricians and gynecologists as its battalion, can offer to combat and meet the demands. (author's)
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  5. 5

    [From family planning to reproductive health and beyond. Draft] De la planificacion familiar a la salud reproductiva y mas alla. Borrador para libro.

    Ramiro Beltran L

    [Unpublished] 1997 Mar. 155, [20] p.

    This work traces the evolving orientation of institutional family planning at the international level, from the beginning of the birth control movement in the US around 1915 to the recent consensus that family planning should be considered in the broader framework of reproductive health. The opening chapter discusses the origins of the antinatalist movement in the birth control, eugenics, and population control movements and the beginning of US government involvement in family planning. Family planning and its objectives are defined, and the growing view of family planning as a right is discussed in chapter 2. The pressures and achievements of the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, which led to a broadening of the focus to encompass issues of development, are assessed. The impact of the environmental movement and the international decade of women, and the economic crisis of the 1980s in Latin America and its consequences for family planning are discussed. The attitudes expressed at the 1984 World Population Conference in Mexico City and the decline of US support for international family planning activities are then examined. Beginning around the mid-1980s, a series of shortcomings in family planning programs were noted at the same time that worldwide survey programs demonstrated impressive gains in family planning in developing countries. The gathering movement for reproductive health was embraced by foundations, and reflected in changes of emphasis in the most important international organizations. The focus on reproductive health prevailed at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, but doubts have arisen since then over the future of support for family planning and other reproductive health services.
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    Achievements on population issues counted since Cairo.

    Palmer J

    Lancet. 1998 Jul 18; 352(9123):210.

    Marking World Population Day, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) held a seminar in London on July 11, during which participants reviewed achievements made since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt. The seminar was part of a program of Cairo+5 events which will end in a special session of the UN General Assembly in June 1999, to review and assess the implementation of the ICPD Program of Action. The 20-year Program of Action aims to give all couples and individuals the right to freely and responsibly decide the number, spacing, and timing of their children, and to have the information and means to do so. Women's education and equality are at the program's core. Since the ICPD, the provision of family planning services has increased by 33.6%, and family planning associations reached about 9.4 million people in 1997. Lack of funding by developed nations is the main obstacle to the implementation of the Program of Action.
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  7. 7

    Speeding the reproductive revolution.

    Robey B; Upadhyay U

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1999; 8(1):18-9.

    In 1994, at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, the international community set the goal of ensuring universal access to reproductive health care by 2015 and agreed to finance its costs. Few governments and donor countries, however, have made good on commitments made at the ICPD. Reproductive health is not improving and may actually be getting worse. Specific goals to be reached by 2015 include meeting all unmet need for family planning, reducing maternal mortality by 75% compared with 1990 levels, and reducing infant mortality to lower than 35 deaths/1000 births. Reaching these and the related reproductive health goals of the ICPD was calculated to cost about US$17 billion/year until 2000, then to increase to $22 billion/year by 2015 (in constant 1993 US dollars). Developing countries agreed to pay 66% of the cost, while donor countries paid the remainder. Immediately after the ICPD, reproductive health funding increased substantially, then declined again, with most donor countries failing to meet their funding commitments. Failure to deliver on the promised financial support for the ICPD goals will result in higher levels of unintended pregnancies, induced abortions, cases of maternal mortality, and infant deaths. Governments need to be convinced that paying for reproductive health programs is an urgent priority and that developing countries, donor countries, and multilateral institutions all have much to gain from reaching the ICPD goals.
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  8. 8
    Peer Reviewed

    The ICPD Programme of Action: pious hope or a workable guide?

    Sai FT

    HEALTH TRANSITION REVIEW. 1997; 7 Suppl 4:1-5.

    The consensus achieved at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) signaled a move away from discussing population issues in the context of demographic targets, toward global recognition that the problems associated with rapidly growing human populations are part of a broader human development agenda. Devoid of demographic targets, the ICPD program of action instead challenges countries to change their approach to population programs, family planning, and reproductive health. World Fertility Survey and Demographic and Health Survey data indicate a high level of unwanted fertility in almost all countries covered. The lack of availability or inaccessibility of family planning services is but one reason why there is so much unmet need. There would be greater uptake of family planning if services were planned with community involvement and oriented toward clients, offering them real choices and paying more attention to them as individuals and their overall circumstances. That expansion in concept and of services is at the core of the Cairo agenda. A number of countries around the world have started taking steps to broaden existing family planning and related programs to include other reproductive health information and services. Mexico and India are examples of two developing countries which are making program and structural changes in order to implement the ICPD recommendations, while most African countries have welcomed the approach and are looking for technical and resource help for implementation.
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    The new international population movement: a framework for a constructive critique.

    Basu AM

    HEALTH TRANSITION REVIEW. 1997; 7 Suppl 4:7-31.

