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New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2005.  p.At the Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) in Beijing, China, September 1995, 189 countries adopted the Declaration and Platform for Action, reflecting a new international commitment to the goals of equality, development and peace for all women everywhere. Five years later, in June 2000, Member States reaffirmed their commitments to the twelve critical areas of concern in the Beijing Platform at the Beijing +5 session of the General Assembly at United Nations Headquarters in New York, and considered future actions and initiatives for the year 2000 and beyond. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) is fulfilling the principles and recommendations of Beijing through its ongoing work, mandated by the Programme of Action endorsed by 179 countries at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo in 1994. The Cairo agenda represents an international commitment to principles of reproductive health and rights for women and men, gender equality and male responsibility, and to the autonomy and empowerment of women everywhere. (excerpt)
International Workshop on Youth Participation in Population, Environment, Development at Colombo, 28th Nov. 83 to 2nd Dec. 83.
Maribo, Denmark, WAY, . 120 p.The objectives of the International Youth Workshop on Population and Development were to provide a forum to the leaders of national youth councils and socio-political youth organizations. These leaders were brought together to review national and local youth activities and their plans and action programs for the future. The outlook for these discussions was local, regional, and global. In addition the Workshop aimed at providing interaction among the youth organizations of the developing and the developed countries. These proceedings include an inaugural address by Gemini Atukorata, Minister of Youth Affairs, Government of Sri Lanka and presentations focusing on the following: youth and development; the key role of youth in production and reproduction -- important factors of development; 60% of the aid goes back to the giving country in several ways; adolescent fertility as a major concern; social development for the poor with particular reference to the well-being of children and women; commitment for the cause is the key to attract funds; and observance of the International Youth Year under the themes of participation, development, and peace. The 11th workshop session dealt with follow-up and the future direction of the World Assembly of Youth (WAY). The following points emerged in this most important session: WAY should emphasize "Youth Participation in Development" as the major program; WAY's population programs should not be limited to just information, education, and communication, and youth groups should be encouraged to become service delivery agents for contraceptives wherever possible; environment awareness should become an integral part of population and development programs; youth in the service of children, health for all, and drug abuse should be the new areas of operation for WAY; and programs of youth working in the service of disabled, especially disabled young people, and youth and crime prevention programs also found favor with the participants. Recommendations and action programs are outlined. Proceedings include a summary of WAY activities and resolutions.
WASHINGTON POST. 1994 Aug 24; E13.The Turner Broadcasting's People Count programming is focusing attention on the global population explosion and the September 1994 United Nations Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The documentary "The Facts of Life" presents a tour of overpopulated regions in both the developed and developing world. Los Angeles, once the city of citrus groves, is now a city of too many cars, too many people, stifling smog and not enough water. Its air quality is expected to violate federal standards for 20 more years. In a Sub-Saharan African village, a couple has 10 children. In such villages, children help families survive. Women in Ghana have an average of 6 children each. In Bangladesh women still have an average of 4 children each, despite the successes of Concerned Women for Family Planning, a group that has trained 30,000 health care workers for that country. Mexico City has run out of water. It has one of the lowest birth rates in the developing world--3 children per woman--yet thousands of people live in garbage dumps. 93 million people are added to the world's population each year. At the present rate of growth, the world total of about 5.6 billion is expected to double by the year 2035. The UN conference centers on a document that delineates how to curb population growth: give women and men access to contraceptives and good health care; educate girls so they will delay childbearing and so they will be able to provide for their children; and shore up the environment so people can support their families. Muslim interests have joined the Vatican in condemning the language that asserts women's rights to regulate their fertility and to terminate pregnancy. Nonetheless, Indonesia's family planning success story was accomplished with the support of the Muslim leaders. The media, a new and modern force, may erode ecclesiastical authority, as evidenced by CNN's examination of the population crisis to help find answers.
