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Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 Dec; 84(12):992-999.In addition to food, sanitation and access to health facilities children require adequate care at home for survival and optimal development. Responsiveness, a mother's/caregiver's prompt, contingent and appropriate interaction with the child, is a vital parenting tool with wide-ranging benefits for the child, from better cognitive and psychosocial development to protection from disease and mortality. We examined two facets of responsive parenting -- its role in child health and development and the effectiveness of interventions to enhance it -- by conducting a systematic review of literature from both developed and developing countries. Our results revealed that interventions are effective in enhancing maternal responsiveness, resulting in better child health and development, especially for the neediest populations. Since these interventions were feasible even in poor settings, they have great potential in helping us achieve the Millennium Development Goals. We suggest that responsiveness interventions be integrated into child survival strategies. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2005.  p.At the Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) in Beijing, China, September 1995, 189 countries adopted the Declaration and Platform for Action, reflecting a new international commitment to the goals of equality, development and peace for all women everywhere. Five years later, in June 2000, Member States reaffirmed their commitments to the twelve critical areas of concern in the Beijing Platform at the Beijing +5 session of the General Assembly at United Nations Headquarters in New York, and considered future actions and initiatives for the year 2000 and beyond. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) is fulfilling the principles and recommendations of Beijing through its ongoing work, mandated by the Programme of Action endorsed by 179 countries at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo in 1994. The Cairo agenda represents an international commitment to principles of reproductive health and rights for women and men, gender equality and male responsibility, and to the autonomy and empowerment of women everywhere. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2005 Jul 16; 366(9481):177.This year people in bars and at football matches were asking about the Group of 8 (G8) nations summit in Gleneagles, Scotland. Such unprecedented popular interest was prompted by Bob Geldof’s Live 8 concerts and the Make Poverty History campaign. These initiatives were organised to raise awareness about African poverty and to pressure politicians into tackling the preventable global burden of disease afflicting billions of people living in low-income settings. When asked if his lobbying had paid off, Geldof said, “A great justice has been done”. He should have said “No”. While the concerts were successful as entertainment and the Make Poverty History campaign certainly raised awareness, they failed as political levers for change. What did the G8 achieve? One objective of the summit was to design policies to help Africa meet the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. The first MDG calls for the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger. The G8 achieved almost nothing new here, despite the impressive rhetoric of the final Gleneagles communiqué. The G8 pledged to forgive debt for many of Africa’s poorest countries and to increase total aid to developing nations by US$50 billion by 2010. But that investment is too little too late. (excerpt)
Working out of poverty. Report of the Director-General. International Labour Conference, 91st Session 2003.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, 2003. ix, 106 p.Chapter 1 crystallizes my thoughts, commitments and ideas on this vital issue. We have a rich historic mandate that calls us to the challenge of fighting poverty. Our experience on the ground is bringing that mandate to life throughout the world. And we face common challenges as we join with others to provide women and men with the tools and support to work out of poverty. Chapter 1 is my personal exploration of these key issues. The subsequent chapters are more technical in nature, providing an in-depth and detailed account of the various dimensions of ILO efforts to eradicate poverty. Chapter 2 focuses on the complexity of poverty and the cycle of disadvantage that it creates. Chapter 3 describes ILO action on the ground and tools in the fight against poverty. Chapter 4 examines how rights at work and the institutional structure of the informal and formal labour market relate to employment creation, poverty reduction and competitiveness in a global economy. Finally, Chapter 5 discusses the need for a coordination of policies that focus on different dimensions of the life of people living in poverty. (excerpt)
