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Status of family planning activities and involvement of international agencies in the Caribbean region [chart].
[Unpublished] 1970. 1 p.Add to my documents.
WHO Programme in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning. Report of the second meeting of the WHO Programme Advisory Committee in Maternal and Child Health, Geneva, 21-25 November 1983.
[Unpublished] 1984. 95 p. (MCH/84.5)The objectives of the 2nd meeting of the Program Advisory Committee (PAC) for the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Program in Maternal and Child Health, including Family Planning (MCH/FP) were to 1) assess the MCH/FP program's achievements since the 1st PAC meeting in June, 1982, 2) determine the level of scientific and financial resources available for the program, and 3) to examine the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the delivery of MCH/FP services. The committee reviewed the activities and targets of the program's 4 major areas (pregnancy and perinatal care, child health, growth, and development, adolescent health, and family planning and infertility), and developed a series of recommendations for each of these areas. Specific recommendations were also made for each of the major program areas in reference to the analysis and dessimination of information and to the development and use of appropriate health technologies. Upon reviewing the role of TBAs in the delivery of MCH/FP services, PAC recommended that all barriers to TBA utilization be removed and that training for TBAs should be improved and expanded. PAC's examination of financial support for MCH/FP activities revealed that for a sample of 26 countries, the average annual amount allocated to MCH activities was less than US$3/child or woman. This low level of funding must be taken into account when setting program targets. International funding agencies did indicate their willingness to increase funding levels for MCH programs. The appendices included 1) a list of participants, 2) an annotated agenda, 3) detailed information on the proposed activities of the program's headquarters for 1986-87, and 4) a description of the the function, organizational structure, and technical management of the MCH/FP program. Also included in the appendices was an overview of the current status of MCH and a series of tables providing information on infant, child, and maternal health indicators. Specifically, the tables provided information by region and by country on maternal, child, and infant mortality; causes of child deaths; maternal health care coverage; contraceptive prevalence; infant and child malnutrition; the number of low weight births; adolescent health; teenage births; breast feeding prevalence and duration; and the proportion of women and children in the population.
International Workshop on Youth Participation in Population, Environment, Development at Colombo, 28th Nov. 83 to 2nd Dec. 83.
Maribo, Denmark, WAY, . 120 p.The objectives of the International Youth Workshop on Population and Development were to provide a forum to the leaders of national youth councils and socio-political youth organizations. These leaders were brought together to review national and local youth activities and their plans and action programs for the future. The outlook for these discussions was local, regional, and global. In addition the Workshop aimed at providing interaction among the youth organizations of the developing and the developed countries. These proceedings include an inaugural address by Gemini Atukorata, Minister of Youth Affairs, Government of Sri Lanka and presentations focusing on the following: youth and development; the key role of youth in production and reproduction -- important factors of development; 60% of the aid goes back to the giving country in several ways; adolescent fertility as a major concern; social development for the poor with particular reference to the well-being of children and women; commitment for the cause is the key to attract funds; and observance of the International Youth Year under the themes of participation, development, and peace. The 11th workshop session dealt with follow-up and the future direction of the World Assembly of Youth (WAY). The following points emerged in this most important session: WAY should emphasize "Youth Participation in Development" as the major program; WAY's population programs should not be limited to just information, education, and communication, and youth groups should be encouraged to become service delivery agents for contraceptives wherever possible; environment awareness should become an integral part of population and development programs; youth in the service of children, health for all, and drug abuse should be the new areas of operation for WAY; and programs of youth working in the service of disabled, especially disabled young people, and youth and crime prevention programs also found favor with the participants. Recommendations and action programs are outlined. Proceedings include a summary of WAY activities and resolutions.
Development. 1989; (4):77-82.Contemporary multilateral loan agreements to developing nations, unlike previous project and program aid, have often been contingent upon the effective implementation of structural adjustment programs of market liberalization and macroeconomic policy redirection. These programs herald such reform as necessary steps on the road to economic growth and development. Price decontrol and policy change may also, however, generate the more immediate and undesirable effects of exacerbated urban sector bias and plummeting income and quality of life in the general population. This paper considers the resultant changes expected in the political arena, product and input pricing, small business promotion and formation, export crop production, interest rate policy reform and financial market deregulation, exchange rate and public sector expenditure, and the labor market, and their effect upon women's economic position. The author notes, however, that women are not affected uniformly by these changes and sectoral disruptions, but that some women will suffer more than others. To develop policy to effectively meet the needs of these target groups, more subpopulation specificity is required. Approaches useful in identifying vulnerable women in particular societies are explored. Once identified, these women, especially those who head poor households, should be afforded protection against the turbulence and short- to medium-term economic decline associated with adjustment.