HYGIE. 1992; 11(2 Suppl):8-14.In 1991, the Executive Director of UNICEF addressed the World Conference on Health Education in Helsinki, Finland which centered on international cooperation in improving health. Health educators should convince world leaders to apply the money available after reductions in military spending due to the end of the Cold War toward revitalizing health and education systems and alleviating poverty. Another opportunity that they should not let slip away is that more countries are choosing democracy. The international consensus is now leaning toward human centered development. At least 71 national leaders and representatives from 88 other countries have supported the World Summit Plan of Action which emphasizes health education efforts leading toward child survival. This global, political endorsement also presents a plan for social mobilization. Health educators have already contributed greatly to the success of achieving universal child immunization (>80%) by the end of 1990. They communicated health education messages via the mass media and traditional channels to motivate individuals and society to immunize their children. UNICEF has 27 goals for the 1990s such as eradication of polio and guinea worm disease. In 1989, UNICEF, WHO, UNESCO, and about 100 other agencies began the Facts for Life initiative by 1st publishing a book. Lay and professional health educators have incorporated its messages into various media: street theater, radio, comics, soap operas, billboards, T-shirts, and bumper stickers. Medical research has shown that individual responsibility for one's own health adds years to life expectancy, e.g., individuals should not smoke. Health educators face the challenge of reaching adolescents, especially since most behavior patterns are established during adolescence. Other challenges include developing effective messages to curb the AIDS pandemic, to motivate hospitals to promote breast feeding, and to encourage world leaders to place children's needs at the top of society's priorities.
Final report: First Caribbean Health-Communication Roundtable, St. Philip, Barbados, 16-18 November 1987.
[Unpublished] 1987. , 30,  p.To create a mechanism from which to mobilize communications media as a force for health in the Caribbean, the 1st Caribbean Health Communication Roundtable was held in 1987. Organized and initiated by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and cosponsored by UNESCO and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the summary of the objectives discussed at the roundtable are presented in this report. Objectives include sensitizing the media to the health concerns of AIDS, disaster preparedness, nutrition and chronic diseases, and the examination of different types of health communication methodologies. Roundtable participants drafted a series of recommendations for submission to all relevant national, regional, and international agencies. 6 major recommendations covered various aspects of health communication. Workshops at the national and sub-regional level to train media and communications specialists were a suggested means of improving information techniques for health educators. Improvements in coordination and cooperation between Ministries of Health and Ministries of Information, requested by CARICOM, was recommended to strengthen health communication. The addition of an information specialist to the staff of the PAHO office was recommended, as well as the promotion of alternative communication methods and practices. Establishing a regional center for the identification, collection, cataloging, and dissemination of communication ideas, experiences and other resources was another major recommendation. In addition, evaluation of regional communication projects was suggested. Pre- and post-Roundtable questionnaires are reproduced in the Appendices, as are the program schedule, rationale, and list of participants.
JORDEMODERN. 1987 Jun; 100(6):172-3.As long as breast-feeding in the developing and developed countries is threatened by bottle-feeding and too early introduction of supplementary diets, the discussion about how breast-feeding is best protected must be kept alive within the organizations and the mass media. Representatives of the Swedish private organizations' foreign assistance programs participated in a seminar on April 3, 1987 in Stockholm, arranged by the Nordic Work Group for International Breast-Feeding Questions in cooperation with International Child Health (ICH). Breast-feeding increased strongly in Sweden during the 1970s, but bottle-feeding is still the norm in large parts of Europe and continues to increase in the developing countries. 6 years have passed since the international code for marketing of breast milk substitutes (even called the child food code) was approved by WHO, in 1981. It contains rules that limit companies' marketing efforts and establish responsibilities and duties that apply to health personnel. The application of these rules is slow and differences between company policies and practice exist. In a larger perspective, we are dealing with the position and significance of woman and children within the family and society. During a WHO meeting in 1986, a resolution was adopted that reinforces the content of the code, e.g., it stops the distribution of free breast milk substitutes to the hospital, where free samples are often given to leaving mothers. The WHO countries also expressed negative feeling toward marketing child food during a period where breast-feeding may be affected negatively. How the resolution is going to be implemented in Sweden is not yet known. There are signs that even in Sweden the existence of the code is being forgotten. The seminar participants recommended that the Social Board issue a simplified and easily read reminder about the code for wider distribution in Sweden.