Human development report 2003. Millennium Development Goals: a compact among nations to end human poverty.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003. xv, 367 p.The central part of this Report is devoted to assessing where the greatest problems are, analysing what needs to be done to reverse these setbacks and offering concrete proposals on how to accelerate progress everywhere towards achieving all the Goals. In doing so, it provides a persuasive argument for why, even in the poorest countries, there is still hope that the Goals can be met. But though the Goals provide a new framework for development that demands results and increases accountability, they are not a programmatic instrument. The political will and good policy ideas underpinning any attempt to meet the Goals can work only if they are translated into nationally owned, nationally driven development strategies guided by sound science, good economics and transparent, accountable governance. That is why this Report also sets out a Millennium Development Compact. Building on the commitment that world leaders made at the 2002 Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development to forge a “new partnership between developed and developing countries”—a partnership aimed squarely at implementing the Millennium Declaration—the Compact provides a broad framework for how national development strategies and international support from donors, international agencies and others can be both better aligned and commensurate with the scale of the challenge of the Goals. And the Compact puts responsibilities squarely on both sides: requiring bold reforms from poor countries and obliging donor countries to step forward and support those efforts. (excerpt)
Ann Arbor, Michigan, University of Michigan, Dept. of Population Planning and International Health, . xxxiii, 134 p.In August 1989, scientists and leaders of international and national groups met at the international symposium for the Survival of Mankind in Tokyo, Japan, to discuss ideas about the interrelationship between population, environment, and development and obstacles to attaining sustainable development. The President of the Worldwatch Institute opened the symposium with a talk about energy, food, and population. Of fossil fuels, nuclear power, and solar energy, only the clean and efficient solar energy can provide sustainable development. Humanity has extended arable lands and irrigation causing soil erosion, reduced water tables, produced water shortages, and increased salivation. Thus agricultural advances since the 1950s cannot continue to raise crop yields. He also emphasized the need to halt population growth. He suggested Japan provide more international assistance for sustainable development. This talk stimulated a lively debate. The 2nd session addressed the question whether the planet can support 5. 2 billion people (1989 population). The Executive Director of UNFPA informed the audience that research shows that various factors are needed for a successful population program: political will, a national plan, a prudent assessment of the sociocultural context, support from government agencies, community participation, and improvement of women's status. Other topics discussed during this session were urbanization, deforestation, and international environmental regulation. The 3rd session covered various ways leading to North-South cooperation. A Chinese participant suggested the establishment of an international environmental protection fund which would assist developing countries with their transition to sustainable development and to develop clean energy technologies and environmental restoration. Another participant proposed formation of a North-South Center in Japan. The 4th session centered around means to balance population needs, environmental protection, and socioeconomic development.
In: The global possible: resources, development, and the new century, edited by Robert Repetto. New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 1985. 491-519. (World Resources Institute Book)Participants at the Global Possible Conference in 1984 concluded that, despite the dismal predictions about the earth, we can still fashion a more secure, prosperous, and sustainable world environmentally and economically. The tools to bring about such a world already exist. The international community and nations must implement new policies, however. Government, science, business, and concerned groups must reach new levels of cooperation. Developed and developing countries must form new partnerships to implement sustained improvements in living standards of the world's poor. Peaceful cooperation is needed to eliminate the threat of nuclear war--the greatest threat to life and the environment. Conference working groups prepared an agenda for action which, even though it is organized along sectoral disciplines, illustrates the complex linkages that unite issues in 1 area with those in several others. For example, problems existing in forests tie in with biological diversity, energy and fuelwood, and management of agricultural lands and watersheds. The agenda emphasizes policies and initiatives that synergistically influence serious problems in several sectors. It also tries to not present solutions that generate as many problems as it tries to solve. The 1st section of the agenda covers population, poverty, and development issues. it provides recommendations for developing and developed countries. It discusses urbanization and issues facing cities. The 3rd section embodies freshwater issues and has 1 list of recommendations for all sectors. The agenda addresses biological diversity, tropical forests, agricultural land, living marine resources, energy, and nonfuel minerals in their own separate sections. It discusses international assistance and the environment in 1 section. Another section highlights the need to assess conditions, trends, and capabilities. The last section comprises business, science, an citizens.
