Your search found 9 Results
In: Population policies and programmes. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Policies and Programmes, Cairo, Egypt, 12-16 April 1992. New York, New York, United Nations, 1993. 165-80. (ST/ESA/SER.R/128)The International Forum on Population held at Amsterdam in 1989 called for a doubling of support to the population sector by the year 2000, which was endorsed by a United National General Assembly resolution in 1989 and by a meeting of the Development Assistance Committee of OECD in June 1990. In 1992 the United States provided 56.4% of all population funding and 78.3% of all bilateral funds. By 1990, the percentage had dropped to 42.1%. Donors other than the United States have delivered their bilateral assistance through 1) multilateral-bilateral arrangements channeling bilateral funds through United Nations bodies; 2) international nongovernmental organizations, such as the International Statistical Institute (ISI); 3) regional institutions such as CELADE in the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and the University of the West Indies; 4) local nongovernmental organizations; 5) national nongovernmental organizations, such as the Danish Red Cross or the World University Service (Canada), the World Bank, or the Asian Development Bank. As of 1989/90 only a few countries had many bilateral donors: Bangladesh, 10; Kenya, 9; Tanzania and Zimbabwe, 5 each; while 4 others had 4 donors and 8 had 3 donors. A total of 59 countries are receiving bilateral assistance. The recently proposed Priority Country Strategy of the United States would focus bilateral population funding on 17 countries, while phasing down the others. To maintain current levels of contraceptive prevalence, donor funding will have to double by the year 2000. So far, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom have committed themselves publicly. There will be further pressure to reduce population growth rates in developing countries, as they are the root causes of international migration. In the past 25 years most countries have established population policies which they are implementing. All developed countries have a responsibility to assist with population programs.
Policy initiatives of the multilateral development banks and the United Nations specialized agencies.
In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 301-20. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)The International Labour office (ILO) of the UN analyzes manpower supply and demand and creates guidelines on the treatment of both legal and illegal migrant workers. The UN Economic and Social council (ECOSOC) oversees economic and social issues concerning population. The World Health Organization (WHO) oversees health issues relating to population. The World Bank has been the active member of the World Bank group in Latin America and the Caribbean because only Haiti qualifies to borrow from the soft loan affiliate of the Bank--the International Development Association (IDA). In 1983, the World Bank/IDA made 12 loans to the Caribbean countries totaling $205 million, $120 million of which went to Jamaica. The Bank has shown that special techniques are needed for successful rural development projects involving community understanding and participation, and that traditional development techniques will not work. An interesting change in World Bank philosophy and policy has been the recognition of the need for devising and adopting appropriate technologies to the needs of the rural areas; such technologies include community involvement in water and sanitation, the use of simple hand pumps, low-cost housing, and small-scale irrigation. These solutions are a far cry from the earlier belief that the large dam and power station and the mechanization of agriculture are the cure-all. The 3rd institution specifically geared to making loans to the Caribbean countries is the Caribbean Development Bank, whose accumulated lending amounted to $435 million as of 31 December 1983.
