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In: Campbell AA, ed. Social, economic, and health aspects of low fertility. [Bethesda, Maryland], U. S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, 1980. xi-xii. (NIH 80-100)An explanation as to why WHO (World Health Organization) was co-sponsoring a conference on the social, economic, and health implications of low fertility was provided. WHO defines health broadly to include not just physical health but also mental and social health. WHO's interest in the health implications of population dynamics is a long-term concern. In 1965 the World Health Assembly, recognizing the impact of population dynamics on the health status of populations, mandated WHO to study the health implications of population dynamics, human reproduction, and family planning. Since that time this mandate was frequently reaffirmed and broadened. Given WHO's broad approach to health problems, WHO's interest in the health implications of declining fertility and low fertility is logical and understandable.