Equilibres et Populations. 2001 May; (68):3.Poverty facilitates the development of disease, but at the same time, by attacking developing countries’ active populations, disease frustrates countries’ capacity to organize and produce. AIDS’ devastating effects upon poor countries threatens the development process. On the heels of the UN Conference on Underdeveloped Countries, UNFPA and IPPF dedicated a day to explore the links between AIDS and poverty. Following the notion that AIDS should lie at the core of all development aid policies, a new global fund against AIDS and infectious diseases has been developed. It will be administered by an independent council comprised of representatives from donor and recipient countries, the UN, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector. The fund’s resources will be used to implement recipient country strategies, based upon needs in the field and already existing capacities. The private sector and the pharmaceutical industry have very important, yet still undefined roles. Efforts must certainly be made to enable developing countries to develop or build, together with their healthcare system infrastructure, pharmaceutical supply policies together with the World Health Organization, major industry groups, and international partners. Prior to mobilizing fund resources, agreements will have to be worked out with the pharmaceutical industry, while diversifying product demand concerns and implementing a differential pricing system.
To cure poverty, heal the poor. WHO study finds investments in health pay big development dividends.
Africa Recovery. 2002 Apr; 16(1):22-3.Research conducted by the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, established by the WHO and headed by Harvard University economist Jeffrey Sachs, found that the economic impact of ill health on individuals and societies is far greater than previous estimates. Providing basic health care to the world's poor, the commission asserted, is both technically feasible and cost effective. However, the price tag is high, with the annual spending on health care in the least developed countries and other low-income states increased from US$53.5 billion to US$93 billion by 2007, and to US$119 billion per year by 2015. These amounts are intended to finance essential services required to meet the minimum health goals adopted by world leaders at the September 2000 UN Millennium Assembly. These objectives can be achieved by forging a new global partnership between developed and developing countries for the delivery of health care. Moreover, donor countries and multilateral agencies would have to increase their overall support for health programs in all developing countries.
POPLINE. 2001 May-Jun; 23:3.This article reports on rapid population growth as a global challenge, requiring action on the part of both developed and developing countries. This was delivered by the executive director of the UN Population Fund, Thoraya Obaid during the 34th session of the UN Commission on Population and Development meeting. She noted that lack of resources remains one of the major obstacles in achieving the implementation of the International Conference on Population and Development Plan of Action (ICPD). However, she still welcomes the continued mainstreaming of the ICPD Plan of Action into the global development agenda. In addition, she was pleased with the European Union's reaffirmation of its member states' commitment to reach the target of 0.7% of the gross national product for overseas development assistance. She also welcomed Japan's establishment of a Human Security Fund within the UN to help programs and agencies to effectively address population, environment and poverty eradication issues.
DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE. 1999 Jul; 30(3):653-83.This article explores the issues surrounding labor standards and international trade--specifically the interpretations of neo-classical, institutionalist, and feminist writers regarding women's incorporation into the export-oriented manufacturing sector. The neo-classical argument states that trade liberalization would deliver considerable benefits to women both in sheer quantity of employment and in terms of quality of working conditions. Institutionalist analyses, on the other hand, have been constructive in their emphasizing of the gendered nature of the labor contract, the relevance of looking beyond the boss/worker dyad, and the importance of listening to women workers' subjective assessments of their work. While the issue of improving the conditions of work continues to be an important item on the agenda, the question of the availability of jobs among labor-surplus developing countries may become a priority. It is important to avoid strategies that sacrifice quality of work for the sake of quantity.
POPULI. 1997 May-Jun; 24(2):6-7.Thousands of women worldwide are tricked, obliged, or abducted and sold into bondage and servitude as prostitutes, domestic workers, exploited workers or wives. They are often forced to live and work in conditions similar to slavery. The exploitation of women's bodies and labor has created an international trade system with women going from countries experiencing structural adjustment and/or deforestation to countries with better living standards. Technology, such as the internet, has allowed traders to conduct and expand their business internationally. The International Organization for Migration reports that the trade in women is caused by poverty, the lack of viable economic opportunities, the difference in wealth between countries, and the marginalization of women in their countries of origin. The promotion of tourism as a development strategy has also contributed by encouraging the trade in women for prostitution.
