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New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002. x, 103 p.Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 2000 is the fourteenth edition of a report previously published by UNFPA under the title of Global Population Assistance Report. The United Nations Population Fund has regularly collected data and reported on flows of international financial assistance to population activities. The Fund’s annual Reports focused on the flow of funds from donors through bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental channels for population assistance to developing countries1 and countries with economies in transition. Also included were grants and loans from development banks for population activities in developing countries. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 1981 Aug 28. 222 p. (AID/LAC/P-085)The background, goals, projected activities and beneficiaries, financial requirements, and implementation plans for a Family Planning Outreach Project in Haiti are detailed. The project is intended to assist the Government of Haiti to establish a cost-effective national family planning program. Population growth continues to accelerate in Haiti, despite high infant and child mortality, significant emigration, and declining fertility. The government does not have an articulated population policy. Although family planning and maternal and child health services have been in existence since 1971, there is no effective access to these services. This project is viewed as a means of achieving a substantial and sustained reduction in family size and improving health status. It is also a means of strengthening the Haitian family so it can participate more directly in the national development process. The purpose of the project will be accomplished through the following activities: 1) improvement of the organization and management of the national family planning program; 2) improvement of the quality and quantity of maternal and child health and family planning services; 3) expansion of the participation of private and voluntary organizations, other governmental, and local community groups in service provision; 4) increase in the availability of contraceptives at reasonable prices through rural and urban commercial channels; and 5) formulation of appropriate population and family planning policies. By the end of the project, all government health facilities and 75% of private facilities will actively counsel and provide family planning services; integrated models of community health and family planning services will have been developed to serve 60% of the population; basic drugs and contraceptives will be available at reasonable subsidized prices throughout the country; and 25% of women ages 15-45 at risk of pregnancy will be continuing users of effective contraceptive methods. The project will be implemented by the existing infrastructure of private and public organizations, primarily by the Department of Public Health and Population and its Division of Family Hygiene. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing US$9.615 million (54%) toward the estimated US$17.980 million cost of the 5-year project. An additional US$6.555 million (36%) will be provided by the Government of Haiti.
In: Population policies and programmes. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Policies and Programmes, Cairo, Egypt, 12-16 April 1992. New York, New York, United Nations, 1993. 165-80. (ST/ESA/SER.R/128)The International Forum on Population held at Amsterdam in 1989 called for a doubling of support to the population sector by the year 2000, which was endorsed by a United National General Assembly resolution in 1989 and by a meeting of the Development Assistance Committee of OECD in June 1990. In 1992 the United States provided 56.4% of all population funding and 78.3% of all bilateral funds. By 1990, the percentage had dropped to 42.1%. Donors other than the United States have delivered their bilateral assistance through 1) multilateral-bilateral arrangements channeling bilateral funds through United Nations bodies; 2) international nongovernmental organizations, such as the International Statistical Institute (ISI); 3) regional institutions such as CELADE in the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and the University of the West Indies; 4) local nongovernmental organizations; 5) national nongovernmental organizations, such as the Danish Red Cross or the World University Service (Canada), the World Bank, or the Asian Development Bank. As of 1989/90 only a few countries had many bilateral donors: Bangladesh, 10; Kenya, 9; Tanzania and Zimbabwe, 5 each; while 4 others had 4 donors and 8 had 3 donors. A total of 59 countries are receiving bilateral assistance. The recently proposed Priority Country Strategy of the United States would focus bilateral population funding on 17 countries, while phasing down the others. To maintain current levels of contraceptive prevalence, donor funding will have to double by the year 2000. So far, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom have committed themselves publicly. There will be further pressure to reduce population growth rates in developing countries, as they are the root causes of international migration. In the past 25 years most countries have established population policies which they are implementing. All developed countries have a responsibility to assist with population programs.