    With the support of the international women's movement, the ideology and methods of traditional population policy were effectively attacked at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The author discusses some of the complaints about population policy and family planning programs, then considers the substantive, ethical, and feasibility issues of population and reproductive health policy. The majority of the international population movement's (IPM) new agenda is motivated by goals which tend to be more sensitive to individual needs and human rights than earlier, more impersonal versions of population policy in the developing world. Critical academic examination of the old IPM forced the discussion of the meaning of population policy and population research as they relate to the new reproductive health approach. However, the new population policy approach is now itself ready to be examined internally with regard to its practical recommendations and its assessment of the population problem. An internal critique developed by the movement but drawing upon the experience of mainstream population research and policy will strengthen the movement and hone its ability to match methods to goals. Internal dissent within the movement needs to be aired.
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Reaching a stationary global population: what we have learnt, and what we must do.

    Caldwell JC

    HEALTH TRANSITION REVIEW. 1997; 7 Suppl 4:37-42.

    The onset of fertility decline in France during the late 18th century and broader decline during the last third of the 19th century in Western Europe and the English-speaking European colonies demonstrates that humans are willing to control their fertility. Fertility transition was a social phenomenon. It has also been observed that the idea of fertility decline can spread and be acted upon elsewhere. The events of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) are described and the need to control population growth in sub-Saharan Africa is discussed. While the ICPD's advocacy of improving women's autonomy, status, education, and reproductive health is laudable, those goals are opposed to that of completing the demographic transition. The existence of this opposition indicates that there have been changes in longstanding intellectual and technical aid consensuses. In the wake of the ICPD, developed country governments may never again emphasize the need for family planning programs in developing countries. The largest effect of such a course will probably be upon the demographic transition in sub-Saharan Africa. However, those interested in improving reproductive health in the Third World may join forces with the population movement when they realize that well-funded family planning programs are the key to improving reproductive health services.
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  11. 11

    On course for the 21st century? [Interview with Nafis Sadik].

    Rowley J

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1997; 6(1):10-1.

    Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund, notes that in the wake of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), governments have been persuaded to abandon demographic targets and instead set specific social goals such as reductions in maternal, child, and infant mortality, and improvements in education, especially for girls. Progress is being made with regard to health and education, with all countries having set target dates for the enrollment of all children in school. The meaning of basic health services for all remains unclear. Progress is also being made against female genital mutilation and sexual violence, and improving women's status and the delivery of reproductive health care. Most countries could, however, do a lot more, and greater public support and resources are needed for programs. India, Brazil, Egypt, and Peru are cited as examples of countries which have begun to change policy following the ICPD. Developing countries and donors, with the exception of the US in 1996, have made efforts to increase their levels of spending on reproductive health services; the US has reduced its aid budget by 35%.
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  12. 12

    Building on the Cairo consensus.

    Sai F

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1997; 6(1):6-9.

    No major disagreements developed between the North and the South at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) because the conference preparatory process and the program of action recognized that population as a global problem is not mainly the concern of developing countries, but is instead an integral part of sustainable development and environmental problems. It was accepted early in the preparatory process that overconsumption, extravagant lifestyles, and excessive waste production in the wealthier northern countries contribute to global population and sustainable development problems as much as rapid population growth does in the poorer southern countries. However, political will to address these problems appears to be weak. While there has been no rush to develop population policies, efforts seem to have been stepped up to implement those already existing population policies and to accord population and family planning higher program priority. The author discusses the need to coordinate governmental and nongovernmental agencies in developing comprehensive reproductive health care programs, adolescent sexuality, female genital mutilation, unsafe abortion, maternal mortality, South-South cooperation, and the need for funding.
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  13. 13

    Turning a vision into reality.

    FAMILY PLANNING NEWS. 1996; 12(2):2.

    This article is based on a speech presented at an International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) seminar to volunteers and staff. The speech was given by the secretary general of the IPPF, Mrs. Ingar Brueggemann. She stressed that complacency was not appropriate. The concepts of sexual and reproductive health need to be implemented. IPPF must act as the conscience of the people and the voice for the underprivileged. IPPF must ensure that governments understand the concept of reproductive health and its importance. IPPF's "Vision 2000" published in 1992 emphasizes the empowerment of women, a focus on youth needs, reductions in unsafe abortion, prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, greater attention to safe motherhood, and increased programs in sexual and reproductive health. All women must have the basic right to make free and informed choices regarding their sexual and reproductive health and the satisfaction of unmet need for quality family planning services and sexual and reproductive health services, particularly for the disadvantaged groups in society. Africa has the greatest needs. Estimated maternal mortality is over 600 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. The maternal death rate in some countries may be close to 1200 per 100,000 live births. Africa also practices female genital mutilation, and the practice is widespread. Average life expectancy is around 50 years of age. The average African modern contraceptive use rate is about 10%. Botswana, Kenya, and Zimbabwe have recently made progress in rapidly increasing the modern contraceptive use rates. Africa may also have about 66% of the world's HIV/AIDS cases. Funding will be needed to advance programs in sexual and reproductive health. However, the shift of funds from supporting one soldier would pay for the education of 100 children. The cost of one jet fighter would pay for equipping 50,000 village pharmacies.
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  14. 14

    Second Preparatory Committee of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. A review of major events and themes from the standpoint of a non-governmental organization involved in women's issues.