What is at stake at the world conference on population and development: women's rights and responsibilities.
PEOPLE'S PERSPECTIVES. 1994 Mar; (8):4-8.Planetary democracy is necessary and possible. T he world's citizens must participate in decision-making on global issues like the environment, development, and population. There is a recognition at the international level that almost everything in politics and culture has been decided by men. Women must speak out on the problems that afflict humanity in an endeavor to democratize human relationship and politics. At the UN Conference on Population and Development, women must fight to have their reproductive rights respected. Planeta Femea, the women's event during ECO'92, was a demonstration of this new stance taken by women. The Coalition of Brazilian Women that coordinated Planeta Femea addressed two issues: population and ethics. The Rio Conference unmasked the simplistic notion that it was the populous nations of the South that degraded the environment, polluted water, and burned forests, when the North's patterns of production and consumption were the principal culprits of environmental degradation and the depletion of natural resources. The North's technological innovations drive all those denied access to these resources further into underdevelopment. The majority of mankind is becoming less and less competitive. According to UNDP figures, worsening terms of international trade, the burden of foreign debt, and trade protectionism deprive developing countries of 500 billion dollars in resources every year. To continue with present policies that perpetuate disparities among countries is to increase poverty worldwide and risk making our planet unsustainable. Improving the quality of life for all mankind requires a global alliance, a shared responsibility by all nations in confronting squalor and inequality. Modifying patterns of consumption and lifestyle in the North as well as reviewing global patterns of use of capital, resources and technology are needed to implement a common North-South agenda to salvage the planet.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):120-53.As part of the preparation for the up-coming International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group meeting on population distribution and migration was held in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in January 1993. Participants considered the scope of migration which included a net internal migration of between 75 million and 1 billion people during 1975-85 and international migration which census data put at 77 million in the 1970s and early 1980s. World economic trends during the 1980s were reviewed, as were changes in the nature and configuration of various countries. The following topics were explored: patterns of population distribution and development, policies affecting internal migration and population distribution, internal migration and its implications for development, economic aspects of international migration, international migration in a changing world, international migration between developing countries, and refugees and asylum-seekers. 37 recommendations were prepared for governments, social institutions, and the international community. The first 10 urge that population distribution be an integral part of development policies, that government policies and expenditures be evaluated for their contribution to social and economic goals, that the capacity and competence of municipal authorities to manage urban development be increased, that government funding be decentralized, that economic and institutional links be developed between urban centers and surrounding rural areas, that alternatives to out-migration from rural areas be created, that the income-earning capacities of migrants be improved, that group mobilization by and for people affected by migration be encouraged, that adequate access to health services and family planning be assured, and that the underlying causes of environmental degradation, natural disasters, and war be addressed with mechanisms developed to protect victims. 13 recommendations deal with international migration and call for appropriate policies, cooperation, protection of human rights, an end to discrimination toward women, the normalization of family life among documented migrants, the promotion of good community relations between migrants and the rest of society, the guarantee of equal economic and social rights to longterm foreign residents and facilitation of their naturalization, the provision of legal information to potential migrants, the provision of equal educational and training opportunities to the children of migrants, and the institution of sanctions against the organizers of illegal migration. The next 7 recommendations urge that the causes of forced migration be addressed, that refugees receive assistance and protection, that the responsibility for refugees be shared equitably, that the right to asylum be protected, that appropriate repatriation programs be supported, that long-standing refugee populations be helped to achieve self-sufficiency, and that the specific needs of refugee women be addressed. The final 7 recommendations cover data and research needs regarding population distribution and migration and urge support for research on population distribution, the collection of national statistics, a review of existing standard definitions and classifications of rural and urban populations and of international migration, cooperation in the registration and monitoring of refugee populations, and the promotion of an exchange of information on trends and policies of international migration.