In: Latin American Conference on Population and Development Planning, Cartagena, Colombia, 1979. Final report. New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1979. 1-17. (RLA/78/P15; UNFPA/79/CDPP/LA/3)This paper examines UNFPA's role in promoting the integration of population into development planning, with a special emphasis on the Latin America region. The 1st section traces the resolutions and instruments adopted by the UN in the last 25 years on the subject of population and development, later framed in the broader context of a new international development strategy. UNFPA's general mandates and its intercountry activities are described in the 2nd section. The 3rd section summarizes the general situation in Latin America in regard to the integration of population policies and development planning, and outlines the response of UNFPA to the requests of governments at the regional and country levels. The 4th section is a concluding statement indicating UNFPA's willingness to seek guidance from Member States on its course of action and to meet requests for assistance from governments as it considers this necessary and desirable.
International Family Planning Perspectives. 1987 Mar; 13(1):25-6.<2% of development aid for developing countries is designated for population assistance. The best information source regarding population funding is the UN Fund for Population Activities. 1981 estimates place the total figure at US $400 million annually, distributed by a combination of multilateral agencies (49%) bilateral aid from developed country donors to developing country governments (29%) and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs, 22%). 84% of the NGO funds also originated from developed country governments. Preliminary estimates for 1985 place the developed country government contribution at US $466 million. The US provided 62% of this Japan 10% and Norway 5%. 8 countries accounted for 95% of the aid. Tabulated data showing individual countries' contributions relative to their gross domestic products (GDPs) indicate a different order of contributors: Norway and Sweden far outdistance the rest (Norway's contribution relative to its GDP is 5 times greater than that of the US). The US contribution relative to its GDP has declined since 1972, with a slight upturn in 1985. According to the World Bank, funding would have to be double what it is now to meet demand; achieving a total fertility rate of 3.3 children/woman by the year 2,000 would mean an outlay of US $5.6 billion. For fertility to fall rapidly, spending would have to be US $7.6 billion.
New York, New York, Population Council, Center for Poplicy Studies, 1985 Aug. 42 p. (Center for Policy Studies Working Papers No. 113)This analysis of family planning program funding suggests that current funding levels may be inadequate to meet projected contraceptive and demographic goals. Expenditures on organized family planning in less developed countries (excluding China) totaled about US$1 billion in 1982--about $2/year/married woman of reproductive age. Cross-sectional analysis indicates that foreign support as a proportion of total expenditures decreases with program duration. Donor support to family planning in less developed countries has generally declined from levels in the late 1970s. This is attributable both to positive factors such as program success and increased domestic government support as well as requirements for better management of funds and the worldwide economic recession. Foreign assistance seems to have a catalytic effect on contraceptive use only when the absorptive capacity of family planning programs--their ability to make productive use of resources--is favorable. The lower the stage of economic development, the less visible is the impact of contraceptive use or fertility per investment dollar. On the other hand, resources that do not immediately yield returns in contraceptive use may be laying the foundation for later gains, making increased funding of family planning programs an economically justifiable investment. The World Bank has estimated that an additional US$1 billion in public spending would be required to fulfill the unmet need for contraception. To increase the contraceptive prevalence rate in developing countries to 58% (to achieve a total fertility rate of 3.3 children) in the year 2000 would require a public expenditure on population programs of US$5.6 billion, or an increase in real terms of 5%/year. Improved donor-host relations and coordination are important requirements for enhancing absorptive capacity and program performance. A growing willingness on the part of donors to allow countries to specify and run population projects has been noted.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, . xi, 428 p. (Population Programmes and Projects, v. 1.)The fourth edition of the guide to international population assistance lists multilateral, regional, bilateral, nongovernmental, university, research, and training agencies and organizations that offer financial or technical assistance to population programs in developing countries. The guide is organized by type of agency. Each agency listing includes a description of the mandate of the agency, its population activities, fields of special interest, program areas in which assistance is offered, types of support provided, restrictions, channels and procedures, how to apply for assistances, how programs are evaluated, reports required, and the agency's address. Appendices include a bibliography of current newsletters and journals and index.