    Rahman A

    [Unpublished] [1993]. 8, [50] p.

    The US-based Center for Reproductive Law and Policy, a nongovernmental organization (NGO), participated in the two-week Second Preparatory Committee (PrepCom II) meeting for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo held in New York City in May 1993. Representatives from governments and 332 NGOs participated in the preparation of the Proposed Conceptual Framework of the Draft Recommendations of the Conference. NGOs participated by lobbying their respective governments. They organized themselves into groups on both a regional and issue basis. A controversy whirled around the importance of environmental concerns to policies of population and development and the role and structure of the family. The Vatican convinced Colombia and other South American nations to request a section entitled The Family, Its Role and Composition. Its concerns centered on sex education, care of the elderly, and AIDS within the family. Morocco also supported this section. The NGO Women's Caucus submitted papers containing specific language on provisions related to women's issues to governmental delegations. The US delegation, headed by Timothy Wirth, renewed its commitment to population issues and affirmed the centrality of women and their reproductive rights to the implementation of population policies. Political undercurrents at PrepCom II revolved around the North-South divide, reproductive health versus family planning, and human rights. In some instances, NGOs on both sides of the divide concurred on some issues. Some Southern NGOs took positions opposite their governments. Some NGOs wanted to expand discussions from family planning to reproductive health. Reproductive rights were the most popular human rights concept at PrepCom II.
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  15. 15

    The women's conference: where aspirations and realities met.

    Johnson JH; Turnbull W

    Family Planning Perspectives. 1995 Nov-Dec; 27(6):254-8.

    This article is a reflection on the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in September 1995, including its preparatory meetings. Delegates from 187 nations negotiated and decided on the disputed passages of the draft Platform of Action, which comprised 40% of the 150 page document. The atmosphere prior and during the conference was not peaceful. The UN and China disputed over the location of the nongovernmental organizations' (NGO) forum that took place at the same time of the conference. The US and Chinese governments squabbled about China's detention of a Chinese-American human rights activist. The US First Lady attended the conference and the NGO forum, promoting human rights. Most delegates had decided that this conference would not be a retreat from the Cairo conference. In comparison to Cairo, the Vatican delegation had toned down its opposition. US based antiabortion groups and conservative women's groups arrived in greater numbers in Beijing than in Cairo, in hopes to reverse actions taken in Cairo. They had few victories. A contentious issue was parental rights and responsibilities, specifically adolescents' access to confidential health services. Compromise wording was worked out in two paragraphs. All other references to parental rights were deleted or there was a reference to the compromise wording. The Beijing platform was the first universal document recognizing the right of a woman to say no to sexual intercourse. The references in the Beijing document recognizing sexual rights as human rights were a major accomplishment. Debates over the issue of abortion took place: the proposed conscience clause and a call for the review of laws containing punitive measures against women who have had an illegal abortion. The vocal delegates from developing countries are silencing the accusation that radical Western women are thrusting women's rights on the rest of the world.
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  16. 16

    [And after Cairo? It is now that the difficulties begin] Le Caire, et apres? C'est maintenant que les difficultes commencent.

    Speidel J


    The international community and the UN should be congratulated for adopting a strategy and a very clear action plan at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The process leading up to and during the conference allowed all member nations, even the most conservative members, to communicate their interest in problems associated with population and development and their approaches to solving the problems. The members reached consensus and adopted the program of action. Conference delegates finalized the program of action by concentrating on a global vision of population policy. They recognized the need for unrestricted access to high quality family planning services and the right of women. The document calls for improved reproductive health in developing countries. Specifically, it pronounces the need for improved sanitary conditions during childbirth, access to safe abortion where it is legal, and successive steps to reduce sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS. Implementation of the program of action poses some difficulties, however. Will the most developed countries provide the necessary financial resources to meet the needs of family planning and reproductive health? Many such countries have promised to contribute US$ 17 billion to meet these needs in developing countries. The US plans to contribute US$ 600 million in 1995. Japan will contribute US$ 3 billion over the next 7 years, 33% of which will go to family planning. Germany plans to give US$ 2 billion over the same period. The European Union plans to give US$ 400 million each year. Other countries also plan to contribute (UK and Belgium). We must make sure that the words adopted in Cairo become reality for the men and women of the planet.
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  17. 17

    Donors promise increased support for population, reproductive health.

