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  1. 1

    Financing the ICPD Programme of Action. Data for 2003 and estimates for 2004/2005.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005. [8] p.

    Population dynamics and reproductive health are central to development and must be an integral part of development planning and poverty reduction strategies. Promoting the goals of the United Nations Conferences, including those of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), is vital for laying the foundation to reduce poverty in many of the poorest countries. At the ICPD in 1994, the international community agreed that US $17 billion would be needed in 2000 and $18.5 billion in 2005 to finance programmes in the area of population dynamics, reproductive health, including family planning, maternal health and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, as well as programmes that address the collection, analysis and dissemination of population data. Two thirds of the required amount would be mobilized by developing countries themselves and one third, $6.1 billion in 2005, was to come from the international community. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    The world reaffirms Cairo: official outcomes of the ICPD at Ten Review.

    Fuersich CM

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005. [120] p.

    The 1994 Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD PoA) recommended a regular review of its implementation. This publication presents the official outcomes of the ICPD at Ten review. The declarations, resolutions, statements and action plans included here are taken from the official meeting reports of the United Nations Regional Commissions and the Commission on Population and Development, held between 2002-2004. Each region undertook a review process most relevant to its situation, so the review outcomes may vary across regions. The Introduction to this volume is comprised of the Opening Statement by Louise Fréchette, Deputy Secretary-General, United Nations at the General Assembly Commemoration of the Tenth Anniversary of the ICPD, held on 14 October 2004. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Fertility down, but population decline still not in sight.

    Haub C

    Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2002 May-Jun. [3] p.

    A March meeting of demographers at the United Nations captured headlines proclaiming "Population Decline in Sight," "Shrinking World," and "Population Boom a Bust." Although more attention to population trends is welcome news, the media's focus on a single aspect of the UN's deliberations produced stories at odds with what many participants took away from the meeting. What happened at the Expert Group Meeting on Completing the Fertility Transition, the third in a series on future fertility trends, was that population experts endorsed a proposal by the UN Population Division to accommodate fertility levels below the two-child- per-couple replacement level in the division's 2002 revision of its world population estimates and projections. Endorsement came after examination of the fertility prospects for a large group of less developed countries, those with a total fertility rate less than 5 children per woman, but more than 2.1, or the "intermediate-fertility" countries. This group includes Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, and Vietnam. This step means the UN will consider fine-tuning its assumptions. It is also considering projecting to 2075. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Explicating donor trends for population assistance.

    Schindlmayr T

    Population Research and Policy Review. 2004 Feb; 23(1):25-54.

    Using population assistance data, this study divides donor trends for population assistance into five distinct epochs: until the mid-1960s, the population hysteria of the 1960s and 1970s, Bucharest Conference and beyond, the 1984 Mexico City conference, and the 1990s. A number of decisive events, as well as changing views of the population problem, characterise each period and have affected the sums of population assistance from donor nations. Taking a long-term view of global population assistance, the research shows that four factors account for most of the historical funding trends from primary donors: the association between population assistance and foreign aid, the role of alarmists and doomsayers in the public debate over population issues, individuals in a position of power within donor governments, and decennial international population conferences. (author's)
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  5. 5

    Challenges remain but will be different.

    Sinding S; Seims S

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 137-150.

    This volume chronicles the remarkable success -- indeed, the reproductive revolution -- that has taken place over the last thirty years, in which the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has played such a major role. Our purpose in this chapter is to contrast the situation at the century's end with the one that existed at the time of UNFPA's creation thirty years ago, and to project from the current situation to the new challenges that lie ahead. In many respects, the successful completion of the fertility transition that is now so far advanced will bring an entirely new set of challenges, and these will require a fundamental rethinking about the future mandate, structure, staffing and programme of UNFPA in the twenty-first century. Our purpose here is to identify those challenges and speculate about their implications. (author's)
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  6. 6

    Thirty years of global population changes.

    Caldwell JC

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 2-23.

