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  1. 1

    Status of family planning activities and involvement of international agencies in the Caribbean region [chart].

    Pan American Health Organization

    [Unpublished] 1970. 1 p.

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  2. 2

    Guide to sources of international population assistance 1988, fifth edition.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund, 1988. xi, 477 p. (Population Programmes and Projects Vol. 1.)

    This is the 5th edition of the GUIDE to be published. A new edition is issued every 3 years. The GUIDE was mandated by the World Population Plan of Action, adopted by consensus at the World Population Conference held in Bucharest, Romania, in August 1974. Each entry for an organization describes its mandates, fields of special interest, program areas in which assistance is provided, types of support activities which can be provided, restrictions on types of assistance, channels of assistance, how to apply for assistance, monitoring and evaluation of programs, reporting requirements, and address, of organization. International population assistance is broadly construed as 1) direct financial grants or loans to governments or national and non-governmental organizations within developing countries; 2) indirect grants for commodities, equipment, or vehicles; and 3) technical assistance training programs, expert and advisory services, and information programs. To gather information for this edition of the GUIDE, a questionnaire was sent to more than 350 multilateral, regional, bilateral, non-governmental, university, research agencies, organizations, and institutions throughout the world.
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  3. 3

    Population funding: is it adequate?

    Nortman D

    International Family Planning Perspectives. 1987 Mar; 13(1):25-6.

    <2% of development aid for developing countries is designated for population assistance. The best information source regarding population funding is the UN Fund for Population Activities. 1981 estimates place the total figure at US $400 million annually, distributed by a combination of multilateral agencies (49%) bilateral aid from developed country donors to developing country governments (29%) and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs, 22%). 84% of the NGO funds also originated from developed country governments. Preliminary estimates for 1985 place the developed country government contribution at US $466 million. The US provided 62% of this Japan 10% and Norway 5%. 8 countries accounted for 95% of the aid. Tabulated data showing individual countries' contributions relative to their gross domestic products (GDPs) indicate a different order of contributors: Norway and Sweden far outdistance the rest (Norway's contribution relative to its GDP is 5 times greater than that of the US). The US contribution relative to its GDP has declined since 1972, with a slight upturn in 1985. According to the World Bank, funding would have to be double what it is now to meet demand; achieving a total fertility rate of 3.3 children/woman by the year 2,000 would mean an outlay of US $5.6 billion. For fertility to fall rapidly, spending would have to be US $7.6 billion.
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  4. 4

    FPA youth projects planned for 1985.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    [Unpublished] [1984]. [3] p.

    Tables are presented that show the number of youth projects that Family Planning Associations (FPAs) intend to implement during 1985. The information was derived from the 63 Three Year Plans for 1985-87 received at the International Office by September 1984. This number covers most of the FPAs in each region. The exception is the Western Hemisphere where several of their plans arrived in London too late to be included in the analysis. 4 main types of youth work were identified, and this is shown for each country in the tables: to provide family life and population education for young people; to train teachers/youth leaders in the promotion of youth work; to provide family planning/counseling services for young people; and to promote increased awareness of issues affecting young people. The total number of youth projects planned for 1985 is 30 for the 15 countries of Africa. 24 projects are planned for the 13 countries of the Caribbean, Central, and South America. 59 projects are planned for 12 Asian countries.
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  5. 5

    Family planning program funds: sources, levels, and trends.

    Nortman DL

    New York, New York, Population Council, Center for Poplicy Studies, 1985 Aug. 42 p. (Center for Policy Studies Working Papers No. 113)

    This analysis of family planning program funding suggests that current funding levels may be inadequate to meet projected contraceptive and demographic goals. Expenditures on organized family planning in less developed countries (excluding China) totaled about US$1 billion in 1982--about $2/year/married woman of reproductive age. Cross-sectional analysis indicates that foreign support as a proportion of total expenditures decreases with program duration. Donor support to family planning in less developed countries has generally declined from levels in the late 1970s. This is attributable both to positive factors such as program success and increased domestic government support as well as requirements for better management of funds and the worldwide economic recession. Foreign assistance seems to have a catalytic effect on contraceptive use only when the absorptive capacity of family planning programs--their ability to make productive use of resources--is favorable. The lower the stage of economic development, the less visible is the impact of contraceptive use or fertility per investment dollar. On the other hand, resources that do not immediately yield returns in contraceptive use may be laying the foundation for later gains, making increased funding of family planning programs an economically justifiable investment. The World Bank has estimated that an additional US$1 billion in public spending would be required to fulfill the unmet need for contraception. To increase the contraceptive prevalence rate in developing countries to 58% (to achieve a total fertility rate of 3.3 children) in the year 2000 would require a public expenditure on population programs of US$5.6 billion, or an increase in real terms of 5%/year. Improved donor-host relations and coordination are important requirements for enhancing absorptive capacity and program performance. A growing willingness on the part of donors to allow countries to specify and run population projects has been noted.
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  6. 6

    Report on international financial resources for maternal/child health and family planning.