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 153 p. (World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 688; Population and Development Series No. 13)The 5 chapters of this document, which traces the sources of assiastance for family planning and other population programs from developed countries and the flow of assistance through principal channel organizations to developing countries, focus on the following: population assistance flows; rationales for population assistance; the shape of population programs; the major channels; and the future of population assistance. Official development assistance for population comes primarily from the US, the Nordic countries, and more recently from the Federal Republic of Germany and Japan. Population assistance is channeled primarily through the UN Fund for Population Assistance (UNFPA), nongovernmental organizations, bilateral programs, and the World Bank. In discussing why developing countries seek and why developed countries provide population assistance, this paper concentrates on official views of how population growth and high fertility affect economic development, environment, maternal and child health, and women's welfare. It explains why some countries are reluctant to seek or provide more population assistance. The paper also analyzes what population assistance does to extend reliable and affordable family planning services and information and to improve understanding of population growth, its causes, and consequences. It summarizes current population policies and family planning programs in major regions of the 3rd world and considers the role of assistance. This paper identifies the comparative advantages of principal organizations providing population assistance, focusing on UNFPA, the major nongovernment organizarions, and the major bilateral programs. Finally, it discusses the evolution of "policy issues" affecting population assistance, particularly donors' concern for "demand" for family planning, cost effectiveness of family planning services, safety, and voluntarism.
People. 1984; 11(4):4-7.A significant happening at the International Conference on Population, which took place in Mexico City during August 1984, was the world consensus on the need to act more urgently to deal with the interrelated problems of population and development and to provide the conditions of life and means by which everyone can plan their family. The note of concern about the impact of population growth and about its distribution and structure was consistent. Support for expanded family planning services came from all sides, including Africia and Latin America. The UN agencies and the World Bank came nearest to injecting a visionary and emotional charge into the occasion. Their near universal message was the need to release and mobilize the energies of the people and slow excessive population growth by investing in their health, education, environment, employment opportunities and in family planning. Bradford Morse, Administrator of the UN Development Program, added a powerful plea, that the international factors of protectionism, debt, and high increase rates, arms spending, and ddeclining aid flows must be addressed if the goals of the original Plan of Action, i.e., to promote "economic development, wuality of life, human rights, and fundamental freedoms," were to be dealt with. James Grant, Executive Director of UNICEF, stated tha the experience of the past decade confirms "that development and population programs are interacting, mutually reinforcing efforts that work with the 'seamless' web of income, nutrition, health, education, and fertility." The final document put the same idea into various paragraphs. This consensus position was simple and consistent, but in its way, revoluntionary. The elements which brought about this agreement were made clear from the start. The 1st was the change in government attitudes towards population. In 4/5 of the world governments regard population as a key factor inn development strategy. A 2nd factor was that governments now feel more independent and less under external pressure. A 3rd element was that women in nearly all countries desire fewer children than they wanted previously and many are coming out openly and stating that they did not want their last child. A 4th factor was the awareness that population problems affect developed countries as well as developing countries. Along with these changes has come greater awareness of the health and social benefits of family planning. These ideas find expression the the 38 pages of recommendations which were eventually agreed on. The most significant of these was the added emphasis given to the role and status of women.
Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1984.  p.One form of international authority proposed by David Mitrany was that of an advisory and coordinating one where both the performance of a task and the means for its accomplishment remain mainly under national control. Mitrany's theoretical framework and its organizational analogue within the UN and national political arenas account for the emergence of a new UN population policy to cope with the rapid global population growth between 1960 and 1974. The most prestigious outcome of this policy was the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), whose centralized contributions came primarily from the US, Japanese, Swedish, and some other west European governments. Its aim is to assist governments in the development of national family planning programs and in related demographic and family planning training and research programs. UNFPA grants went to UN-system agencies, governments, and private organizations. Recipients include India, Pakistan, Egypt, Malaysia, Kenya, Nigeria and Mexico. A mew ideology emerged to support the concept of an interventionist policy to lower the birth rate. That ideology include the responsibility of each government for its own population; an emphasis on social framework for parental choices about family size; and a legitimate role for international assistance. How the UNFPA came into existence is a political process involving government delegations and officials, UN Secretarist staff, and representatives of selected religious and population transnational organizations. It is also a Laswellian social process model of 7 decision-outcomes marking the significant population events and interactions underlying the creation of UNFPA. 6 UN resolutions and 2 decisions by the Secretary-General denominate these decision outcomes. 2 analytic approaches account for these decision outcomes--the Parsonian concept of organized levels (institutional, managerial, and technical) in conjunction with the Laswellian concepts of centralization/decentralization and concentration/decontration, and the concept of coalitions, (legislative and programming). This expanded UN population policy process reveals the interconnectedness of elites and groups in a global network centered at UFPA. (author's modified)
Draper Fund Report. 1984 Jun; (13):1-3.The UN International Conference on Population to be held in Mexico City in August 1984, responding to an unprecedented upsurge of interest in population over the last decade, offers developed and developing countries the opportunity to assess current and likely future population trends, to comment on programs and progress during the past 10 years, and to determine desirable future directions. More developing countries are reporting diminished declining fertility and family size in countries of widely varying ethnic, social, and economic makeup. Although it is likely that the future will bring a steadily declining rate of world population growth, culminating in stability, present trends indicate that it will take more than a century for world population to stabilize. Meanwhile growth continues. The developing world's annual average birthrate from1975-80 was twice as high as the developed world's. Also there are large areas, much of Latin America and most of Africa, where growth rates continue very high. Other areas, such as parts of Asia, do not follow the general declining trend despite trend despite, in some instances, a long history of population programs. Interest in population programs and demand for resources to support them are growing, but the population dimension is sometimes unrecognized in development planning. The experience of the last decade illustrates that population assistance can make a uniquely valuable contribution to national development when it is given in accord with national policies, is appropriate to local conditions and needs, and is delivered where it can make the most impact. Substantial evidence exists that women in the developing world undertand the risks of repeated pregrancy and would like to take steps to reduce them. It is evident that providers of family planning services are not yet sufficiently responsive to women's own perceptions of their needs and that the social and economic conditions which make family planning a reasonable option do not yet exist. Influxes of immigrants, short and long term, legal and illegal, create particular problems for receiving countries. It is important for sending countries to know what effect the absence of their nationals is having on the domestic economy and essential for receiving countries to consider the protection of the human rights of international migrants, including settlers, workers, undocumented migrants, and refugees. It is a particular responsibility of the industrialized nations to make careful use of limited resources and to ensure that their comsumption contributes to the overall balance of the environment. In most developing countries infectious and parasitic disease remains the primary cause of death, particularly among the young. Much of this toll is preventable. The International Conference on Population provides an opportunity to establish in broad terms the conditions and directions of future cooperation.
Population and the new international economic order, a statement made at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 12 January 1977.
New York, N,Y. UNFPA, . 13 p.A serious attack on the problem of rapid population growth is clearly a priority with most governments of the developing world. Since 1974, there has been little substantive discussion of population as part of the New International Economic Order debates. Most governments have accepted the view that in their own nations there is a negative correlation between population growth and development; and that a long-term strategy of reducing the birth rate is not only prudent but a necessary part of economic and social programs. There is a consensus on population among developing nations. There is international consensus, but few internationally accepted quantitative goals. It is difficult to imagine a New International Order such as the 3rd world countries seek without some recognition of the importance of population issues. Agreement may be achieved, because many of the staunchest supporters of the New International Economic Order are now also the most effective practitioners of a policy of limiting population growth. Many countries are contemplating stronger measures to slow population growth. Acceptance of sterilization has increased recently. The effect of increasing emphasis among developing countries on population programs can be seen in increasing demand for the UNFPA's services. One general principle guiding the allocation of the Fund's resources is to aid countries with particularly urgent population problems. The problem now facing 3rd world countries is how to convey these population problems to the people who will make the ultimate decisions on population. There is a new spirit abroad--"meeting basic needs." This is part of what the New International Economic Order is all about--an internal restructuring and redistribution within developing countries, a direct attack on poverty and its causes.