    In demographic terms, the last thirty years have been quite distinct from the period that preceded it, or, indeed, from any other period in history. The global fertility level had been almost stable for at least twenty years prior to 1965-1969, with a total fertility rate just under 5 children per woman, and this stability did not hide countervailing forces in different parts of the world. The developed countries, whether they had participated or not in the post-World War II “baby boom,” showed no strong trends in fertility, with a total fertility rate remaining around 2.7. The same lack of change characterized the developing countries, but there the total fertility rate was well over 6, as it may well have been for millennia. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Problems of indigenous peoples living in cities should be addressed, Permanent Forum told.

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2002 May 21. 5 p. (HR/4600)

    The Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues should discuss the situation of indigenous peoples living in urban areas, an indigenous representative told the Forum today, as it continued its review of United Nations activities relating to indigenous peoples. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Fertility, contraception and population policies.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2003. iv, 37 p. (ESA/P/WP.182)

    Governments’ views and policies with regard to the use of contraceptives have changed considerably during the second half of the 20th century. At the same time, many developing countries have experienced a transition from high to low fertility with a speed and magnitude that far exceeds the earlier fertility transition in European countries. Government policies on access to contraceptives have played an important role in the shift in reproductive behaviour. Low fertility now prevails in some developing countries, as well as in most developed countries. The use of contraception is currently widespread throughout the world. The highest prevalence rates at present are found in more developed countries and in China. This chapter begins with a global overview of the current situation with regard to Governments’ views and policies on contraception. It then briefly summarizes the five phases in the evolution of population policies, from the founding of the United Nations to the beginning of the 21st century. It examines the various policy recommendations concerning contraception adopted at the three United Nations international population conferences, and it discusses the role of regional population conferences in shaping the policies of developed and developing countries. As part of its work programme, the Population Division of the United Nations Secretariat is responsible for the global monitoring of the implementation of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). To this end, the Population Division maintains a Population Policy Data Bank, which includes information from many sources. Among these sources are official Government responses to the United Nations Population Inquiries; Government and inter-governmental publications, documents and other sources; and non-governmental publications and related materials. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Policy guidelines on UNFPA support for population and environment.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Policy and Planning Committee

    [Unpublished] 1989 Oct 26. 11 p. (UNFPA/CM/89/107; UNFPA/CD/89/103; UNFPA/RR/89/103)

    In October 1989, UNFPA distributed its Policy Guidelines on UNFPA Support for Population and Environment to its representatives, country directors, and headquarters staff. UNFPA cooperates with other UN agencies on population and environment issues, e.g., UNEP, UNDP, UNICEF, World Food Programme, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. UNFPA assistance in the area of population and environment should be limited to research and analysis, e.g., country case studies; information, education, and communication (IEC) projects that create awareness and that sensitize people to the interrelatedness of population and the environment; policy formulation and planning; and training. UNFPA should seek to provide assistance through interagency cooperation and joint programming projects. UNFPA prefers providing assistance to action-oriented research which examines ways population variables interact with environmental variables in developed and developing countries and improves population/environment linkages at the local level. It favors country case studies because they allow us to study linkages in various settings of hugh differences in natural resources and economic prosperity, political constraints, and different stages of environmental degradation. UNFPA recognizes the need for data collection and analyses at the regional and global levels. To increase awareness and sensitization, UNFPA plans to fund seminars or workshops for parliamentarians, policymakers, planners, representatives of nongovernmental organizations, research and technical institutes, and other relevant people at the global, regional, national, or subnational level. These seminars or workshops should aim for development of proposals for practical action-oriented interventions.
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  10. 10

    Evolution of population policy since 1984: a global perspective.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division

    In: Population policies and programmes. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Policies and Programmes, Cairo, Egypt, 12-16 April 1992. New York, New York, United Nations, 1993. 27-41. (ST/ESA/SER.R/128)