Washington, D.C., Worldwatch Institute, 1986. 66 p. (Worldwatch Paper 70)This monograph focuses on developing electric power, the efficient use of electricity, new approaches in rural electrification, and decentralizing generators and institutions. Electric power systems, for a long time considered showpieces of development, now are central to some of the most serious problems 3rd world countries face. Many 3rd world utilities are so deeply in debt that international bailouts may be required to stave off bankruptcy. Financial probles, together with various technical difficulties, have resulted in a serious decline in the reliability of many 3rd world power systems, which may impede industrial growth. At this time the common presumption that developing countries will soon attain the reliable, economical electricity service taken for granted in industrial nations is in doubt. World Bank support of electricity systems grew from $85 million annually in the mid-1950s to $271 million in the mid-1960s, $1400 million in the early 1970s, and $1800 million in the early 1980s. The Bank's support of electrtic power projects has leveled off in recent years and shrunk in proportional terms as lending expanded in other areas. The general trend is toward greater centralization and governmental control of electric power systems. Commercial banks and government supported lending institutions prefer to deal with a strong central authority that has government financial backing yet is outside the day-to-day political process. The World Bank files reveal a consistent push for greater centralization and consolidation of authority whenever questions of the structure of a power system arise. Over the years, the World Bank has gradually becomes stricter in the institutional preconditions it sets for power loans. By the early 1980s, 3rd world countries were using 6 times as much electric power as they had 20 years earlier but compared with industrial nations electricity plays a relatively small role in 3rd world economies. In most developing nations electricity consumption is so low and the potential future uses so great that electricity use continues to expand even when the economy does not. Meeting projected growth in the demand for electricity services will be virtually impossible without substantial efficiency improvements. The cornerstone of any new program is improve efficiency is a pricing system that reflects the true cost of providing power. Rather than a blanket cure for the problems of village life, rural electrification is simply a tool that is appropriate in some cases. Electric cooperatives offer an approach to rural electrification that has worked well in some countries.
New York, New York, Population Council, Center for Poplicy Studies, 1985 Aug. 42 p. (Center for Policy Studies Working Papers No. 113)This analysis of family planning program funding suggests that current funding levels may be inadequate to meet projected contraceptive and demographic goals. Expenditures on organized family planning in less developed countries (excluding China) totaled about US$1 billion in 1982--about $2/year/married woman of reproductive age. Cross-sectional analysis indicates that foreign support as a proportion of total expenditures decreases with program duration. Donor support to family planning in less developed countries has generally declined from levels in the late 1970s. This is attributable both to positive factors such as program success and increased domestic government support as well as requirements for better management of funds and the worldwide economic recession. Foreign assistance seems to have a catalytic effect on contraceptive use only when the absorptive capacity of family planning programs--their ability to make productive use of resources--is favorable. The lower the stage of economic development, the less visible is the impact of contraceptive use or fertility per investment dollar. On the other hand, resources that do not immediately yield returns in contraceptive use may be laying the foundation for later gains, making increased funding of family planning programs an economically justifiable investment. The World Bank has estimated that an additional US$1 billion in public spending would be required to fulfill the unmet need for contraception. To increase the contraceptive prevalence rate in developing countries to 58% (to achieve a total fertility rate of 3.3 children) in the year 2000 would require a public expenditure on population programs of US$5.6 billion, or an increase in real terms of 5%/year. Improved donor-host relations and coordination are important requirements for enhancing absorptive capacity and program performance. A growing willingness on the part of donors to allow countries to specify and run population projects has been noted.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, . xi, 428 p. (Population Programmes and Projects, v. 1.)The fourth edition of the guide to international population assistance lists multilateral, regional, bilateral, nongovernmental, university, research, and training agencies and organizations that offer financial or technical assistance to population programs in developing countries. The guide is organized by type of agency. Each agency listing includes a description of the mandate of the agency, its population activities, fields of special interest, program areas in which assistance is offered, types of support provided, restrictions, channels and procedures, how to apply for assistances, how programs are evaluated, reports required, and the agency's address. Appendices include a bibliography of current newsletters and journals and index.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 153 p. (World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 688; Population and Development Series No. 13)The 5 chapters of this document, which traces the sources of assiastance for family planning and other population programs from developed countries and the flow of assistance through principal channel organizations to developing countries, focus on the following: population assistance flows; rationales for population assistance; the shape of population programs; the major channels; and the future of population assistance. Official development assistance for population comes primarily from the US, the Nordic countries, and more recently from the Federal Republic of Germany and Japan. Population assistance is channeled primarily through the UN Fund for Population Assistance (UNFPA), nongovernmental organizations, bilateral programs, and the World Bank. In discussing why developing countries seek and why developed countries provide population assistance, this paper concentrates on official views of how population growth and high fertility affect economic development, environment, maternal and child health, and women's welfare. It explains why some countries are reluctant to seek or provide more population assistance. The paper also analyzes what population assistance does to extend reliable and affordable family planning services and information and to improve understanding of population growth, its causes, and consequences. It summarizes current population policies and family planning programs in major regions of the 3rd world and considers the role of assistance. This paper identifies the comparative advantages of principal organizations providing population assistance, focusing on UNFPA, the major nongovernment organizarions, and the major bilateral programs. Finally, it discusses the evolution of "policy issues" affecting population assistance, particularly donors' concern for "demand" for family planning, cost effectiveness of family planning services, safety, and voluntarism.