Responsiveness and innovation: the role of the UNFPA in a restructured United Nations economic and social programme, statement made at the Ad Hoc Committee on the Restructuring of the Economic and Social Sectors of the United Nations System, New York, 20 February, 1976.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 15 p.Efforts to restructure the UN apparatus concerned with economic development are intended to make the international community more responsive to human problems. In the early 50's, the UN system responded to the need for aid for such population activities as census taking, data analysis, and training and research on the relationships between population trends and social and economic factors. However, for many years, most international assistance for population was supplied by voluntary humanitarian organizations. In 1971, the General Assembly (GA) recognized that the UNFPA had become a viable entity in the UN system and called upon the Fund to play a leading role in promoting population programs. In 1972, UNFPA was made a Fund of the GA and the Governing Council of the United Nations Development Program was designated as the Governing Council of UNFPA. The aims and purposes of the UNFPA are: 1) to build up, on an international basis, the knowledge and capacity to respond to national, regional, interregional, and global needs in the population and family planning fields, to promote coordination in planning and programming; and to cooperate with all concerned; 2) to promote awareness, in developed and developing countries, of the social, economic and environmental implications of national and international programs, and of the human rights aspects of family planning; 3) to extend aid to developing countries in dealing with population problems at their request; and 4) to play a leading role in the UN system by promoting Fund projects. The Fund is now supporting such projects as data collection, family health, population policy, and research and training. In determining future structure several factors should be considered: the subject matter, the allocations of resources, the delivery of project services and the time frame of the activity.
Assessments: the operational scene, statement made at the Second Committee of the 30th Session of the United Nations General Assembly, New York, 24 October 1975.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 4 p.This statement on the UNFPA details the operational activities for development. As of October, 1975, a total of US$239 million were pledged to UNFPA by 78 countries, 18.5% above that of 1974. Resources were allocated by UNFPA to 1350 projects in 106 countries. In addition to the 128 governments participating in these projects, all organizations concerned in the UN system are involved. A few of the major advances of the past year are outlined in this report, as well as several problems encountered by the UNFPA. 4 significant advances include: 1) the 1st conference on Population Activities in the Arab States--it unanimously adopted a series of resolutions marking the advent of a systematic approach to population matters throughout the Arab world; 2) a pronounced improvement in the rate of implementation of UNFPA projects throughout the world; 3) a 70% increase in UNFPA-supported projects which governments are executing; 4) compilation and publication by UNFPA of an inventory listing all population projects receiving international support in 1973 and 1974. The major problem facing the UNFPA is that of finance. Despite the increase in contributions, the requests of governments outstrip the Fund's resources. The resources gap produces a 2nd basic problem: when funds can no longer meet all requests, it becomes necessary to choose between requests. This forced establishment of priorities is very difficult.
Revista de Prensa. 1978 Nov; 12-13.This article discusses changes occurring in population since the foundation of UNFPA in 1969. The birthrate has decreased by 15% in about 3 or 4 dozen countries that represent 2/3 of the developing world. Most changes have occurred in small countries. In the mid 70's the life expectancy rate increased from 42 to 54 years in the developing countries and from 65 to 71 years in the developed countries. Latin America has a life expectancy median of 62 yrs. Asia of 56, and Africa of 45 yrs. In the developing countries infant mortality continues to be the determinant factor of mortality. A decrease in mortality linked with improvements in health, educational services, women status, and a more equalitarian distribution of income has been reported. Nevertheless, malaria has again become an important sanitary problem particulary in Asia and Africa. In India, malaria cases increased from 40,000 in 1966 to 143,000 in 1976. Nutrition and health are also related to mortality. Presently, countries try to conserve gains from good years to prevent difficulties in poor years. It is estimated that during the next 2 decades cities will grow to magnitudes unknown to urbanists. In the year 2000 Tokyo may have 26 million inhabitants, Gran Cairo 16.3, Lagos 9.4, and Mexico 31.6. The number of young adults has increased form 488 million in 1955 to 740 million in 1975. It is expected that in developed countries the will increase from 548 million to 688 million in 1985. Strategies of internal and international migration, measures to open up jobs for the young, and budget increases in population programs in Nepal, Costa Rica, and Mexico in the 1970's are discussed. International cooperation to help developing countries to achieve their own goals in matters of population, thus consolidating the gains of the past years, is recommended.