New York, New York, Longman, 1988. xv, 223 p.In 1964 Wilbur Schramm, on a grant from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), wrote a book called "Mass Media and National Development." It painted a glowing picture in which the mass media would reveal the way to development and enable the Third World countries to achieve in a few decades the development that had occurred over centuries in the West. By the 1970s it became clear that population growth was overtaking development. The Third World nations began to see the mass media as tools of the conspiracy of transnational corporations in their to keep the Third World a source of cheap labor. The Third World countries began to seek an alternate route to development, without help from either the East or the West. Their ideal and model was China, where the radical alternative had been shown to work. The Third Word countries joined together as the "Non-Aligned MOvement," a organization which had been founded in Indonesia in 1955. By the 1970s the Third Word countries constituted a majority in UNESCO, which they turned into a forum of resentment against the Western mass media, which they perceived as using dominance over world news flow to keep the Third World in a state of cultural dependency on the West. The poverty of the Third World nations, they claimed, was the heritage of colonialism, and the West owed them restitution. The Western news media were identified as the modern day equivalent of the colonial armies of imperialism. The debate over the dominance of Western influence in world news flow was launched in UNESCO by a request from the Soviet Union in 1972 for "a declaration on the fundamental principles governing the use of the mass media with a view to strengthening peace and understanding and combatting war, propaganda, radicalism, and apartheid." The debate in UNESCO took on a new name, the "New World Information Order," in which the Third World nations argued that they had the right to restrict the free flow of news across their borders. UNESCO Director General, Amadou M 'Bow, tabled the resolution and appointed a commission, headed by Sean MacBride, to undertake general review of communications problems in modern society. The report, entitled "Many Voices, One World," was in many ways vague, but it at least endorsed the Western values of free flow of information. The Us offered technological assistance to the Third World under the auspices of the International Program for the Development of Communication. This institution was designed as a world clearinghouse for communication development, but as such it accomplished little. Meanwhile, the Third World countries gave priority to developing their own national news agencies and the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool, dedicated to the "journalism of national development." What this meant, if effect, was journalism limited to "development news" (which by definition was always good)and to "protocol news," i.e., ribbon-cutting and other ceremonial events. By the time of the US withdrawal from UNESCO at the end of 1984, the issue was becoming, if not resolved, at least quiescent, with some indications of progress. At the 1983 conference at Talloires, the World Press Freedom Committee and the Associated Press put together a list of 300 journalistic exchange, training, and internship programs in 70 countries. The World Bank issued a report on "Telecommunications and Economic Development," and a report by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the International Telecommunications Union pointed out the cost-benefit relationship of telecommunications to economic development. Finally, a report by an international commission headed by Sir Donald Maitland stressed the importance of shifting existing resources to telecommunications so that basic communications services would be available to everyone on earth by the early 21st century.
[Unpublished] 1987 Jun.  p.To increase knowledge and proper use of low-dose oral contraceptives and increase availability of affordable contraception for low-income populations in the Dominican Republic, Profamilia (an IPPF affiliate) launched a communications/promotional campaign for Microgynon aimed at men and women under age 35. While strengthening Profamilia's marketing and organizational capabilities so that the program could be maintained without donor subsidies, the Profamilia name was used to communicate the idea of quality at low price. The message that Microgynon is a safe, effective, easily used, temporary method of birth control was relayed through a television commercial aired in 1986; through press releases; on display posters, stickers, matchbooks, memo pads, and bag inserts distributed to pharmacies; by educational/promotional meetings with the medical community; and by orientation sessions with pharmacy employees. Schering Dominica's sales network placed Microgynon in 83% of pharmacies in the Dominican Republic. It was priced significantly below comparable products. Of 500 randomly selected residents, 68% remembered seeing the television commercial. In interviews with 252 Microgynon purchasers, 65% said that they had started using Microgynon after the television advertising campaign. The campaign was successful in reaching the target group of women.
In: Mass communication, culture and society in West Africa, edited by Frank Okwu Ugboajah. [Oxford, England], Hans Zell Publishers, 1985. 74-84.Due to the fact the most independence came in the late 1950s and early 1960s, most of the new African nations faces a broadening gap between themselves and the developed world. Their media systems were inadequate fro an ascent to modernization, and a communications revolution in the Western world was threatening to make their systems even more antiquated. A wide array of individuals and national and international medis, business and governmental organizations and foundations provided assistance and cooperation for theis catch up process. Most, but not all, were motivated by a sincere desire to aid development. A perusal of some of these external groups' activities, in the form of projects, training schemes, bilateral exchanges, broadcasts, and organizational influences, should help the reader to gain insights into the nature and effects of such outside assistance. External assistance has been given both by individual nations and by multilateral cooperation to experimental programs and projects in several newly independent African nations. A few of the more successful projects are examined. Possibly the best known cooperatively sponsored projects have been those in rural radio, with Ghana's rural radio farm forum a prime example. UNESCO and the Canadian government cooperated in 1964-65 with the government of Ghana in a 6-month pilot project in which rural radio forums were tested in 60 villages. The project promoted the educational programs, organized listener groups, led follow-up discussions, and encouraged group action. A number of unique educational projects utilizing radio or television have been cooperatively supported. A wide range of bilateral programs involving the receiving countries have been devised to help the development of African media. Sometimes, due to their government-to-government nature, these programs have been suspect in the eyes of Africans. Several universities outside Africa have provided resources for assisting the African media systems. Most university programs are at least partially supported by governmental grants, but they usually are careful to avoid promulgation of a specific political viewpoint. Possibly the most significant and welcome external cooperation and aid has been in the form of training of African media personnel. Help in this task has come from numerous sources, including organizations in former colonial mother countries. Short courses and training institutes ranging from a few days in length to 6 months or more have been sponsored by outside media organizations, governments, and foundations. In 1972, 40 nations outside Africa were broadcasting to the African continent. This situation remains virtually unchanged today. There is little question that outside broadcasts have influenced Africans.