Final report: First Caribbean Health-Communication Roundtable, St. Philip, Barbados, 16-18 November 1987.
[Unpublished] 1987. , 30,  p.To create a mechanism from which to mobilize communications media as a force for health in the Caribbean, the 1st Caribbean Health Communication Roundtable was held in 1987. Organized and initiated by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and cosponsored by UNESCO and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the summary of the objectives discussed at the roundtable are presented in this report. Objectives include sensitizing the media to the health concerns of AIDS, disaster preparedness, nutrition and chronic diseases, and the examination of different types of health communication methodologies. Roundtable participants drafted a series of recommendations for submission to all relevant national, regional, and international agencies. 6 major recommendations covered various aspects of health communication. Workshops at the national and sub-regional level to train media and communications specialists were a suggested means of improving information techniques for health educators. Improvements in coordination and cooperation between Ministries of Health and Ministries of Information, requested by CARICOM, was recommended to strengthen health communication. The addition of an information specialist to the staff of the PAHO office was recommended, as well as the promotion of alternative communication methods and practices. Establishing a regional center for the identification, collection, cataloging, and dissemination of communication ideas, experiences and other resources was another major recommendation. In addition, evaluation of regional communication projects was suggested. Pre- and post-Roundtable questionnaires are reproduced in the Appendices, as are the program schedule, rationale, and list of participants.
In: Proceedings of the Interagency Workshop on Health Care Practices Related to Breastfeeding, December 7-9, 1988, Leavey Conference Center, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., edited by Miriam Labbok and Margaret McDonald with Mark Belsey, Peter Greaves, Ted Greiner, Margaret Kyenkya-Isabirye, Chloe O'Gara, James Shelton. [Washington, D.C., Georgetown University Medical Center, Institute for International Studies in Natural Family Planning, 1988]. 7 p.. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3040-A-00-5064-00)Breastfeeding is on the decline in most countries, despite the fact it can help prevent the 38,000 daily deaths of infants and young children through its nutritional, immunologic, and sanitary aspects. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) have combined to issue guidelines on the role of maternity services in promoting breastfeeding. In the most developed countries, breastfeeding has increased despite generally unsupportive hospital environments, the availability of clean water, and the fact that breastfeeding was virtually a lost practice in these countries 40 years ago. An increased awareness of the benefits, some of which are outlined, coupled with mother-to-mother support are most likely to have influenced this increase. The guidelines developed by WHO/UNICEF seek to put into practice specific recommendations agreed upon by pediatricians, obstetricians and gynecologists, nutritionists, nurses, midwives, and other health care providers in national and international forums. The main points of the guidelines are as follows: every facility providing maternity services should develop a policy on breastfeeding, communicate it to all staff, define specific practices to implement the policy, and ensure that all staff are adequately trained in the skills necessary to ensure implementation of the policy; facilities for 24-hour rooming-in, initiation of breastfeeding immediately after delivery, and demand-feeding are essential in every maternity ward; every pregnant mother should be informed fully about how breast milk is formed, the proper way to nurse a child, and the benefits of breastfeeding; and harmful practices, such as the use of bottles and teats for newborn infants, should be eliminated during this early period and exclusive breastfeeding maintained for at least 4-6 months from birth. These activities, when fully implemented, will ensure that every mother/infant couple reached prenatally, at birth, and postnatally gets off to a good start. Then, other support services will be more effective. These standards have been successful in the field and have had a positive impact on the rates of breastfeeding. A need exists for collaboration and an interdisciplinary approach to the promotion, protection, and support of breastfeeding, and, hopefully, this workshop is the first of a series of technical consultations.