[Population and the new international economic order] La poblacion y el neuvo orden economico internacional.
Medicina y Desarrollo. 1977 May; 13-16.The problem of population received little attention in the meetings on the New International Economic Order. Historically, governments have equated population increases with prosperity. Recently, governments have accepted the necessity to reduce population for the succcess of social and economic programs. This article points out the advances made by several countries in the areas of health, nutrition, education, contraception, legal aspects, planning, and research methods since 1972. The collaboration of different governments with UNFPA and their solicitation of help from this organization are regarded as further evidence of the advances made. Difficulties for the acceptance of family planning in developing countries such as social sanctions, lack of demographic data, and the role of UNFPA in the amelioration of these problems are discussed. Since population politics are seen as long-term strategical weapons, an intensification of persuasive methods in all countries and an increase in aid to underdeveloped countries are recommended.
El Demografico. 1975 Jan-Feb-Mar; (18):1.This article appeals to developed countries to aid third world countries in a state of emergency caused by inflation and by natural disasters. To help developing countries is seen both as a necessary action for the developed countries to defend their interests, and as a humanitarian act. Development in 3rd world countries is considered as a potentially powerful weapon in the hands of developed countries. It is stressed that every country should be free to develop its demographic politics but governments must recognize that population growth should not be left to chance. These are the principles of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, funded in 1969. The Fund forms part of the UN but it is politically independent. So far, the Fund has underestimated the demands of underdeveloped countries. It was calculated that for the period of 1974 to 1977, US$316 million would be needed for aid. Nevertheless, the year of World Population and other activities organized by the Fund have increased the demands to US$500 million for that period. This estimate it regarded as reasonable especially when compared to estimates made by the General Assembly in its last meeting for the New Economic Order.
International consultation of NGOs on population issues in preparation of the 1984 United Nations International Conference on Population: report of the consultation.
[Unpublished] . 83 p.196 individuals from 44 countries, representing national and international non-governmental organizations, bilateral agencies and intergovernmental organizations attended the consultation. The purposes of the consultation were: 1) to provide an overview of the contributions of non-governmental organizations to the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action through a wide range of population and population related programs carried out since the Plan was adopted in 1974; 2) to explore what non-governmental organizations believe needs to be done in the world population field during the balance of the century; 3) to prepare for participation in the January 1984 Conference Preparatory Committee meeting and in the Conference itself to be held in August 1984; and 4) to provide suggestions for activities of national affiliates relative to the 1984 Conference. This report provides a synopsis of the plenary sessions and their recommendations. Addresses by numerous individuals covered the following topics: the creative role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the population field; vital contributions of NGO's to the implementation of the world population plan of action; the family; population distribution and migration; population, resources, environment and international economic crisis; mortality and health; and NGO prospects for the implementation of the world population plan of action.