    ICPD 94. 1994 Aug; (18):3.

    Increased support is needed from the international community to implement the actions proposed in the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action. Some countries have already indicated their willingness and plans to provide additional funds for population-related programs. For example, the Group of Seven major industrial nations strongly endorsed the ICPD at their July 8-9 summit in Naples. The group called on the World Bank and regional development banks to reinforce private capital flows to developing countries while providing growing resources for health, education, family policies, and environmental protection. The summit in 1995 will focus specifically upon the challenge of providing sustainable development and prosperity for the world's peoples and nations. Most striking, however, is the European Union pledge to increase by fifteen-fold the amount of aid it already gives for population-related development activities in developing countries. Its contribution will total a pledged $347 million/year by the year 2000, with an increased percentage going to sub-Saharan Africa.
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  18. 18

    A reassessment of the concept of reproductive risk in maternity care and family planning services. Proceedings of a seminar presented under the Population Council's Robert H. Ebert Program on Critical Issues in Reproductive Health and Population, February 12-13, 1990, the Population Council, New York, New York.

    Rooks J; Winikoff B

    New York, New York, Population Council, 1990. x, 185 p.

    Conference proceedings on reassessing the concept of reproductive risk in maternity care and family planning (FP) services cover the following topics: assessment of the history of the concept of reproductive risk, the epidemiology of screening, the implementation of the risk approach in maternity care in Western countries and in poorer countries and in FP, the possible effects on the health care system, costs, and risk benefit calculations. Other risk approaches and ethical considerations are discussed. The conclusions pertain to costs and allocation of resources, information and outreach, objectives, predictive ability, and risk assessment in FP. Recommendations are made. Appendixes include a discussion of issues involved in developing a reproductive risk assessment instrument and scoring system, and the WHO risk approach in maternal and child health and FP. The results show that the application of risk assessment warrants caution and usefulness in service delivery is questionable. The weaknesses and negative effects need further investigation. Risk-based systems tend toward skewed resource allocation. Equal access to care, freedom of choice, and personal autonomy are jeopardized. Risk assessment can accurately predict for a group, but not for individuals. Risk assessment cannot be refined as it is an instrument directed toward probabilities. The risk approach must be evaluated within a functioning health care system. Screening has been important in developed countries, but integration into developing country health care systems may be appropriate only when basic health care is in place and in urban and periurban communities. Recommendations are 1) to prevent problems and detect rather than predict actual complications when no effective maternity care is available; to provide effective care to all women, not just those at high risk; and to provide transportation to adequate facilities for women with complications. 2) All persons attending births should be trained to handle emergencies. 3) Risk assessment has no value unless basic reproductive health services are in place. Cost benefit analysis precludes implementation. Alternative strategies are available to increase contact of women with the health care system, to improve public education strategies, to improve the quality of traditional birth attendants, and to improve the quality of existing services. Women's ideas about what is "risk" and the cost and benefits of a risk-based system to women needs to be solicited. All bad outcomes are not preventable. Copies of this document can be obtained from The Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, NY, NY 10017. Tel: (212) 339-0625, e-mail
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  19. 19

    The world's women 1970-1990: trends and statistics.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office; United Nations. Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs; UNICEF; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. xiv, 120 p. (Social Statistics and Indicators Series K No. 8; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/8)

    5 UN agencies worked together to develop this statistical source book to generate awareness of women's status, to guide policy, to stimulate action, and to monitor progress toward improvements. The data clearly show that obvious differences between the worlds of men and women are women's role as childbearer and their almost complete responsibility for family care and household management. Overall, women have gained more control over their reproduction, but their responsibility to their family's survival and their own increased. Women tend to be the providers of last resort for families and themselves, often in hostile conditions. Women have more access to economic opportunities and accept greater economic roles, yet their economic employment often consists of subsistence agriculture and services with low productivity, is separate from men's work, and unequal to men's work. Economists do not consider much of the work women do as having any economic value so they do not even measure it. The beginning of each chapter states the core messages in 4-5 sentences. Each chapter consists of text accompanied by charts, tables, and/or regional stories. The 1st chapter covers women, families, and households. The 2nd chapter addresses the public life and leadership of women. Education and training dominate chapter 3. Health and childbearing are the topics of chapter 4 while housing, settlements, and the environment comprise chapter 5. The book concludes with a chapter on women's employment and the economy. The annexes include strategies for the advancement of women decided upon in Nairobi, Kenya in 1985, the text of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and geographical groupings of countries and areas. During the 1990s, we must invest in women to realize equitable and sustainable development.
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