[New York, United Nations, 1986.] 27 p.The ongoing crisis confronting women and children in the Third World--where disease and hunger are taking millions of lives of young children every year and where population growth still proceeds at an unacceptably high rate--is actually worsening in some areas. The European Parliamentarians' Forum on Child Survival, Women, and Population: Integrated Strategies was held under the auspices of The Netherlands government and organized in cooperation with 3 UN organizations: the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and the UN Fund for Population Activities. It is critical that the world regain the momentum of past decades in reducing appalling child mortality rates, improving the health and status of women, and slowing population growth. Development programs from health education to agriculture are hampered or crippled by the inability of development planners to recognize the centrality of the woman's role. Maternal and child health is the logical entry point for primary health care. Education is the springboard for rescuing women in the Third World from poverty, illness,endless childbearing, and lowly social status. One should educate women to save children. Women in the developing world must be given access to basic information to be able to take advantage of new, improved or rediscovered technologies such as 1) oral rehydration therapy, 2) vaccines, 3) growth monitoring through frequent charting to detect early signs of malnutrition, 4) breast feeding, and 5) birth spacing. Education is the single most documented factor affecting birth rate, status of women, and infant and child health. The presentations at The Hague threw into sharp relief the close links, the cause and effect chains, and the synergisms associated with all the factors connected, directly or indirectly, with child survival, women's status, and population--factors such as education, economic opportunities, and overall development questions. A 4-point agenda includes 1) encouraging UN agencies and organizations concerned with social development to work closely together and to enhance the effectiveness of their programs, 2) seeking greater support for the UN's social development programs, 3) focusing public attention on the interrelatedness of health, maternal and child survival and care, women's status, and freedom of choice in family matters, and 4) maintaining and strengthening commitment through the dialogue of parliamentarians.
[Unpublished] 1987 Jun.  p.To increase knowledge and proper use of low-dose oral contraceptives and increase availability of affordable contraception for low-income populations in the Dominican Republic, Profamilia (an IPPF affiliate) launched a communications/promotional campaign for Microgynon aimed at men and women under age 35. While strengthening Profamilia's marketing and organizational capabilities so that the program could be maintained without donor subsidies, the Profamilia name was used to communicate the idea of quality at low price. The message that Microgynon is a safe, effective, easily used, temporary method of birth control was relayed through a television commercial aired in 1986; through press releases; on display posters, stickers, matchbooks, memo pads, and bag inserts distributed to pharmacies; by educational/promotional meetings with the medical community; and by orientation sessions with pharmacy employees. Schering Dominica's sales network placed Microgynon in 83% of pharmacies in the Dominican Republic. It was priced significantly below comparable products. Of 500 randomly selected residents, 68% remembered seeing the television commercial. In interviews with 252 Microgynon purchasers, 65% said that they had started using Microgynon after the television advertising campaign. The campaign was successful in reaching the target group of women.
New York, New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, 1985. xi, 102, 24 p. (IPPF/WHR Caribbean Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys)An analysis of Caribbean contraceptive prevalence surveys is the focus of this report by the IPPF, Western Hemisphere Region, through its Caribbean Population and Development project. This booklet reports on 1 aspect of the project--the analysis of contraceptive surveys conducted in St. Kitts-Nevis and Montserrat to determine levels of contraceptive use and assess the effectiveness of information, education, and delivery services. Chapter 1 outlines the background, economic, social, and family structures, and organization of family planning services in St. Kitts-Nevis. The methodology of the survey is explained. Chapter 2 provides a demographic analysis of fertility, parity, and unplanned pregnancy rates. The level of awareness of contraceptives and contraceptive outlets is presented in Chapter 3. Patterns of contraceptive use, with user and non-user profiles, preferred sources for contraceptive outlets, user satisfaction with methods and outlets, male involvement in family planning, and the timing of contraceptive use are the topics covered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 provides an overview of contraceptive use, family planning programs, and sense of self-worth in St. Kitts-Nevis. Social sources of resistance to contraceptive use and the contraceptive intentions of non-acceptors are characterized in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 offers a summary and conclusions of the study findings, and the 1984 contraceptive prevalence survey used in St. Kitts-Nevis is supplied in the appendix.
The role of the International Planned Parenthood Federation in setting international medical standards.