    Maine D; Wray JD; Wallace M; Belsey MA; Foo-Gregory CL

    [Unpublished] 1985. 47 p. (MCH/85.4)

    Despite improvements during the last decade in the health of women and children in developing countries, a great deal remains to be done. Barriers to continued progress take a number of forms, including financial and institutional. A study of existing data on international funding for maternal/child health and family planning (MCH/FP) shows the following: in 1983 the total official development assistance funding from developed countries totalled US$39.6 billion; 72% of these funds were dispersed through bilateral agencies, the rest through multilateral agencies (in 1983); nearly 6% of bilateral funds were allocated to the health sector (which includes population); analysis of 77 UNDP country reports indicates that about 1/10th of development funding is devoted to health and population; this proportion varies considerably by geographical region, being highest in Latin America and lowest in Africa; funding for MCH/FP programs constitutes about 1/15th of health and population funds reported by the UNDP; again, this proportion is lower in Africa than in Asia or Latin America, although this may be changing; in terms of women and children to be served, it appears that, on average, international funding for MCH/FP programs provides less than US$1 each; a survey of donor agencies indicates that most donors are willing to increase their funding of MCH/FP programs; when the donors were asked to name factors that would induce them to increase MCH/FP funds, the 2 most common answers were: more requests for funding, and , better evidence of unmet needs. Institutional barriers to optimal utilization of MCH/FP resources are discussed, including those often encountered in nongovernmental, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as in host countries and industry. Finally, a number of models for effective utilization of development funds are drawn from experience and developed. They include models of global, national, institutional and health services efforts. (author's)
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  7. 7

    International consultation of NGOs on population issues in preparation of the 1984 United Nations International Conference on Population: report of the consultation.

    [Unpublished] [1984]. 83 p.

    196 individuals from 44 countries, representing national and international non-governmental organizations, bilateral agencies and intergovernmental organizations attended the consultation. The purposes of the consultation were: 1) to provide an overview of the contributions of non-governmental organizations to the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action through a wide range of population and population related programs carried out since the Plan was adopted in 1974; 2) to explore what non-governmental organizations believe needs to be done in the world population field during the balance of the century; 3) to prepare for participation in the January 1984 Conference Preparatory Committee meeting and in the Conference itself to be held in August 1984; and 4) to provide suggestions for activities of national affiliates relative to the 1984 Conference. This report provides a synopsis of the plenary sessions and their recommendations. Addresses by numerous individuals covered the following topics: the creative role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the population field; vital contributions of NGO's to the implementation of the world population plan of action; the family; population distribution and migration; population, resources, environment and international economic crisis; mortality and health; and NGO prospects for the implementation of the world population plan of action.
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  8. 8

    Parliamentarians, population and development.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, July 1982. 4 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)

    Discusses the movement to establish groups of Parliamentarians on Population and Development throughout the world. The movement grew out of the need to create understanding among legislators and policymakers of the interrelationship between development, population, and family planning. Parliamentarian groups can help to ensure that population and family planning are included in development plans and that resources are committed to population and family planning programs. The main initiative for the establishment of Parliamentarian groups and for their regional and international cooperation came from the United Nations Fund for Population activities (UNFPA). The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has been involved from the beginning and works closely with UNFPA. The meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Development during 1981 resulted in important regional developments, with IMF affiliates playing a major role. The Washington Conference on Population and Development included Parliamentarians from the Caribbean and Latin America. Priorities for formulating population and development policies were identified. The African Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development marked the first time that a major conference on so sensitive an issue was held in Africa. The Beijung conference was attended by 19 Asian countries and resulted in a declaration calling on Parliaments, governments, UN agencies, and nongovernmental organizations to increase their commitment to all aspects of population and family planning. National developments in India and the Philippines are also discussed. Many of the countries with Parliamentary groups on Population and Development have governments that are involved in providing international population assistance. Greater commitment to population as a crucial factor in development through the establishment of links with governments and parliamentarians is an action area within the IPPF 1982-84 plan.
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  9. 9

    Injectable contraception.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, April 1983. 9 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)

    Discusses the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) position on the use of injectable contraceptives. The 2 currently available injectable contraceptives are depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), which is marketed under the name Depo-Provera, and norethisterone acetate (NET-EN), sold as Noristerat or Norigest. Injectable contraceptives are highly effective, convenient, and have a long-acting effect which is an advantage. DMPA has been approved for contraceptive use in more than 80 developing and developed countries, and NEP-EN, a recent introduction, in 40 countries. After the contraceptive has been approved for domestic use, it is supplied by IPPF to those countries which request it. Injectables are also provided for contraceptive use by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The current positions of the WHO and the IPPF are covered, as well as the positions of Britain, Sweden, and the United States. Criticisms of the injectable contraceptives and IPPF's position regarding these are also discussed. After taking the criticisms into account, IPPF concludes that there is not sufficient reason to change its current position on injectable contraceptives. It will continue to keep all methods under close and continuous review.
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