Population and Development Review. 1984 Mar; 10(1):103-26.This paper presents some of the results of projections prepared by the World Bank in 1983 for all the world's countries. The projections (presented against a background of recent demographic trends as estimated by the United Nations) trace the approach of each individual country to a stationary state. Implications of the underlying fertility and mortality assumptions are shown mainly in terms of time trends of total population to the year 2100, annual rates of growth, and absolute annual increments. These indices are shown for the largest individual countries, for world regions, and for country groupings according to economic criteria. The detailed predictive performance of such projections is likely to be poor but the projections indicate orders of magnitude characterizing certain aggregate demographic phenomena whose occurrence is highly probable and set clearly interpretable reference points useful in discussing contemporary issues of policy. (author's)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 13 p.An overview of the global economy is provided, with particular attention to the 3rd world, and focusing on 4 economic issues that deserve priority in 1984 and for some years to come: improving economic policy and performance in the industrial countries; liberalizing trade; reviving international capital flows; and improving economic policy in the developing countries. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the industrial countries as a group are likely to achieve economic growth of 3.5% in 1984, up from 2.25% in 1983 and negative growth in 1982. The World Bank estimate is that the developing countries will average growth of 3-3.5% in 1984, up from less than 1% in 1983 and less than 2% in 1982. Yet, since population is growing more than 2% a year in the developing countries, average per capita income actually fell in 1982-83 and will increase only modestly in 1984. Economic conditions vary greatly among the developing countries. 1 priority issue, clearly, is improved economic policies and performance in the industrial countries so that they can translate their current recovery into sustained and noninflationary growth. To move from recovery into a sustained period of economic expansion, the industrial countries need to create an environment conducive to structural change. Sustained and rapid growth will require further liberalization of international trade, and this is another priority issue. Barriers to trade must be reduced, including trade between the industrial and developing countries. Trade with developing countries is vitally important to the industrial countries. For the developing countries, growing exports to the industrial countries are essential for the recovery of growth and credit worthiness. For the world's low income countries, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, effective programs of official development assistance are essential. So the World Bank will continue to urge governments to increase their International Development Association (IDA) contributions. Strengthening IDA will be difficult, but it is essential. The slump in commercial bank lending and direct investment, along with very slow growth in official lending and development assistance, has forced the developing countries to cut imports. Looking ahead, it is expected that most developing countries will continue to be able to import more than they export and that the negative net transfers for medium- and longterm lending from private sources will continue to decline gradually. The debt crisis has had a most damaging effect on the private sector in the developing world. Developing countries must pursue economic policy reform urgently and tenaciously, for it is absolutely fundamental to the resumption of their economic and social progress.
Finance and Development. 1973 Dec; 10(4):18-21.The World Bank Group regards excessive population growth as the single greatest obstacle to economic and social advance in the underdeveloped world. Since 1969 the Bank and the International Development Agency have provided countries with technical assistance through education, fact-finding, and analysis and given 65.7 million dollars for population projects. These projects, in India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, and Malaysia provide training centers, population education, research, and evaluation as well as actual construction of clinics and mobile units. Because population planning touches sensitive areas of religion, caste, race, morality, and politics, the involved nation's political commitment to plan population growth is critical to the success of any program.