In: Recent advances in fertility control: proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Recent Advances in Fertility Control, Tokyo, November 8, 1986. Edited by Seiichi Matsumoto. Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Excerpta Medica, 1987. 83-91. (Current Clinical Practice Series No. 45.)This chapter discusses 6 key areas that illustrate how the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) addresses its role and responsibilities. These areas include: 1) IPPF's size and scope of activities, 2) the Federation's role in setting and maintaining medical standards, 3) the work of the IPPF International Medical Advisory Panel, 4) IPPF's work with international organizations, 5) how the Federation tackles double standards in the quality of medical care around the world, and 6) sharing experience in family planning expertise worldwide. Brief summaries of information presented in these areas follow. 1) The IPPF is the world's leading voluntary family planning organization. It was founded in 1952 and has member associations in 123 countries; in the 1985, the IPPF reached approximately 5 million contraceptive acceptors around the world. 2) IPPF recognizes the critical importance of establishing and implementing internationally acceptable medical standards for family planning programs around the world. In places where there is opposition to family planning, critics can often be effectively silenced when programs can be seen to adhere to acceptable standards of practice. 3) The International Medical Advisory Panel is a small group of internationally renowned experts in family planning and contraceptive technology. The panel meets regularly, reviews the latest medical literature, and advises the Federation on the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of contraceptive methods. 4) IPPF collaborates with a number of international organizations and sets standards for program activity in the areas of adolescent reproductive health and maternal and child health care. Another key area of collaboration is in seeking to ensure that family planning is incorporated into primary health care programs throughout the world. 5) IPPF is working to eradicate double standards in medical issues worldwide. Critics alleging the existence of double standards sometimes pass judgment on health standards in developing countries without realizing the impossibility of replicating the health care practices of countries with pharmacies and medical personnel available to all member of the population, at prices they can afford. 6) IPPF's history of successfully delivering family planning services has encouraged and increased the need to find ways of replicating them. An important part of IPPF's mechanism for sharing experiences and family planning expertise is through its active publications program. IPPF also has innovative projects working with young people, in encouraging male involvement in family planning, and in extending planned parenthood and women's development projects. (author's)
WORLD HEALTH. 1988 Jan-Feb; 10-11.In 1979 WHO invited its member states to participate in a global strategy for health and to monitor and evaluate its effectiveness using a minimum of 12 indicators. Members' 1982 implementation reports and 1985 evaluation reports form the basis for evaluating each measure. Indicators 1-6 have strong political and economic components in both developed and developing countries and are not complete. Indicator 7, for which rates of reply are satisfactory, asks whether at least 5 elements of primary health care are available to the whole population. The 8th gauge seeks information on the nutritional status of children, considering birth weight (a possible indicator of risk) and weight for age (a monitor of growth). Infant mortality rate and life expectancy at birth, indicators 9 and 10, are difficult to estimate in developing countries, and health services are not always kept informed of current estimates. Indicator 11 asks whether the literacy rate exceeds 70%; it can provide information on level of development and should emphasize literacy for women, for whom health information is critical. The last global measure yields information about the gross national product, which is not always the most recent, despite the trend of countries to publish their gross domestic product. Failure to make use of the best national sources, such as this, is one of several problems encountered by WHO's member states in collecting accurate data. Other problems include lack of universally acceptable definitions, different national accounting systems, disinterest of health authorities in economic matters, lack of staff, lack of financial resources in developing countries, and inadequately structured health system management. Each country must choose the most appropriate methods for collection of data. If an indicator cannot be calculated, the country is encouraged to seek and devise a substitute. WHO must produce more precise and reliable indicators. It must respond to requests for ways of improving or strengthening national systems.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund, 1988. xi, 477 p. (Population Programmes and Projects Vol. 1.)This is the 5th edition of the GUIDE to be published. A new edition is issued every 3 years. The GUIDE was mandated by the World Population Plan of Action, adopted by consensus at the World Population Conference held in Bucharest, Romania, in August 1974. Each entry for an organization describes its mandates, fields of special interest, program areas in which assistance is provided, types of support activities which can be provided, restrictions on types of assistance, channels of assistance, how to apply for assistance, monitoring and evaluation of programs, reporting requirements, and address, of organization. International population assistance is broadly construed as 1) direct financial grants or loans to governments or national and non-governmental organizations within developing countries; 2) indirect grants for commodities, equipment, or vehicles; and 3) technical assistance training programs, expert and advisory services, and information programs. To gather information for this edition of the GUIDE, a questionnaire was sent to more than 350 multilateral, regional, bilateral, non-governmental, university, research agencies, organizations, and institutions throughout the world.
The contribution of the United Nations to the development of population policy in developing countries.