    The world population reached 5.4 billion in mid-1991, and it is growing by 1.7% per annum. The medium-variant United Nations population projection for the year 2025 is now 8.5 billion, 260 million more than the United Nations projection in 1982. This implies reducing the total fertility rate in the developing countries from 3.8 to 3.3 by the year 2000 and increasing contraceptive prevalence from 51 to 59%. This will involve extending family planning services to 2 billion people. For the first time, fertility is declining worldwide, as governments have adopted fertility reduction measures through primary health care education, employment, housing, and the enhanced status of women. Since the 1960s, contraceptive prevalence in developing countries has grown from less than 10% to slightly over 50%. However, 300 million men and women worldwide who desire to plan their families lack contraceptives. Life expectancy has been increasing: for the world, it is 65.5 years for 1990-1995. Infant mortality rates have been halved. Child mortality has plummeted, but in more than one-third of the developing countries it still exceeds 100 deaths/1000 live births. Globally, child immunization coverage increased from only 5% in 1974 to 80% in 1990. At the beginning of the 1980s, only about 100,000 persons worldwide were infected with HIV. During the 1980s, 5-10 million people became infected. WHO projects that the cumulative global total of HIV infections will be between 30 and 40 million by 2000. The European governments are concerned with growing international migration. Currently, 34.5% of governments have adopted policies to lower immigration. In the early 1970s, the number of refugees worldwide was about 3.5 million; by the late 1980s, they had increased to nearly 17 million. A Program of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the 1990s was adopted in September 1990 to strengthen the partnership with the international donor community.
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  11. 11

    Global population policy database, 1991.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Development

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. vi, 199 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/118)

    This global review and inventory of population policies in 1991 is a machine readable database which is available on diskette. Current data on 174 countries are described. Data are based on the Population Policy Data Bank. Policy information is available on the government's view on population growth and the type of intervention to modify fertility level, acceptable mortality level, internal limits to contraceptive access and policy on use of modern contraceptives, government's view and policy and migration/spatial distribution levels, view and policy on international migration and emigration, and the agency responsible for population formulation or coordination of policy. General topics are identified questions and responses follow, i.e., "government's view on population growth" is for Bolivia "too low." The diskettes contain policy information plus statistical data on current and projected population to 2025, the crude birth and death rate, average growth rate, total fertility rate, life expectancy, dependent population, urban population, foreign-born population, and development level. Information is also available on whether the country responded to each of the 6 inquiries, on the UN regional commission code, on the subregion code, and on the full UN Statistical Office country name. A summary description of the variables in the database is included in the annex as well as a detailed description of variables and their codes. The cost of the diskette is US$50 and an order from is provided.
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  12. 12

    CFPA 1987 annual report.

    Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation [CFPA]

    St. John's, Antigua, CFPA, 1987. 39 p.

    In the 1920s 1/3 of the children in the Caribbean area died before age 5, and life expectancy was 35 years; today life expectancy is 70 years. In the early 1960s only 50,000 women used birth control; in the mid-1980s 500,000 do, but this is still only 1/2 of all reproductive age women. During 1987 the governments of St. Lucia, Dominica and Grenada adopted formal population policies; and the Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation (CFPA) called for the introduction of sex education in all Caribbean schools for the specific purpose of reducing the high teenage pregnancy rate of 120/1000. CFPA received funds from the US Agency for International Development and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to assist in its annual multimedia IEC campaigns directed particularly at teenagers and young adults. CFPA worked with other nongovernmental organizations to conduct seminars on population and development and family life education in schools. In 1986-87 CFPA held a short story contest to heighten teenage awareness of family planning. The CFPA and its member countries observed the 3rd Annual Family Planning Day on November 21, 1987; and Stichting Lobi, the Family Planning Association of Suriname celebrated its 20th anniversary on February 29, 1988. CFPA affiliate countries made strides in 1987 in areas of sex education, including AIDS education, teenage pregnancy prevention, and outreach programs. The CFPA Annual Report concludes with financial statements, a list of member associations, and the names of CFPA officers.
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  13. 13

    Haiti. Project paper. Family planning outreach.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. International Development Cooperation Agency