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):102-19.As part of the preparation for the forth-coming UN International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group met in Paris, France, in November 1992 to discuss population growth and demographic structure. As part of the demographic background for the meeting provided by the UN Population Division, participants were informed that although the world population growth rate began to decline in the late 1970s, this decline has not yet resulted in declining absolute numbers, and the annual increment to the world population was not expected to decline to the level that existed in 1985 until the period 2020-25. World population increased from 2.5 billion in 1950 to 5.3 billion in 1990. The medium variant population projection of the UN shows world population at 6.3 billion in 2000 and 8.5 billion in 2025 (the high variant shows 9.4 billion in 2025 and the low variant shows 7.6 billion). Population aging is expected to reach unparalleled levels in 2010-20. The meeting then considered the topics of population growth and socioeconomic development, confronting poverty in developing countries, demographic impacts of development patterns, demographic and health transitions, population growth and employment, social change and the elderly in developing countries, and social development and ageing in developed countries, The expert group meeting then prepared 19 recommendations aimed at governments, social institutions, and the international community. The recommendations call for political commitment to human resources development and population and development programs, especially in least developed countries, alleviation of poverty and social inequality, and equality of access to social and health resources that will lead to reduced mortality and fertility. Governments are urged to place a high priority on education and on increasing women's access to education and to remove barriers to economic independence for women. Health-sector priorities should be reassessed to provide the most cost-effective and efficient means of providing health care, reproductive health-care programs should receive high priority, and efforts should be made to minimize the effects of HIV infection and reduce the spread of AIDS. The needs of the elderly should be met with a "safety net," which should be developed in countries with no social security programs. The elderly should be recognized as an important human resource for development, and intergenerational equity should exist to accommodate their needs, with special efforts made to help them remain in their own homes and communities. Governments should collect accurate, comprehensive, and regular data on population characteristics and trends, and the international community should facilitate the comparative analysis of such data. Training should be provided to professionals in demography and related fields in developing countries.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNCED, Secretariat, 1992 Apr. , 116 p. (E.92.I.15)The UN Conference on Environmental and Development Preparatory Committee (UNCED) agreed on an action plan of global partnership for sustainable development and environmental protection entitled Agenda 21 to be adopted at the June 1992 UNCED in Rio de Janeiro. The priority actions are a call for action to achieve a prospering, just, and habitable world. These actions also promote a fertile, shared, and clean planet via extensive and responsible public participation at local, national, and global levels. Since most environmental problems originate with the failures and inadequacies of the current development process, the 1st action centers around revitalizing growth with sustainability including international policies to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and integration of environment and development in decision making. The 2nd action is achieving sustainable living by attacking poverty, changing consumption patterns, and recognizing and acting on the links between population dynamics and sustainability, and providing basic health needs to preserve human health. The 3rd action addresses human settlements including urban water supplies, solid wastes management, and urban pollution and health. The 4th and 7th action plans incorporate the most subtopics. The 4th action plan calls for efficient resource use ranging from land resource planning and management to sustainable agriculture and rural development. The 7th plan is a call for individuals and groups to participate and be responsible for sustainable development. The major identified groups are women, children and youth, indigenous people, nongovernmental organizations, farmers, local authorities, trade unions, business and industry, and the scientific and technological community. The 5th plan addresses global and regional resources including protection of the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, and sustainable use of living marine resources. The 6th plan deals with management of toxic and hazardous chemicals and radioactive wastes.
