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  1. 1

    [Recommendations of the Population World Plan of Action and of the United Nations Expert Group on Population Distribution, Migration and Development] Recomendaciones del Plan de Accion Mundial sobre Poblacion y del Grupo de Expertos de la Organizacion de las Naciones Unidas sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo.

    De Oliveira O

    In: Reunion Nacional sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 11 de mayo de 1984, [compiled by] Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO]. Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 21-31.

    Highlights are presented of the expert meeting on population distribution, migration, and development held in Hammamet, Tunisia, in March 1983 to prepare for the 1984 World Population Conference. Rafael Salas, Secretary General of the World Population Conference, indicated in the inaugural address of the meeting that changes in the past 10 years including the increasing importance of short-term movements, illegal migrations, and refugees would require international agreements for their resolution. In the area of internal migrations, Salas suggested that in addition to migration to metropolitan areas which continues to predominate, short-term movements of various kinds need to be considered in policy. Improvement in the quality of life of the urban poor is an urgent need. Leon Tabah, Adjunct Secretary General of the World Population Conference, pointed out that population distribution and migration had received insufficient attention in the 1975 World Population Conference, and that the World Population Plan of Action should be modified accordingly. Among the most important findings of the meeting were: 1) The Plan of Action overstressed the negative effects of urbanization and rural migration. Available evidence suggests that migration and urbanization are effects rather than causes of a larger process of unequal regional and sectorial development 2) The historical context of each country should be considered in research and planning regarding population movements. 3) Analyses of the determinants and consequences of migration were reexamined in light of their relationship to the processes of employment, capital accumulation, land tenure, technological change, ethnic and educational aspects, and family dynamics. 4) The need to consider interrelationships between urban rural areas in formulation of policy affecting population distribution was emphasized. 5) National development strategies and macroeconomic and sectoral policies usually have stronger spatial effects than measures specifically designed to influence population distribution, and should be examined to ensure compatability of goals. 6) Population distribution policies should not be viewed as ends in themselves but as measures to achieve larger goals such as reducing socioeconomic inequalities. 7) Multiple levels of analysis should be utilized for understanding the causes and consequences of population movements. 8) Programs of assistance should be organized for migrants and their families. 9) The human and labor rights of migrants and nonmigrants should be considered in policy formulation. 10) Policies designed to improve living and working conditions of women are urgently needed.
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  2. 2

    [National Conference on Population Distribution, Migration and Development, Guadalajara, Jalisco, May 11, 1984] Reunion Nacional sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 11 de mayo de 1984.

    Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO]

    Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 107 p.

    Proceedings of a national conference on population distribution, migration, and development held in Guadalajara, Mexico, in May 1984 in preparation for the 1984 World Population Conference are presented. 2 opening addresses explain the objectives and relevance of the national conference, while the 1st conference paper outlines the recommendations of the World Population Plan of Action and of an expert meeting sponsored by the UN in Tunisia in 1983 on the topic of population distribution, migration, and development. The main conference papers discuss recent evolution of population distribution in Mexico; migration, labor markets, and development, including migratory flows and the economic structure of Mexico, recommendations of the World Population Conference of 1974, the migration policy of the Mexican National Development Plan, and the National Employment Service as an instrument of migration policy; and reflections on the World Population Conference, the Mexican government, and the design of an international migration policy, including commentarty on the recommendations of the expert committee on international migration convened in preparation for the World Population Conference, and comments on problems in design of migration policy. The main recommendations of the conference were 1) the principles of the World Population Plan of Action, particularly in regard to respect for fundamental human rights, be reaffirmed; 2) policies designed to influence population movement directly be supplemented by and coordinated with other social and economic policies likely to produce the same effect; 3) coordination among all sectors be improved to ensure effective implementation of policy goals; 4) efforts be undertaken to provide more detailed information on internal migratory movements; 5) laws governing migration and population distribution in Mexico be carefully analyzed and possibly modified; and 6) a clear and realistic international migration policy be formulated which would take into account the need for more detailed data on international migration, a clear definition of policy objectives in international migration, respect of basic human rights, and coherence between external and internal international migration policies.
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  3. 3

    Population policy briefs: current situation in developed countries, 1980.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, UN, 1981 Jan 26. 41 p. (ESA/P/WP.72)

    The attempt is made to present on a systematic basis a brief summary of governments' current perceptions and policies in relation to population growth, fertility, international migration, and spatial distribution. The assessment, which covers 35 Member States and Non-Member States of the United Nations considered to be developed, is of September 1980. The information included in this document is based on the replies to the 3rd and 4th Population Inquiry Among Governments, material contained in the Population Policy Data Bank of the Population Division, and national development plans and publications of various organizations. The 35 countries assesed are the following: Albania; Australia; Austria; Belgium; Bulgaria; Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic; Canada; Czechoslovakia; Denmark; Finland; France; German Democratic Republic; Federal Republic of Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Italy; Japan; Luxembourg; Malta; Netherlands; New Zealand; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic; Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; United Kingdom; United States of America; and Yugoslavia.
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  4. 4

    [Population policy in the Third World eight years after Bucharest: hopes and realities] Les politiques de population dans le Tiers Monde huit ans apres Bucarest: espoirs et realites.

    Chasteland JC

    Revue Tiers Monde. 1983 Apr-Jun; 24(94):277-304.

    2 events of the past 2 decades have been of vital importance in the history of the human race: the slowing of the very high rates of population growth and the massive interventionism of governments in the demographic domain. This article describes the current status of population policies in the Third World, contrasting them to the goals and objectives expressed in the Plan of Action of the World Population Conference in Bucharest. 5 major sections consider the perceptions and policies of governments regarding population growth; morbidity and mortality; fertility, spatial redistribution and internal migration; and international migration. It is concluded that the objectives of the Plan of Action were sometimes attained, sometimes surpassed, and sometimes merely forgotten. National population policies have tended to be both general and diverse, not focusing solely on antinatalist interventions. The concept of integration of demographic policy into development policy has furnished a theoretical and practical basis of compromise between those who see development as the best means of limiting fertility and those who view fertility control as a prerequisite for development. Integration in the actual implementation of policies has been less frequently achieved. Programs to control fertility have had characteristics out of keeping with the spirit or letter of the Plan of Action, such as recourse to coercion on family size and careful restrictions on geographic mobility. Among some of the poorest countries, the urgency of controlling demographic growth in order to facilitate economic development has eclipsed to some extent respect for individual rights. A new world demographic order is evolving, with the reduction in fertility rates accelerated by population policies covering most of the developing world. But the momentum of growth resulting from the very high rates of fertility in the past few decades means that world population will continue to increase for years into the future. When world population stabilizes at about 10 billion, the population of the currently industrialized nations will account for only about 13%, compared to the 25% of today.
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