    [Unpublished] 1981 Aug 28. 222 p. (AID/LAC/P-085)

    The background, goals, projected activities and beneficiaries, financial requirements, and implementation plans for a Family Planning Outreach Project in Haiti are detailed. The project is intended to assist the Government of Haiti to establish a cost-effective national family planning program. Population growth continues to accelerate in Haiti, despite high infant and child mortality, significant emigration, and declining fertility. The government does not have an articulated population policy. Although family planning and maternal and child health services have been in existence since 1971, there is no effective access to these services. This project is viewed as a means of achieving a substantial and sustained reduction in family size and improving health status. It is also a means of strengthening the Haitian family so it can participate more directly in the national development process. The purpose of the project will be accomplished through the following activities: 1) improvement of the organization and management of the national family planning program; 2) improvement of the quality and quantity of maternal and child health and family planning services; 3) expansion of the participation of private and voluntary organizations, other governmental, and local community groups in service provision; 4) increase in the availability of contraceptives at reasonable prices through rural and urban commercial channels; and 5) formulation of appropriate population and family planning policies. By the end of the project, all government health facilities and 75% of private facilities will actively counsel and provide family planning services; integrated models of community health and family planning services will have been developed to serve 60% of the population; basic drugs and contraceptives will be available at reasonable subsidized prices throughout the country; and 25% of women ages 15-45 at risk of pregnancy will be continuing users of effective contraceptive methods. The project will be implemented by the existing infrastructure of private and public organizations, primarily by the Department of Public Health and Population and its Division of Family Hygiene. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing US$9.615 million (54%) toward the estimated US$17.980 million cost of the 5-year project. An additional US$6.555 million (36%) will be provided by the Government of Haiti.
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  14. 14

    Building on the Cairo consensus.

    Sai F

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1997; 6(1):6-9.

    No major disagreements developed between the North and the South at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) because the conference preparatory process and the program of action recognized that population as a global problem is not mainly the concern of developing countries, but is instead an integral part of sustainable development and environmental problems. It was accepted early in the preparatory process that overconsumption, extravagant lifestyles, and excessive waste production in the wealthier northern countries contribute to global population and sustainable development problems as much as rapid population growth does in the poorer southern countries. However, political will to address these problems appears to be weak. While there has been no rush to develop population policies, efforts seem to have been stepped up to implement those already existing population policies and to accord population and family planning higher program priority. The author discusses the need to coordinate governmental and nongovernmental agencies in developing comprehensive reproductive health care programs, adolescent sexuality, female genital mutilation, unsafe abortion, maternal mortality, South-South cooperation, and the need for funding.
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  15. 15

    Population control in the new world order.

    Hartmann B

    [Unpublished] 1992. Presented at the forum on Population Policies, Women's Health and Environment, Women's Event, UNCED, 92 Global Forum, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 6, 1992. 13 p.

    In the "new world order" after the Cold War, population control ideology is being polished with a feminist and environmentalist gloss, and marketed with mass communication techniques as another means of social control. In the South the main mechanisms of population control are: 1) Structural adjustment. Government commitment to reduce population growth is often a condition of International Monetary Fund and World Bank structural adjustment loans. This is most recently the case in India, where government expenditure on population control is slated to increase. 2) Targeting population assistance at countries with the largest population sizes. The USAID is planning to double its aid to 17 big countries (India, Indonesia, Brazil). 3) Rapid introduction of long-acting provider-dependent contraceptive technologies, such as Norplant, in health systems that are ill-equipped to distribute them safely or ethically. In addition, these technologies do not protect women from sexually transmitted diseases, notably HIV. They neglect male methods such as the condom and vasectomy. 4) Renewed pressure on governments to remove prescription requirements for hormonal contraceptives. 5) Mass marketing of contraceptives and neo-Malthusian messages. 6) Continued data collection to persuade Southern officials of the need for population control. In the North, population control intensification takes these forms: 1) Expensive and sophisticated propaganda efforts by population agencies trying to increase aid allocations. European government aid agencies are under pressure to change their relatively progressive stances on population to ones more in keeping with the UN Population Fund and World Bank agenda. 2) Alliance building between population agencies and mainstream environmental organizations. 3) Immigration restrictions. 4) Coercive population control of poor women, especially women of color. In addition, a population doublespeak is used to obscure the real intentions of the population establishment when promoting contraceptive choice, claiming to improve women's status, protecting the environment by reducing population growth, endorsing sustainability, and building consensus.
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  16. 16

    Population: a red herring in the environment debate.

