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  1. 1

    A fresh injection of interest for vaccines.

    AIDS ANALYSIS AFRICA. 1998 Feb; 8(1):3, 6.

    In recent years, HIV/AIDS funding has gone largely to prevention measures, drug therapy for people who are already infected with HIV, and basic related science. HIV/AIDS vaccine development has been of only low priority, and almost no effort is targeted toward vaccines appropriate for use in developing countries. A vaccine, however, is theoretically the only way to end the epidemic. An attempt was made at the Abidjan AIDS Conference to reinvigorate the AIDS vaccine research program, but because the potential market for such a vaccine is in the poorer developing countries, it will be difficult to convince the pharmaceutical industry to renew investment in vaccine research. Pharmaceutical companies see no profit potential in vaccine development and marketing. The World Bank's suggestion on how to encourage the pharmaceutical industry to invest again in vaccine research is discussed. The gp120(E) vaccine is undergoing an early-stage trial in Thailand, and another trial is scheduled for later in 1998 in Uganda. However, none of the 25 possible vaccine types which have been developed in the laboratory and tested for safety on humans has gone into efficacy trials. Experts calculate that even if more intensive work were to begin now, a vaccine could not become generally available before 2005, due to the 8-year product evaluation cycle. Whether a vaccine based upon one HIV subtype will be effective against other subtypes, and the need for governments and donors to invest in the development of a vaccine are discussed.
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  2. 2

    World development report 1993. Investing in health.

    World Bank

    New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993. xii, 329 p.

    The World Bank's 16th annual World Development Report focuses on the interrelationship between human health, health policy, and economic development. WHO provided much of the data on health and helped the World Bank on the assessment of the global burden of disease found in appendix B. Following an overview, the report has 7 chapters covering health in developing countries: successes and challenges; households and health; the roles of the government and the market in health; public health; clinical services; health inputs; and an agenda for action. Appendix a lists and discusses population and health data. The report concludes with the World Development Indicators for 127 low, lower middle, upper middle, and high income countries in tabular form. All developed and developing countries have experienced considerable improvements in health. But developing countries, particularly their poor, still experience many diseases, many of which can be prevented or cured. They are starting to encounter the problems of increasing health system costs already experienced by developed countries. The World Bank proposes a 3-part approach to government policies for improving health in developing countries. Governments must promote an economic growth that empowers households to improve their own health. Growth policies must secure increased income for the poor and expand investment in education, particularly for girls. Government spending on health must address cost effective programs that help the poor, such as control and treatment of infectious diseases and of malnutrition. Governments must encourage greater diversity and competition in the financing and delivery of health services. Donors can finance transitional costs of change in low income countries.
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  3. 3

    From empty-world economics to full-world economics: recognizing an historical turning point in economic development.

    Daly HE

    In: Population, technology, and lifestyle: the transition to sustainability, edited by Robert Goodland, Herman E. Daly, Salah El Serafy. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1992. 23-37.

    The human economy has moved from an era in which manmade capital was the limiting factor in economic development to the present when remaining natural capital has become the limiting factor. Natural capital is the stock from which comes natural resources. As human populations have grown and many countries have developed economically, manmade capital has been developed and accumulated to exploit often unowned natural capital and resources as if they had no price. No self-interested social class exists to protect these resources from overexploitation. Current levels of extracting and harvesting natural capital are simply not sustainable. This concept of full-world economics, however, is not accepted as academically legitimate by those of the empty-world school. Neoclassical economics considers factors of production to be substitutable and not complementary; this is not the case for the world's stock of natural capital. Assuming that natural capital has become the limiting factor, economic logic dictates the need to maximize its productivity and increase its supply. Investment and technology should therefore focus upon preserving and restoring natural capital while improving the productivity of natural capital more than manmade capital. Population growth must be reduced in developing countries and both population growth and per capita resource use must be constrained in more developed countries. Supporting these objectives, the World Bank, the UN Environment Program, and the UN Development Programme have started a biospheric infrastructure investment called the Global Environment Facility. It will provide concessional funding for programs investing in the preservation or enhancement of the protection of the ozone layer, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, protection of international water resources, and protection of biodiversity. These issues will gain prominence in development bank lending policies.
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