[Unpublished] 1988. 13 p.The UN has been actively engaged in population questions--including policy issues--from its very beginning. In 1946, the UN's Economic and Social Council established the Population Commission to arrange for studies and advise on the size and structure of populations, the interplay of demographic and socioeconomic factors, and policy. The UN has 3 leading functions that it carries out in relation to population questions: 1) the formulation of population policies and recommendations for action as agreed to by the community of nations, 2) organizing and maintaining a flow of resources and technical assistance, and 3) assembling, analyzing, and disseminating research findings that contribute to effective policy formulation. Although the population policies adopted by the UN are not treaties and lack the force of law, the existence of an international consensus can serve to help legitimate a policy at the national level as well as giving governments an incentive to formulate their own position. International policy formulation can also guide the financial support, technical assistance, and research activities of the UN system. 2 risks that must be overcome for the effective use of intergovernmental fora to arrive at population policies are 1) the risk that population issues may become politicized, and 2) the risk that attempting to define policies acceptable to all nations will result in a policy so general that it loses all impact. The leading role in the promotion of population programs of the UN system was given to the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1967. To implement its broad and flexible mandate, the Fund has developed a core program covering 1) family planning, 2) population education, 3) basic data collection, 4) population dynamics, and 5) population policy. The leading questions facing the UN now as it seeks to continue its contribution to population policy at the national level are 1) the possibility of holding a 3rd international conference on population in 1994, 2) continuing high rates of fertility and growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, 3) near or below replacement fertility in some countries, 4) changes in the structure and the roles of women, 5) the AIDS epidemic, 6) urban growth and rural decline, and 7) the residual effects of past international migration.
New York, New York, FPIA, 1985. 206 p.Summarizing the work of the Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) for the past 14 months, with emphasis on 1985, this document contains both regional and country reports for Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America. FPIA's strategy in Africa during 1985 was to focus on small, high-risk projects which call for extensive technical assistance. Project Assistance accounted for 48.8% of the total value of FPIA assistance to the region; Commodity Assistance accounted for 47.5% of the total value of FPIA assistance to the region. Special Grants accounted for slightly over 2.1% of the total assistance to Africa. In the Asia and Pacific Region, components of the FPIA strategy include: consolidate support and provide technical assistance to those agencies whose family planning services can be institutionalized and serve to complement and influence the goals, objectives, and program procedures of their governments' national family planning programs; problem solve with grantee agencies approaches to innovative delivery of temporary method services; provide training opportunities and technical assistance to project management and staff as well as to influential nonproject persons; and establish how FPIA commodities can complement supplies available to nongovernmental organizations through their government warehouses and bilateral supported community retail sales program. Project Assistance accounted for 47.1% of the total value of FPIA assistance in the region; Commodity Assistance accounted for 50.8% and Special Grants slightly over 1% of total assistance to the region. In Latin America, FPIA's program goals respond to agency goals of promoting family planning services in areas of unmet need, upgrading existing family planning service models, and encouraging service continuation following the phase-out of FPIA support. Project Assistance accounted for 46.8%, Commodity Assistance 52.2%, and Special Grants less than 1% of total FPIA assistance to the region. The combined value of all types of assistance provided worldwide during 1985 totaled over $18 million: $7.2 million in direct support to 128 funded projects in 39 countries; and $10.1 million in commodities shipped to 218 institutions in 66 countries. Oral contraceptive and condom shipments alone were sufficient to supply 2.4 million contraceptors for 1 year.
Policy initiatives of the multilateral development banks and the United Nations specialized agencies.
In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 301-20. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)The International Labour office (ILO) of the UN analyzes manpower supply and demand and creates guidelines on the treatment of both legal and illegal migrant workers. The UN Economic and Social council (ECOSOC) oversees economic and social issues concerning population. The World Health Organization (WHO) oversees health issues relating to population. The World Bank has been the active member of the World Bank group in Latin America and the Caribbean because only Haiti qualifies to borrow from the soft loan affiliate of the Bank--the International Development Association (IDA). In 1983, the World Bank/IDA made 12 loans to the Caribbean countries totaling $205 million, $120 million of which went to Jamaica. The Bank has shown that special techniques are needed for successful rural development projects involving community understanding and participation, and that traditional development techniques will not work. An interesting change in World Bank philosophy and policy has been the recognition of the need for devising and adopting appropriate technologies to the needs of the rural areas; such technologies include community involvement in water and sanitation, the use of simple hand pumps, low-cost housing, and small-scale irrigation. These solutions are a far cry from the earlier belief that the large dam and power station and the mechanization of agriculture are the cure-all. The 3rd institution specifically geared to making loans to the Caribbean countries is the Caribbean Development Bank, whose accumulated lending amounted to $435 million as of 31 December 1983.
WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1988; 9(2):185-99.This article explains how the concept of health for all developed within the context of the history of the World Health Organization (WHO). By the early 1970s a new idea was taking shape in WHO. Medical services were failing to reach vast numbers. Health would have to emerge from the people themselves. In the heat of discussion the new strategy was clarified and given a name--primary health care (PHC). An ambitious target was set for it--no less than health for all by the year 2000. It was decided that the community itself had to be involved in planning and implementing its own health care. A new type of health worker was called for, chosen by the people from among themselves and responsible to the community but supported by the entire health system. In virtually all countries, the emphasis on curative care would have to be balanced by an equal emphasis on prevention. Almost 90% of WHO's Member States were prepared to share with one another detailed information about the problems facing their health systems. Industrial countries were beginning to realize that sophisticated medical technology was no guarantee of good health and that health for all through PHC offered an alternative. Millions of health workers have been trained, extending services to low-income groups that had no access to modern health care. Among health professionals, lack of understanding of the PHC concept and insufficient concern for social equity remain the principal constraints. Another problem is that expenditure on health care tends to be viewed as a drain on scarce resources rather than as an investment in the nation's future. The mommentum of health for all can be sustained only by governments implementing at home the policies they have collectively agreed on at The World Health Assembly in Geneva.
WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1988; 9(2):143-6.This article summarizes the activities and the philosophy of WHO in its effort to improve worldwide health care since its inception some 40 years ago. At the 1st World Health Assembly in 1948 it was pointed out that little could be achieved by medical services unless the existing economic, social and other relations among peoples have been improved. The immediate priorities of the new Organization were more limited: to build up health services in the areas destroyed by the war, and to fignt the spread of the big infectious killer diseases. It took almost 30 years before the WHO really got down to trying to do something about the economic, social and other conditions which lie at the heart of most health problems. The Alma-Ata Declaration in 1978 heralded a new era in health. The concept of primary health care and the global health-for-all strategy to implement it are now rapidly gaining ground. In villages, towns and districts, people are waking up to the fact that they can contribute to their own health destiny. As WHO embarks on its 5th decade, there are grounds for optimism: health is moving in the right direction in spite of major obstacles.
INTERNATIONAL HEALTH NEWS. 1988 Feb; 9(2):7.At a panel on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the 3rd world in January 1988, experts focused on the profound problems generated by the AIDS pandemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 3-5 million people in at least 127 countries now suffer from AIDS and that this figure will reach 10-30 million by 2000. The disease represents a highly debilitating force, both socially and economically, even in nations able to afford the approximately $6000/patient cost per year of treating AIDS patients. Panelists suggested that this could prove devastating for the poorer nations. WHO's AIDS program, launched in February 1987, focuses on the development and support of national AIDS control programs. It now operates in 93 countries, and 34 more countries are scheduled to join in 1988. WHO has assisted another 58 countries with shortterm AIDS action plans. The US Agency for International Development has developed a 2-pronged strategy for curbing the pandemic with prevention-emphasis programs operating under WHO.
[Unpublished] 1986 Aug. 71,  p. (AID Contract No. DPE-3024-C-00-4063-00)The evaluation of the Resources for Awareness of Population in Development (RAPID II) Project was initiated on June 18, 1985, 25 months into the project operation, to determine if the results of actions undertaken thus far have been adequate to justify the time and money spent on them and to find ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the program efforts. The objective of the 5-year RAPIDS II project is to assist those involved in development planning to better understand the relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development and thereby increase the less developed country (LDC) commitment to efforts designed to reduce rapid rates of population increase. This evaluation report discusses the development assistance context and then focuses on the following: RAPID II operations over the 1984-85 period; policy analyses and LDC subcontracting; the RAPID model and its presentation; visits by the evaluation team to the countries of the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Cameroon, and Liberia; what works in terms of population policy development; some major problems and potential resolutions; and RAPID II activities over the 1985-88 period. US Agency for International Development (USAID) officials in Washington as well as in the field described RAPID II as being of continuing utility in helping to create a climate favorable to more effective population policies. The review of RAPID II activities was generally positive. The project was identified as useful in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Due to the evidence of satisfactory performance in the field, the evaluation focused on differences between plan and midterm results with a view toward suggesting course corrections that can improve project performance. As population policy development is an inherently ambiguous field of activity, it has not been possible to draw clear lines between specific policy development activities and policy change in particular countries. Yet, there has been an improvement in the environment for population programs in LDCs. There were significant differences between planned and actual expenditures under the several subcategories of project expenditure. RAPID II total expenditures in the first 2 years of the project equalled budgeted expenditures when the contract was signed, but the distribution of expenditures by category was substantially different from what had been anticipated. It is recommended that emphasis in the project must shift predominantly to policy analyses (80% of remaining funds) and that that RAPID-style presentation resources (20%) be used carefully for only the highest priority requests. In regard to development of LDC subcontracts for policy analysis, efficiency has been low.