    Kilby P

    DEVELOPMENT BULLETIN. 1992 Jul; 24:2-4.

    The Earth Summit was meant to be the culmination of the environment debate around the world. The fact is that its reductionist agenda did not provide a comprehensive analysis of human interaction with the environment. The United States refused to have the issue of population linked with poverty in the Third World and over-consumption in the First World. The lifestyle of the United States was not up for negotiation. That population was not discussed is seen by many as a major failure of the Earth Summit. Population growth is one element in a complex series of interactions affecting the environment, of which resource consumption levels are clearly the most important. The issue of population growth is not presented in terms of resource sustainability, equity, or access, but rather simply by the assertion that there are too many people in the Third World. The population debate is often presented in a way counter to the principle of women's autonomy. While gender equity issues are about choice, much of the debate on population is about control. The discussions of population policies seldom mention the third most populous country, the United Stats, characterized by high consumption and inefficient use of technology. The UN Development Program's Human Development Index shows than on energy use and greenhouse emissions, the developing world's per capita contribution is 1/10th and 1/5th, respectively. The world's population could reduce by the 1 or 2 billion poorest people and have very little impact on the environmental crisis facing the world. A better way of presenting population issues is to relate gross energy consumption to population, focusing on countries with high populations and over-consumption such as the United States, Japan, Europe, and Australia. The First World has to start looking inward at its own unsustainable consumption and population practices.
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  17. 17

    A major mobilization. ICPD follow-up.

    POPULI. 1995 Jan; 22(12):4-5.

    According to speakers from 45 countries, at a UN General Assembly debate (November 17-18), "a major mobilization of resources and effective monitoring of follow-up actions are needed" in order to implement the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Algeria spoke for developing countries in the Group of 77 (G77) and China; commended the Programme's recognition of the key role played by population policies in development and its new approach that centered on people rather than numbers; called for concerted international mobilization to meet ICPD goals for maternal, infant, and child mortality, and access to education; and, since G77 had agreed at the Cairo Conference that developing countries should pay two-thirds of the implementation costs of the Programme, asked industrialized countries to provide the remaining third from new resources, rather than by diversion of existing development aid. It was reported that G77 is preparing a draft resolution which will address distribution of ICPD follow-up responsibilities. Germany spoke for the European Union; commended the shift of focus from demographics and population control to sustainable development, patterns of consumption, women's rights, and reproductive health; and suggested that the World Summit on Social Development and the Fourth World Conference on Women, which will be held in 1995, could carry on the Cairo agenda (a point underscored by Thailand). It was reported that several Western European countries had already pledged substantial increases in population assistance. Indonesia and South Korea addressed increasing South-South cooperation in population and development. Nigeria and the Holy See noted the emphasis on national sovereignty in regard to law, religion, and cultural values. Many called for a global conference on international migration. To ensure a common strategy for ICPD follow-up within the UN system, UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali has asked UNFPA Executive Director Nafis Sadik to chair an inter-agency task force. All UN agencies and organizations have been asked to review how they will promote implementation of the Programme of Action.
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  18. 18

    New world order and West's war on population.

    Wilson A

    ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL WEEKLY. 1994 Aug 20; 29(34):2,201-4.