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau, 1976 Apr. 271 p.An overview of major population developments between 1965-1975 occurring worldwide, regionally and within countries is presented. The world population situation is discussed with reference to declining birthrates, but increasing population size which fostered the historic spread of population action during the decade, particularly multilateral and bilateral support for population programs of developing countries. The 1974 World Population Conference in Bucarest highlighted the controversy surrounding the causes and solutions of population related problems. The relationship between population and development, specifically the choice between implementing socioeconomic development programs or population/family planning programs formed the basis of the controversy. The population related problems and actions discussed include: health care system, family planning and service delivery, food, urbanization, and international migration. The interrelationships between women's rights, women's status, and fertility and the significance of induced abortion are also discussed. The specific population situation of 143 countries within 8 world regions are reviewed. The discussion highlights population policies, family planning services, and the projects supported by external aid. The activities of the UN system of agencies assisting countries with population programs are described. USAID has been the foremost supporter of global action and supports the following types of activities: demographic data collection and analysis, population policy development, biomedical and operational research, development and strengthening of family planning services, communication, and manpower, and institutional development. The activities of 43 private organizations are also reviewed. The 1965 and 1975 estimates of basic demographic data, i.e., birthrate, death rate, rate of natural increase, time to double population, and per capita gross national product, for each region and country conclude the report.
Finance and Development. 1973 Dec; 10(4):18-21.The World Bank Group regards excessive population growth as the single greatest obstacle to economic and social advance in the underdeveloped world. Since 1969 the Bank and the International Development Agency have provided countries with technical assistance through education, fact-finding, and analysis and given 65.7 million dollars for population projects. These projects, in India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, and Malaysia provide training centers, population education, research, and evaluation as well as actual construction of clinics and mobile units. Because population planning touches sensitive areas of religion, caste, race, morality, and politics, the involved nation's political commitment to plan population growth is critical to the success of any program.
In: Ross JA, ed. International encyclopedia of population. Vol. 1. New York, Free Press, 1982. 374-82.In the field of population, international assistance has a brief but spectacular history. Population activities covered by international assistance have been broadly classified by the UN organizations concerned into the following major subject areas: basic population data; population dynamics; population policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation; family planning; biomedical research; and communication and education. All of these areas involve a wide spectrum of data collection, training, research, communication, and operational activities. The UN began in the early 1950s to assist developing countries with census taking, training in demography, and studies on the relationships between population trends and social and economic factors. It also supported some action-oriented research activities. In 1958 Sweden became the 1st government to provide assistance to a developing country for family planning. The barriers that had handicapped the UN system in responding directly to the needs of developing nations for assistance in the population field, and particularly family planning, began to be lifted after the mid-1960s. Total international assistance for population activities amounted to only about $2 million in 1960 and $18 million in 1965. It increased to $125 million in 1970 and to an estimated net amount, excluding double counting, of around $450 million in 1979. The marked increase in population assistance is an indication of a growing commitment on the part of governments and international organizations to deal with the urgent population problems of the developing countries. More than 80 governments have at 1 time or another contributed to international population assistance, but the major shares come from fewer than 12 countries. The U.S., the largest contributor, spent around $182 million on population assistance in 1979, or 3.9% of its total development assistance. Sweden and Norway are the 2 largest donor governments after the U.S. By 1890, 121 developing countries, or nearly all, had received population assistance. Most of this number had received assistance from the UN Fund for Population Activities. About 47 developing countries also received assistance from bilateral donors. Almost all donors make their contributions to population assistance in grants, but a few governments also make loans available. From the limited data available, it appears that more and more developing countries are carrying increasing shares of the costs of their population programs. Most donors of population assistance continue to give high priority to support for family planning activities designed to achieve fertility reduction, health, social welfare, or other socioeconomic development objectives.