DEVELOPMENT: SEEDS OF CHANGE; VILLAGE THROUGH GLOBAL ORDER. 1987; (4):117-21.In this article the relations between government and non-government organizations (NGOs) are analyzed. In many countries, government and NGOs are 2 different worlds with little interaction between them. The differences between the 2 types of organizations could be summarized as the difference in the scale of operations, in the approach to development, different underlying philosophies, a different way of operating, different counterparts in developing countries, different projects and programs and a different way of dealing with the political context of development projects and programs. Collaboration between developed countries' governments and NGOs to stimulate development could be improved through: 1) a more systematic exchange of information between the 2 types of organizations; 2) the formulation of conditions for success in a particular country; 3) more sub-contracting of certain kinds of projects and project components to NGOs; 4) carrying out activities together; 5) improving the modalities and procedures of financial support to NGOs and in some cases its volume as well; and 6) moving from emergency to prevention. It is important to search for new fields of collaboration between government and non-government organizations. Examples are working with NGOs to formulate and implement food policies, relying on NGOs for feedback on certain policies, or in trying to achieve structural adjustment with a human face.
Sterilizations by sex and percentages of: male to female sterilizations and total number of sterilizations as percentage of total new acceptors. 1979-1984.
[Unpublished] . 3 p.This is an International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) collection of data detailing numbers of sterilizations in each country of the western hemisphere from 1979 to 1985. The table presents sterilizations among males and females, total number of sterilizations, ratio of male to female expressed in percentages, and ratio of sterilizations to new acceptors also expressed as percentages. The countries with the numbers over 10,000 in 1986 were Columbia, Guatemala and the Dominican Republic. Countries with 1000 to 9999 were U.S., Honduras, Mexico, El Salvador, Ecuador and Brazil, in order. Most nations reported 5 to 10 times more female than male sterilizations. The exception was the U.S., with 10 times more vasectomies in the latter years. The total reported ranged from 63,400 in 1980 to 94,448 in 1985.
ASSIGNMENT CHILDREN. 1987; (3):3-84.Recent findings from xerophthalmia studies in Indonesia have served as a catalytic force within the international health and nutrition community. These analyses conclude that, in Indonesia, there is a direct and significant relationship between vitamin A deficiency and child mortality. Further research is under way to determine the degree to which these findings are replicable in other countries and contexts. At the same time, representatives from international, bilateral, national and private organizations are critically examining their programs in vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia control for future planning. At UNICEF, there has been a special concern for vitamin A issues because of the possible implications in child survival. This is noted in the 1986 State of the World's Children Report. UNICEF recruited a consultant in January 1986 to examine its existing vitamin A programs, review scientific findings and meet with specialists to prepare policy options for consideration in future UNICEF involvement in the area of vitamin A. A brief background is given on the absorption, utilization, and metabolism of vitamin A, and its role in vision, growth, reproduction, maintenance of epithelial cells, immune properties, and daily recommended allowances. Topics cover xerophthalmia studies, treatment and prevention, prevalence, morbidity and mortality, program implications and directions, and procurement of vitamin A. Target regions include Asia, the Americas and the Carribean.
[Vaccination, the right of each child, World Day of Health 1987] Vacunacion: derecho de cada nino, Dia Mundial de la Salud 1987.