    The aim of US-promoted population policies is maintaining and securing the economic and political dominance of capitalist states. Governments of developed countries blame overpopulation in developing countries for destroying the planet and those of developing countries blame overconsumption, waste, and industrial pollution in the capitalist countries to be responsible. Developed countries and the UN profess that population control is in the interests of development and for the sake of women's rights. Many women's groups protest planned and already existing population policies and bear witness to the suffering women from developing countries experience, raising the question of choice of these policies. Sexism served as the smokescreen behind which US strategies of population control were implemented. The concept of sustainable development is also used to advance population policies in developing countries. Developed countries use this concept to maintain the status quo, agricultural countries as such, cash crop economies, dependency on food, foreign aid, and loans and to continue their exploitation in developing countries. USAID, UNFPA, and the World Bank are the major moneylenders for population control. The US targets Africa for population control because it produces 90-100% of four minerals vital to US industry. The new phase of capitalist development has shifted the state's role from its function as a nation state to facilitator of global capital. Population control policy, national security laws, and anti-trade union laws are used to create a docile and immobile pool of labor. The World Bank, the IMF, and the WTO, through their structural adjustment policies, provide the infrastructure to implement population policies and targets. Population policies focusing on targets take control away from women. People in developing countries will not accept these population policies until they have control of their lives. They need assurance of child survival and to be in a position to plan their future. The population control lobby now uses deception to thwart resistance.
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  19. 19

    [And after Cairo? It is now that the difficulties begin] Le Caire, et apres? C'est maintenant que les difficultes commencent.

    Speidel J


    The international community and the UN should be congratulated for adopting a strategy and a very clear action plan at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The process leading up to and during the conference allowed all member nations, even the most conservative members, to communicate their interest in problems associated with population and development and their approaches to solving the problems. The members reached consensus and adopted the program of action. Conference delegates finalized the program of action by concentrating on a global vision of population policy. They recognized the need for unrestricted access to high quality family planning services and the right of women. The document calls for improved reproductive health in developing countries. Specifically, it pronounces the need for improved sanitary conditions during childbirth, access to safe abortion where it is legal, and successive steps to reduce sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS. Implementation of the program of action poses some difficulties, however. Will the most developed countries provide the necessary financial resources to meet the needs of family planning and reproductive health? Many such countries have promised to contribute US$ 17 billion to meet these needs in developing countries. The US plans to contribute US$ 600 million in 1995. Japan will contribute US$ 3 billion over the next 7 years, 33% of which will go to family planning. Germany plans to give US$ 2 billion over the same period. The European Union plans to give US$ 400 million each year. Other countries also plan to contribute (UK and Belgium). We must make sure that the words adopted in Cairo become reality for the men and women of the planet.
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  20. 20

    Population, environment and development.

    Karkal M

    HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1994 Jun; 2(3):8-10.

    Western development models label subsistence economies, which do not participate in the market economy on a grand scale and do not consume commodities produced for and distributed through the market, to be poor. Yet, subsistence does not always indicate a low quality of life. The Western development process has destroyed wholesome and sustainable lifestyles. In India, the Green Revolution caused many small farmers to lose their land. In comparison to traditional economies, industrial economies have longer technological chains dependent on higher energy and resource inputs and exclude large numbers of people without power to buy goods. Further, they generate new and artificial needs, necessitating increased production of industrial goods and services. They erode resource bases for survival. This erosion is marginalizing people who were traditionally in nature's economy. Developed countries did not deliver 0.15% of their GNP to development projects in developing countries as promised. The US made population growth in these countries its cause. The UN and other multinational agencies during 1962-1972, at the US's request, began to support population and family planning programs in developing countries. These countries opposed the 1st draft at the 1974 Bucharest Population Conference, but by the conference in Mexico City, most supported the need for family planning. Yet, the US politicized this conference and had a greater say in the recommendations than did developing countries. Structural adjustments and external debt repayments required of developing countries in the 1980s set them back. In fact, the number of developing countries increased from 31 to 42. The UN recognizes the right to development, but social inequalities are barriers to this right. If environmental degradation continues, poverty will only increase. Women's groups are playing a great role in preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September 1994.
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  21. 21

    From comparison to choices. The voice of the voiceless.