POPIN Working Group on Dissemination of Population Information: Report on the meeting held from 2 to 4 April 1984.
Popin Bulletin. 1984 Dec; (6-7):69-79.The objectives of this meeting were: to analyze the general dissemination strategy and functions of POPIN member organizations and assess the methods currently employed to identify users; to select publications or other information output and evaluate how they are being distributed and how procedures for the selective dissemination of information are developed; to develop guidelines for determining the potential audience and reader's interests; to discuss the methodology for maintaining a register of readers' interest; to develop guidelines for establishing linds with key press and broadcasting agencies to ensure rapid dissemination of information; to dientify media and organizations currently involved in the dissemination of population information; to document experience and provide recommendations for the utilization of innovative approaches to serve audiences; and to explore ways and means to meet the special needs of policy makers. Problem areas in population information dissemination were identified at the meeting as well as priority areas in meeting speical information needs of policy makers. Collection of information for dissemination is difficult, costly and time-consuming; there is a shortage of staff trained in the repackaging and dissemination of population information; the direct use of the mass media for information dissemination is still very limited; and financial resources are limited. Priority areas include: compilation of a calendar of events or meetings; conducting media surveys and inventories of population infromation centers and their services and compilation of results; resource development through product marketing and preparation of resource catalogues; and preparation of executive summaries highlighting policy implications to facilitate policy making. Recommendations include: promotion of training and technical assistance in population information activities by the POPIN Coordinating Unit; encouraging member organizations with relevant data bases to develop subsets for distribution to other institutions and, where feasible, to provide technical assistance and support for their wider use; the POPIN Coordinating Unit should alert its members regularly of new technological facilities and innovations in the field of information; organizations conducting population information activities at the national and/or regional levels should be encouraged to provide the POPIN Coordinating Unit with yearly calendars of meetings for publication in the POPIN Bulletin; and the members of POPIN are urged to emphasize the need to incorporate specific plans and budgets for population information activities.
Assignment Children. 1984; (65/68):267-72.The Regional Program on Early Stimulation, initiated by UNICEF in Central America and later extended to Latin America, was designed as an educational child rearing program for families in the lowest income group and based on nonformal methods to be used outside the scope of official education programs. The program started with the preparation of a series of booklets with information on illnesses, immunization, nutrition and on the stimulation children require at each stage of their development if they are to achieve their maximum potential. A simple, universal, easy-to-read vocabulary was used. The next step was to introduce some of the concepts contained in the booklets into newspapers and radio programs. In Guatemala, a phone-in program was broadcast with enormous success by a commercial radio station. As a result, a television program was planned. It was decided that a film should be made to illustrate the basic concepts underlying the integral development of the child. In Costa Rica, the film was broadcast by a national television station and seen by almost the entire country. With the help of these materials, and the use of teacher-training courses, group dynamics and special techniques, over 6000 people were trained in early stimulation in Central America. A more comprehensive strategy was devised to make further use of the mass media in Central America. A number of film scripts, television and radio programs were developed in El Slavador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. In other countries radio and television have been used to teach the care required to improve children's biological, psychological and social development. Throughout Central and Latin America, use of the mass media for educational purposes is welcomed. Many of the projects undertaken during the International Year of the Child have been established on a peermanent basis in Central American countries.
The baby killer scandal: a War on Want investigation into the promotion and sale of powdered baby milks in the Third World.