BOLETIN DE LA OFICINA SANITARIA PANAMERICANA. 1987 Mar; 102(3):263-80.In the 10 years since the Panamerican Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization initiated the Extended Immunization Program in the Americas (PAI), coverage has increased from less than 1/3 to over 1/2 of children immunized in their first year against 6 major childhood diseases. Due mainly to the PAI, the incidence of measles, tetanus, and diptheria has been reduced by 1/2, that of whooping cough by 75%, and that of tuberculosis by about 5% annually. About 75% of children are immunized against polio, which has 1/10 as many victims today as 10 years ago. PAHO and several other organizations have targeted 1990 for eradication of polio from the South American continent. Since the PAI was established in 1977, more than 15,000 health workers have been trained, cold chains have been established to preserve vaccines, and more than 250 technicians have been trained to maintain and repair the needed equipment. The cost of the campaign to eradicate polio is estimated at US $ 24 million per year for the entire region--a low total compared to the costs of hospitalization and rehabilitation of the victims in the absence of such a program. The goal of immunizing all the world's children by 1990 proposed by the World Health Assembly in 1977 is achievable, but much remains to be done. The number of children immunized in the largest Third World countries ranges from 20-90% owing in part to national immunization days but also to assumption by local communities of the goal of universal immunization by 1990. All deaths produced by these 6 killer diseases are not registered, but the World Health Organization estimates that measles takes 2.1 million lives annually, neonatal tetanus 800,000, and whooping cough 600,000. Governmental and nongovernmental international organizations have made financial help available to countries needing it for their immunization programs. Most developing countries are expected to achieve the goal of universal immunization by 1990, but the 10 poorst countries of Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean may not be able to do so. At the worldwide level, 41% of the 118 million children who survive their first year have been vaccinated against measles and 46% against tuberculosis. 47% have received the full course of vaccine against diptheria, whooping cough, tetanus, and polio. The cost of these immunization is $5-15 per child and 80% is assumed by local countries. The World Health Organization recommends that all children, even the undernourished or slightly ill, be vaccinated, and that all health services vaccinate. Parents should be urged to return for the 2nd and 3rd doses of polio and DPT vaccines. Vaccination programs should pay more attention to impoverished urban populations. Several countries of the region have added innovations such as vaccination against other illnesses, house to house searches for unvaccinated children, or use of mass media to publicize national vaccination programs.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1987 Feb; 1-7.Honduras is a democratic, constitutional republic located between Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua in Central America. Although in the early history of the nation there were frequent revolutions, Honduras has been independent throughout much of its existence. Since the decade of the 1980s, there has been close cooperation with the US including bilateral economic and security assistance, and joint military exercises. The government constitution adopted in 1982 assures that there will be a powerful executive branch, a unicameral legislature, and a judiciary appointed by the National Congress. Following 18 years of military government, Honduras is now under civilian and constitutional rule. Its major serious concerns center around development in the economic and social spheres. Honduras is the least developed Central American country. In 1984, it became a Caribbean Basin Initiative beneficiary country and as a result, the research and development of nontraditional export products has grown greatly. The US has been its most important trade partner. Among others, the US and the World Bank have committed large amounts of financial resources to help Honduras. Honduras and El Salvador are attempting to come to some agreement about their mutual boundaries and Honduras is concerned about the Nicaraguan and general Central American situation. It supports the US position and policy toward Nicaragua. In response to the threats posed by some of its neighbors, Honduras has focused on developing a mobile deterrent force with strong counterterrorism capabilities. Honduras relies heavily on US material assistance and political support.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. vi, 247 p. (Population Studies, No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)WORLD POPULATION POLICIES presents, in 3 volumes, current information on the population policies of the 170 members states of the UN and non-member states. This set of reports in based on the continuous monitoring of population policies by the Population Division of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs of the UN Secretariat. It replaces POPULATION POLICY BRIEFS: CURRENT SITUATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, POPULATION POLICY BRIEFS: CURRENT SITUATION IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES, and POPULATION POLICY COMPENDIUM. Except where noted, the demographic estimates and projections cited in this report are based on the 10th round of global demographic assessments undertaken by the Population Division. Country reports are grouped alphabetically; Volume I contains Afghanistan to France. Each country's entry includes demographic indicators detailing population size, a structure, and growth; mortality and morbidity; fertility, nuptiality, and family; international migration; and spatial distribution and urbanization. Current perceptions of these demographic indicators are included, along with the country's general policy framework, institutional framework, and policies and measures. A brief glossary of terms and list of countries replying to the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th inquiries are appended.