    Geary J

    ORGYN. 1994; (4):10-3.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF] was established in 1952. It promotes and supports family planning services in more than 130 countries worldwide. It also educates people and governments about the benefits of family planning. IPPF's Assistant Secretary General, Dr. Pramilla Senanayake, will be chairing the FIGO symposium entitled From Comparison to Choices. An advantage of her chairing the symposium is that, being a pediatrician, she approaches family planning from the child's point of view, while obstetrician/gynecologists approach it from the woman's point of view. Contraceptive choice is very important since no method is ideal for all couples and one's contraceptive needs change at each life stage. New contraceptive methods and improved service delivery of both existing and new methods are essential to bring effective contraceptives to everyone who needs them. The newer oral contraceptives (OCs) provide better cycle control and efficacy and fewer side effects than the most recent older OCs. Breast feeding women need a contraceptive 4-6 months after childbirth and one that does not decrease lactation. No current contraceptive fits the lifestyle of female teens because they have intercourse irregularly and are most in need of contraception. No really effective reversible method exists for men. Family planning methods are crucial to women and children's health and to achieving zero population growth. They are essential to avert environmental catastrophe, since population growth is straining natural and social resources. IPPF is a pioneer in targeting marginalized populations (refugees, males, migrants, and adolescents). IPPF serves as an advisor to local staff and volunteers who know the problems and needs of their own people, so they develop programs that are culturally sensitive and culture-specific. People in the US consume 15 times more natural resources than do Indians. Family planning is a way to prevent war, famine, and disease.
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  22. 22

    Global burden sharing.

    Brundtland GX

    INTEGRATION. 1994 Jun; (40):11-3.

    The Prime Minister of Norway discusses issues of population growth and sustainable development. Months before the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, she establishes the basis upon which a global compact on population and development can be built. Individuals and groups in developed countries increasingly implore people in developing countries to reduce their levels of fertility in the interest of environmental protection and sustainable development. People in developing countries, however, point out that the industrialized developed countries have a disproportionately large role in polluting the environment. Fertility declines, lower consumption levels in the North, and less waste are all needed to safeguard the long-term health and survivability of the planet. The world simply cannot sustain a Western level of consumption for all. Accordingly, a commitment by the South to reduce population growth should be coupled with an equal commitment from the North to reduce the strain of consumption and production patterns on the global environment. Individual attitudes and habits must change while internationally coordinated political decisions are also made about the course and content of the world economy. Norway hosted a meeting January 1994 to address changing consumption patterns in hopes of launching a qualitatively new debate on sustainable consumption in the North and to demonstrate to the South that we are serious about our responsibility. As we move ahead, the author stresses the need to recognize the importance of providing education to both men and women, and paying the bill for necessary global reforms.
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  23. 23

    [The World Conferences on Population] Les Conferences mondiales sur la population.

    Tabah L

    Population et Societes. 1994 May; (290):1-3.