INTEGRATION. 1992 Dec; (34):8-17.In Tokyo, Japan, former president of the World Bank, Robert McNamara, addressed the Global Industrial and Social Progress Research Institute Symposium in April 1992. He reiterated a statement he made during his first presentation as president of the World Bank in September 1968--rapid population growth is the leading obstacle to economic growth and social well-being for people living in developing countries. He called for both developed and developing countries to individually and collectively take immediate action to reduce population growth rates, otherwise coercive action will be needed. Rapid population growth prevents countries from achieving sustainable development and jeopardizes our physical environment. It also exacerbates poverty, does not improve the role and status of women, adversely affects the health of children, and does not allow children a chance at a quality life. Even if developing countries were to quickly adopt replacement level fertility rates, high birth rates in the recent past prevent them from reducing fast population growth for decades. For example, with more than 60% of females in Kenya being at least 19 years old (in Sweden they represent just 23%), the population would continue to grow rapidly for 70 years if immediate reduction to replacement level fertility occurred. Mr. McNamara emphasized than any population program must center on initiating or strengthening extensive family planning programs and increasing the rate of economic and social progress. Successful family planning programs require diverse enough family planning services and methods to meet the needs of various unique populations, stressing of family planning derived health benefits to women and children, participation of both the public and private sectors, and political commitment. McNamara calculated that a global family planning program for the year 2000 would cost about US$8 billion. He added that Japan should increase its share of funds to population growth reduction efforts.
In: Public policies and the misuse of forest resources, edited by Robert Repetto, Malcolm Gillis. Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 1988. 385-410. (World Resources Institute Book)The World Resources Institute has compiled 12 case studies on public policies from developed and developing countries and the misuse of forest resources into 1 book. All of the studies confirm that 3 key products of population growth and rural poverty in developing countries are responsible for deforestation. These products include shifting cultivation, agricultural conversion, and fuelwood gathering. Large development projects also foster forest destruction. Government policies contribute to and exacerbate these pressures which result in inefficient use of natural forest resources. Such policies directly and indirectly undermine conservation, regional development schemes, and other socioeconomic goals. Forestry policies include timber harvest concessions, levels and structures of royalties and fees, utilization of nonwood forests products, and reforestation. Tax incentives, credit subsidies, and resettlement programs comprise examples of nonforestry policies. Trade barriers established by industrialized countries have somewhat encouraged unsuitable investments and patterns of exploitation in forest industries in developing countries. Negotiations between exporting and importing countries within the confines of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA) should strive to reduce tariff escalation and nontariff barriers to processed wood imports from tropical countries and to justify incentives to forest industries in developing countries. These 12 case studies have come to the same conclusion as the UN Food and Agriculture Organization did in 1987: action to conserve forests is needed without delay.
PAKISTAN DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1991 Winter; 30(4 Pt 1):497-501.Papanek's responses to the Gamani Corea paper on UN strategy for the 1990s in international development are presented. Corea's paper is considered as an evolution of thinking about development economies. Over 40 years, some issues have faded and others have taken prominence, and some issues have been ignored even though of considerable importance to development. 4 areas are identified for discussion: 1) the changing role of planning, and the market, poverty, and the environment; 2) north/south issues; 3) major changes in the world economic system; and 4) the world economic environment and the role of domestic policies. The greatest change has occurred in the emphasis on environmental consequences of development in contrast to past concerns with achieving a high rate of growth with some attention to land tenure issues. There is also an emphasis on the private sector and foreign private investment. Planning has taken a recessive role. Income distribution and poverty alleviation is also of concern. Although government intervention is no longer fashionable, it is not clear what provisions there are in the market for assuring that the poor have a reasonable share of the growth. The north/south issues are discussed in terms of the limited bargaining power of developing countries. Contributing factors are the multiplicity of objectives desired simultaneously. The UN resolutions on development strategy do not always reflect developing country's objectives. Suggestions are made to bargain 1) on objectives crucial to many developing countries, 2) on objectives that generate the least resistance among the industrialized countries, and 3) on those objectives where there is reasonable consensus on what needs to be done. Major changes in the world economic system that are not included in UN strategy but will affect policy are: 1) US leadership has declined as the principal supplier of capital; 2) US absorption of world exports is shrinking; 3) the peace dividend will insure stability if not an increase in transfers; 4) increased competition for markets and private investment will come from Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union; and 5) a response needs to be made to technology changes in the US, Japan, an Europe in order to stay competitive. There is recognition that countries shape their own destiny and can be successful with the appropriate policy mix.
BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1992; 70(1):1-6.Rural-urban migration and population growth are occurring more quickly now than ever before in history. These phenomena have resulted in overcrowded urbanization and increased densities of vectors which in turn have caused an increase in disease such as malaria and dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Besides urban areas foster the breeding of mosquitoes, rats, and other pests. Further governmental services in both developed and developing countries have not been able to keep up with housing and sanitation needs. Moreover new migrants continue to move into temporary housing (slums) made of inferior materials with no services while the previous occupants improve their wages and move on to better housing. Thus little incentive exists to improve slums where sanitation is poor and disease common. In addition, many formerly rural people continue rural practices and traditions in urban areas such as patterns of water storage. Further people often try to control vectors by applying pesticides, but do so haphazardly and/or in an unsafe, uncontrolled manner. They even use empty pesticide containers for storing water or food. Besides insecticide resistance is spreading. WHO encourages governments to integrate disease control programs with primary health care, but most such integrated programs operate in developed countries. Integrated approaches include less dependence on pesticides; encouraging changes in human behavior; disseminating health messages; community participation, particularly the youth; mobilization of human and financial resources; and proper urban development, e.g., better quality housing and adequate sanitation and potable water.
INTER-AMERICAN PARLIAMENTARY GROUP ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT. BULLETIN. 1991 Dec; 8(11):1-3.The author indicts World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and overall developed country policy as responsible for Latin America's large impoverished and disenfranchised child and adolescent population. As an example of the magnitude of the problem, he notes that 1/3 of Brazil's 150 million population is comprised of youth and children. 8 million live on the streets, of which only 1 million receive official aid. Forced to fend for themselves, these youths fall into drug addiction, prostitution, and crime, suffering poor health, malnutrition, and widespread illiteracy. Many are sold, imprisoned, kidnapped, and exploited. Street children in Rio de Janeiro even suffer the added threat of being killed by the Squadrons of Death who consider the murder of juveniles a solution to delinquency. The state of affairs has deteriorated to such an extent in Peru that abandoned children are considered the most significant social problem. Argentina, Bolivia, Haiti, Honduras, Guatemala, and Nicaragua all suffer similar problems of impoverished youths, and claim some of the highest infant mortality rates (IMR) in the world. Cuba is the only country in Latin America with an IMR comparable to and often lower than many developed countries. Chile and Costa Rica follow closely behind in their achievements. Where Latin America already holds the largest gap between wealthy and poor, meeting adjustment demands of Northern economies and countries has only made conditions and inequities worse. Recession and poverty have worsened at the expense of youths. Attempting to pay down debt over the 1980s, improvements in Latin America's trade balance have gone unnoticed as the South has grown to be a net exporter of capital. Latin American nations need more than token charitable donations in times of emergency and particular duress. Development programs sensitive to the more vulnerable segments of society, and backed by the political will of developed nations, are called for. Unless constructive, supportive policy is enacted by Northern nations to help those impoverished in the South, social rebellion and continued, enhanced resistance should be expected from Latin American youths in the years ahead.
Development. 1989; (4):77-82.Contemporary multilateral loan agreements to developing nations, unlike previous project and program aid, have often been contingent upon the effective implementation of structural adjustment programs of market liberalization and macroeconomic policy redirection. These programs herald such reform as necessary steps on the road to economic growth and development. Price decontrol and policy change may also, however, generate the more immediate and undesirable effects of exacerbated urban sector bias and plummeting income and quality of life in the general population. This paper considers the resultant changes expected in the political arena, product and input pricing, small business promotion and formation, export crop production, interest rate policy reform and financial market deregulation, exchange rate and public sector expenditure, and the labor market, and their effect upon women's economic position. The author notes, however, that women are not affected uniformly by these changes and sectoral disruptions, but that some women will suffer more than others. To develop policy to effectively meet the needs of these target groups, more subpopulation specificity is required. Approaches useful in identifying vulnerable women in particular societies are explored. Once identified, these women, especially those who head poor households, should be afforded protection against the turbulence and short- to medium-term economic decline associated with adjustment.