London, War on Want, 1980. 208 p.This sequel to "The Baby Killer", focusses on the advertising, marketing, promotion, and use of infant formulas in developing countries since 1974. Malnutrition and infection from bottle feeding in developing countries has continued to increase because of the lack of education, extensive advertising and promotion of formula manufacturers, and poor sanitary conditions. For example, in Papua New Guinea, 97.6% of infants were breast fed at 3 months in 1972, but by 1976, 35% of mothers surveyed were artificially feeding their babies. Breast milk is shown to be better for babies and mothers because of its protection against infection and malnutrition, high costs, and the loss of emotional bonds between mother and child. In addition, breast feeding is important for natural birth spacing. Factors which continue to influence the decline in breast feeding are urbanization, modernization, available alternatives for artificial feeding, and advertising of manufacturers. One of the major reasons for mothers to turn to bottle feeding is insufficient milk. Problems with the use of formula are the directions for use, incorrect mixing by illiterate people, lack of sanitation, and lack of responsiblity in distribution of products to developing countries by manufacturers. International and national companies have responded to the bottle feeding problem. The Nestle Company was particularly selected for boycott action. Recommended programs which aid in the development of breast feeding are outlined and priorities for changing policy in developing countries are discussed.
Infant and young child nutrition, including the nutritional value and safety of products specifically intended for infant and young child feeding and the status of compliance with and implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes: report by the Director-General.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, March 1983. 39 p.This report to the Health Assembly is presented in 3 parts: Part I--a summary of the present global nutritional situation with particular reference to infants and young children--is based on an initial reading of the results of national surveillance and monitoring activities in over 50 countries. Part II has been prepared in accordance with resolution WHA34.23 which requested the Director-General to report to the Assembly on steps taken to assess the changes that occur with time and under various climatic conditions in the quality, nutritional value and safety of products specifically intended for infant and young child feeding. Part III, in accordance with resolution WHA34.22, summarizes information provided by Member States on action being taken to give effect to the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. It should be read in conjunction with section VI of the Director-General's progress report which informed the 35th World Health Assembly of action taken by WHO and its Member States in the field of infant and young child feeding. In light of the information on the implementation of the Code contained in these 2 reports, and in the absence of any suggestions from Member States for change, the Director-General considers that it would be premature, at this time, to propose any revision of the text of the Code, either its form or content. The Health Assembly's attention will be drawn, in future biennial progress reports on infant and young child feeding, to any development which may have a bearing on the International Code, in accordance with its Article 11.7 and resolution WHA33.32.
Universitas. 1983 Dec; 25(4):253-63.Unescos reports on the gap existing in mass media between the developed and the developing countries shows that in 1978 the 3rd world countries accounted for 70% of the world population, but only 22% of the published book titles, 9% of newsprint consumption, 18% of the radio receivers, and 12% of the television receivers. The contrast is more noticeable with the extremely marked urban rural gap in Central and South America, Africa, and Asia. Although illiteracy is "overleaped" by radio and television, in vast regions of the world participation in the "information-based society" does not go beyond a transistor radio of limited range. The progress in technological development might result in widening further the development gap between North and South in the field of information and communicaton. Research and development are possible almost only in the industrial countries and a few "threshold countries" such as India or Brazil. Satellites, cable networks, or networks of television transmitters confront most developing countries with unsolvable financing problems and human resources needs. While technology can make communications easier in many respects, nearly all developing countries areunable to establish the link to the information-based society with their own resources. Some theorists in North and South either negatethe need for such a link or question it. The international debate in recent years shows that the developing countries recognize both the apparent dangers and the great opportunities of the modern information and communication media: "drop out of the system" has changed to better participation, both in its products and in its control. The essence of the "media declaration" passed by the Unesco general conference in 1978 is a double commitment on the part of the member countries to the goal of a "free flow and a wider and better balanced dissemination of information" and to cooperation in the expedited building up of the inadequate structures in the developing countries. How this commitment is to be realized remains the most important issue for the future. In nearly all developing countries much needs to be done before a functioning media system which reaches all citizens and can be used by everyone is achieved. The Federal Republic of Germany, as a donor country and through government channels, political foundations, and nongovernment organizations, has given 1 billion deutsch marks for media aid to developing countries. The main emphasis is on the supply of equipment and material and on training and consultative assistance. For several years cooperation in the building of new agencies has been a priority, and it is hoped that this will continue so that the media declaration of 1978 can be kept.