    The first international population conference was organized in 1927 by the League of Nations, and led to creation of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. At the time, the concept of family planning as an exercise of individual freedom was controversial in countries such as France which were intent on raising their low birth rates. After the war, the UN created a Population Commission and a Population Division for demographic study. The first director general of UNESCO, Julian Huxley, recommended that each country develop a population policy to be integrated into a world policy. His proposed World Population Conference finally was held in Rome in 1954. It was a conference of experts, not of government representatives, but the debates were as much political and ideological as scientific. The concept of population explosion was at the time replacing the notion of overpopulation. In 1962, Sweden announced that it would include family planning in the population programs it financed. The willingness of the UN to respond to all requests for population and family planning assistance was announced at the 1965 World Population Conference in Belgrade. The idea that rapid population growth had negative effects on economic development was becoming prominent. In December 1966, twelve heads of government signed a Population Declaration affirming the right of couples to knowledge and means of family planning. The UN Fund for Population Activities was created; its annual budget has grown from $5 million in 1969 to $240 million at present. The 1974 World Population Conference at Bucharest was a meeting of governments and not of experts. The Plan of Action finally adopted declared demographic variables to be dependent on development and social justice. Fertility regulation was related to family welfare and contraception to maternal and child health, female education, and regulation of age at marriage. The Bucharest Conference legitimized the concept of population policies. By the 1994 World Population Conference in Mexico City, a deceleration of demographic growth was occurring in many countries due to the combined effects of economic progress and family planning programs. The gap between countries better integrated into the world economic system and those especially in sub-Saharan Africa that were failing to achieve integration was widening. The European countries began calling attention to their own population problems of aging, low fertility, and international migration. Abortion was debated but did not appear in the final conference document. The eighty-eight recommendations were adopted by acclamation. The upcoming 1994 Cairo Conference, like the Bucharest and Mexico City conferences, was preceded by expert meetings and regional conferences. The proposed World Population Plan of Action is more elaborate than its predecessors, and the range of problems to be addressed is daunting. The Cairo Conference will have been useful if it advances international cooperation even slightly.
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  24. 24

    The Munich Summit on the Environment and on Population.


    At the end of the G-7 Summit in Munich, Germany, on July 8, 1992, an Economic Communique was issued. One section of the communique is concerned with the environment and refers to the Rio Earth Summit, another section deals with the economic situation in developing countries. As a result of the Earth Summit, all countries are urged to move toward sustainable development to safeguard the interests of present and future generations by reducing climate change, protecting forests and oceans, preserving marine resources, and maintaining diversity. The G-7 countries urge other countries to ratify the Climate Change Convention and to draw up and publish national action plans by the end of 1993, to work to protect species and habitats, to give additional financial and technical support to developing countries for sustainable development, to establish a Sustainable Development Commission at the 1992 UN General Assembly, to establish an international review process for the forest principles, to improve monitoring of the global environment, to promote development and diffusion of energy and environment technologies, and to convene the international conference on straddling and highly migratory ocean fish stocks as soon as possible. Among developing countries, although many have made economic and political progress, sub-Saharan Africa remains a cause for concern. The G-7 countries are committed to meeting global challenges such as population growth and the environment through worldwide cooperative efforts. Progress will only be assured if countries mobilize their own potential, involve all segments of the population, and respect human rights; progress can be enhanced by regional cooperation. Special attention must be paid to poverty, population policy, education, health, the role of women, and the well-being of children. Industrial countries are responsible for developing a sound global economy through trade, direct foreign investment, and activities of the private sector, all of which are important to developing countries. Countries that help themselves in credible ways will be supported in particular, and technical assistance should be offered to establish a diversified export base, especially in manufacturing.
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  25. 25

    Highlights of interventions at meeting for 1994 International Conference on Population and Development.

    POPULATION HEADLINERS. 1993 Jun; (219):4-5.

    The Preparatory Committee for the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt (September 5-14, 1994), has received recommendations for the conference's final document from various population and development organizations. UNFPA's Executive Director, who serves as Secretary-General of this Conference, recommends that the document should list goals for all countries to achieve over 20 years, particularly a goal of dedicating 20% of public sector expenditures to social programs. She also calls for developing countries to reach levels of developed countries in maternal and infant mortality, life expectancy, education, gender equality, and access to the entire spectrum of family planning services. The Conference should affirm reproductive rights. Population activities of official development assistance should increase from 1.5% to 4%. Representatives from other groups and/or countries echo her concerns, but some want to accord more emphasis to other issues as well, including development, demographic aging, employment, the disabled, and poverty. The Japanese representative informs the Committee that the Government of Japan, UNFPA, and the United Nations University are sponsoring an international conference on global population issues in Tokyo during the summer of 1994. The Nepalese representative hopes the Conference recommendations will be practical, affordable, and appropriate to the objectives of developing countries. The Pakistani representative wants the Cairo Conference to build on the Bucharest and Mexico City Conferences and on the UN Conference on Environment and Development rather than renegotiating them.
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