Editor's introduction [to the proceedings of the Second International Conference on Health Law and Ethics, London, July 16-21, 1989].
LAW, MEDICINE AND HEALTH CARE. 1990 Spring-Summer; 18(1-2):11-4.The editor introduces selected proceedings from the 2nd International Conference on Health Law and Ethics. Over 600 participants from more than 60 international cooperating organizations and the World Health Organization (WHO) were in attendance. Papers considered to be among the finest from the conference are included in the proceedings, and represent a widely-diverging range of cultures and approaches. While this introduction points repeatedly to the United States' health system for contrast and comparison with other systems, the conference paid special attention to global dimensions, wealth and poverty, and innovative ways of approaching health law and ethics in other nations and regions. The publication introduced by the editor considers 6 main topics, the 1st being AIDS medicine, law, and public health in industrialized and 3rd world countries. In light of the ethical challenges in international research, resource distribution, prevention, and blood supply protection, and drug and vaccine availability, steps by WHO's Global Program on AIDS and the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences to develop international ethical guidelines for research and development of therapeutic agents are discussed. Comparative treatments of euthanasia, medical malpractice, resource allocation and service inequity, abortion and family planning, and the state's role in medical coercion are explored.
INTEGRATION. 1989 Dec; (22):14-7.Affirming that international cooperation along North-North, North-South, and South-South lines is essential for mutual survival, Mr. Waiyaki calls upon international understanding, good w ill, determination, and compromise in achieving mutually beneficial socioeconomic development for developing nations, while avoiding serious international confrontation and internal civil strife. He cites remaining instances of colonialism and the debate over Africa's debt repayment as potential conflict areas, then provides previously suggested resolving steps involving the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Economic Commission for Africa. Regarding internal strife, he discusses the hardships imposed upon African populations by structural adjustment programs. Should such exacerbatory measures be implemented in the hope of fostering development, negative international ramifications are possible. Specifically, the potential failure of measures to redress regional population and environmental problems should not be discounted. Improved communications and increasing interdependence continue to make the world seem smaller, allowing regional changes to affect the world on a broader scale. Key issues in high population growth, especially in Africa, Latin America, and Oceania, and environmental concerns are explored. The address includes specific mention of determinant factors and suggestions for Northern country interventions in finding solutions to these comprehensive concerns.
[Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the Conference on Global Environment and Human Response toward Sustainable Development, Tokyo, Japan, September 11, 1989. 11 p.With the installation of Barner B. Conable as President of the World Bank, the Bank began to incorporate the environmental effects of development projects into its loan decisions. It has also augmented loans for environmental, population, and forestry projects. In 1988, >100 projects with important environmental elements (35% of all Bank and IDA projects) were approved, the majority of which were in agriculture. The Bank has expected the percentage of such projects to increase annually. Further, to assist the countries and the Bank in considering environmental concerns in the beginning stage of designing development projects, the Bank has developed Environmental Assessment Guidelines. The Bank has taken on a formidable task, however, since its primary purpose is to reduce poverty which often conflicts with protecting the environment. Its leadership believes that the 2 goals are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and, if they are to be achieved, the problems must be clearly defined and all the countries of the world must work towards solutions to benefit the global community. Additionally, the Bank has begun to encourage developing countries to switch to cleaner fuels, processes, and systems to curtail global warming. It also monitors research on carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon emissions, all of which contribute to the greenhouse effect, and on climatic change. The Bank has recognized, however, that improvement in the environment cannot occur fast enough, at the rate the earth's population is increasing. Therefore it continues to fund family planning and health projects.