London, England, IPPF, July 1982. 4 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)Discusses the movement to establish groups of Parliamentarians on Population and Development throughout the world. The movement grew out of the need to create understanding among legislators and policymakers of the interrelationship between development, population, and family planning. Parliamentarian groups can help to ensure that population and family planning are included in development plans and that resources are committed to population and family planning programs. The main initiative for the establishment of Parliamentarian groups and for their regional and international cooperation came from the United Nations Fund for Population activities (UNFPA). The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has been involved from the beginning and works closely with UNFPA. The meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Development during 1981 resulted in important regional developments, with IMF affiliates playing a major role. The Washington Conference on Population and Development included Parliamentarians from the Caribbean and Latin America. Priorities for formulating population and development policies were identified. The African Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development marked the first time that a major conference on so sensitive an issue was held in Africa. The Beijung conference was attended by 19 Asian countries and resulted in a declaration calling on Parliaments, governments, UN agencies, and nongovernmental organizations to increase their commitment to all aspects of population and family planning. National developments in India and the Philippines are also discussed. Many of the countries with Parliamentary groups on Population and Development have governments that are involved in providing international population assistance. Greater commitment to population as a crucial factor in development through the establishment of links with governments and parliamentarians is an action area within the IPPF 1982-84 plan.
Population problems and international cooperation, statement made at a meeting of the Scientific Council of the Moscow State University, Moscow, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 29 September 1982.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 19 p. (Speech Series No. 80)This statement discusses certain population problems within a framework of international cooperation. Specifically, linkages between population and development, basic data collection, population and development research, policy formulation, family planning, communication and education, training, population migration, urbanization, aging of the population, and integration of population with development planning, are all issues examined. Solving the problems generated by population growth of developing countries are social and economic development, accumulation of resources and economic growth. All countries need data on population structure and its changes in order to plan effectively. There is a continuous need to learn more about the dynamics of population change, especially for demographers in developing countries. Data gathering, processing, analysis and research are crucial components in the formulation of policies. UNFPA devotes a great amount of its resources to family planning, education and training programs within countries. The inability to find employment opportunities has led to considerable internal and international migration, increasing and promoting urbanization and overcrowded cities. Aging of the population is becoming an important issue for developed countries and will necessitate further policy formulation. Population planning needs to become a more effective arm of overall development planning.
New York, N.Y, United Nations. Department of Technical Co-operation for Development, 1983. v, 42 p. (no. ST/ESA/SER.E/28)This report examines the origins of the UN program in population training and the main methods adopted over the past 20 years to implement it. Its 6 chapters cover the following: origins of the UN population training program (the urgency for population training, initial objectives of the UN training program, the state of the art in the 1950s, the role of the UN, and initial dimensions of the UN training programs); establishment of the UN demographic training centers (International Institute for Population Studies, IIPS, in Bombay, India; Latin American Demographic Centre, CELADE, in Santiago, Chile; Cairo Demographic Centre, CDC, Cairo, Egypt; Institut de formation et de recherche demographiques, IFORD, Yaounde, United Republic of Cameroon; Regional Institute for Population Studies, RIPS, Accra, Ghana; UN-Romania Demographic Centre, CEDOR, Bucharest, Romania; and the Joint UN/USSR Interregional Demographic Training and Research Program in Population and Development Planning, Moscow, USSR); individual characteristics and program differentials of the UN demographic training centers (language of instruction, admission requirements, length of training programs, curricula, specialized training programs in interrelationships between population and development, and specialized training programs in interrelationships between population and development, and output of the training centres); the UN international fellowship program in population (placement of successful fellowship candidates, distribution of fellows by region of origin, subjects of study of successful candidates, comparison with the training offered through the UN demographic training centres); country projects for creating population training facilities; and the future of the UN population training program. Apart from the programs in Bucharest and Moscow, the basic terms of reference of all the regional and interregional demographic training centers are to provide courses of training in demography, to carry out demographic research, and to provide technical assistance in the field of demography and the population disciplines generally in response to government requests. Beyond these basic objectives, each centre has its own individual characteristics. In the years since their foundation, the UN sponsored regional and interregional training centers and programs have contributed significantly to an increase in the number of trained demograhers worldwide. From the academic year 1972-73 to 1979-80, a total of 1323 students were registered at these centres. The international fellowship program is notable in that the methods for the selection, placement, and evaluation of fellowship holders are designed to ensure that the skills acquired become available to the fellows' country of origin.